A council house is a form of British public housing built by local authorities. A council estate is a building complex containing a number of council houses and other amenities like schools and shops. Construction was from 1919 after the Housing Act 1919 to the 1980s, with much less council housing built in recent decades. There were local design variations. House design in the United Kingdom is defined by a series of Housing Acts, public housing house design is defined by government directives and central governments' relationship with local authorities. From the first interventions in the Public Health Act 1875, council houses could be general housing for the working class, general housing, part of slum clearance programmed or just homes provided for the most needy, they could be funded directly by local councils, through central government incentive or by revenue obtained when other houses were sold. They have been transferred through the instrument of housing associations into the private sector.
Woolwich Borough Council was responsible for the Well Hall Estate designed for workers at the munition factories at Woolwich Arsenal. The estate and the house were built to the garden suburb philosophy: houses were all different; the estate received the royal seal of approval when, on Friday 24 March 1916, Queen Mary made an unannounced visit. A programme of council house building started after the First World War following on from the David Lloyd George’s government’s Housing Act of 1919. The'Addison Act' brought in subsidies for council house building and aimed to provide 500,000 "homes fit for heroes" within a three-year period although less than half of this target was met; the housing built comprised three-bedroom dwellings with parlour and scullery: larger properties include a living room. The standards are based on the Tudor Walters Report of 1919, the Design Manual written according to the 1913 building standards. In 1923 the Chamberlain Act withdrew subsidies for council houses except for private builders and houses for sale.
Councils could undertake to build houses and offer these for sale but to sell off some of their existing properties. This was reversed by the incoming Labour government of 1924; the Wheatley Act passed by the new Labour Government introduced higher subsidies for council housing and allowed for a contribution to be made from the rates. The housing revenue account was always separated from the general account; this was a major period of council house construction. The Housing Act 1930 stimulated slum clearance, i.e. the destruction of inadequate houses in the inner cities, built before the 1875 Act. This released land for housing and the need for smaller two bedroomed houses to replace the two-up two-down houses, demolished. Smaller three bedroom properties were built; the Housing Act 1935 led to a continuation of this policy, but the war stopped all construction, enemy action reduced the usable housing stock. PrefabsThe Housing Act 1944 led to the building of prefab bungalows with a design life of ten years.
Innovative steel-framed properties were tried in an attempt to speed up construction. A number survive well into the 21st century, a testament to the durability of a series of housing designs and construction methods only envisaged to last 10 years; the Burt Committee, formed in 1942 by the wartime government of Winston Churchill, proposed to address the need for an anticipated 200,000 shortfall in post-war housing stock, by building 500,000 prefabricated houses, with a planned life of up to 10 years within five years of the end of the Second World War. The eventual bill, under the post-war Labour government of Prime Minister Clement Attlee, agreed to deliver 300,000 units within 10 years, within a budget of £150m. Of 1.2 million new houses built from 1945 to 1951 when the programme ended, 156,623 prefab houses were constructed. New Towns Act housingMainly during the immediate post-war years, well into the 1950s, council house provision was shaped by the New Towns Act 1946 and the Town and Country Planning Act 1947 of the 1945–51 Labour government.
At the same time this government introduced housing legislation that removed explicit references to housing for the working class and introduced the concept of "general needs" construction. In particular, Aneurin Bevan, the Minister for Health and Housing, promoted a vision of new estates where "the working man, the doctor and the clergyman will live in close proximity to each other"; the Addison Act 1919 houses were three-bedroom houses with lounge and scullery, sometimes with a parlour. Some had two, four, or five bedrooms, as well as generously-sized back gardens intended for vegetable growing. At most they were built at 12 houses per acre, they were built to the recommendations of the Tudor Walters Report. Examples are found in Downham, Watling Estate, Becontree; the Addison Act 1919, the severe housing shortage in the early 1920s created the first generation of houses to feature electricity, running water, indoor toilets and front/rear gardens. However, until well into the 1930s, some were built with outdoor toilets.
Some did not feature an actual bathroom. The Chamberlain Act 1923 reduced the expected standards; the Wheatley Act 1924 attempted to restore some of them. Under the Addison Act, a house would be 1,000 square feet but after 1924 it would be 620 square feet; this was a major period of council house construction. With
Melton Mowbray is a town in Leicestershire, England, 19 miles north-east of Leicester, 20 miles south-east of Nottingham. It lies on the River Eye and the River Wreake and has a population of 25,554; the town is best known for the Melton Mowbray pork pie. In addition, it includes one of the six makers of Stilton cheese. Melton Mowbray is promoted as Britain's "Rural Capital of Food"; the name comes from the early English word Medeltone – meaning "Middletown surrounded by small hamlets". Mowbray is a Norman family name – the name of early Lords of the Manor – namely Robert de Mowbray. In and around Melton, there are 28 scheduled ancient monuments, around 705 buildings listed as having special architectural or historical interest, 16 sites of special scientific interest, several deserted village sites. There is industrial archaeology, including the Grantham Canal and the remains of the Melton Mowbray Navigation. Windmill sites, ironstone working and smelting archaeological evidence suggest that Melton borough was densely populated in Bronze and Iron Ages.
Many small village communities existed and strategic points at Burrough Hill and Belvoir were fortified. There is evidence to suggest that the site of Melton Mowbray in the Wreake Valley was inhabited before Roman occupation. In Roman times, Melton benefited from the proximity of the Fosse Way and other important Roman roads, of military centres at Leicester and Lincoln. Intermediate camps were established, for example, at Six Hills on the Fosse Way. Other Roman trackways in the locality passed north of Melton along the top of the Vale of Belvoir scarp, linking Market Harborough to Belvoir, the Fosse Way to Oakham and Stamford. Evidence of settlement throughout Anglo-Saxon and Danelaw period is reflected in many place names. Along the Wreake Valley, the Danish suffix "-by" is common, as is evident in Asfordby, Frisby, Hoby and Gaddesby. In addition, a cemetery of 50–60 graves, of Pagan Anglo-Saxon origin, has been found in Melton Mowbray. Although most villages and their churches had origins before the Norman Conquest of 1066, stone crosses at Asfordby and Sproxton churches and Anglo-Saxon cemeteries as found at Goadby Marwood and Stapleford pre-date the Conquest.
Melton Mowbray itself had six recorded crosses, whose construction spanned several centuries: Kettleby Cross,. All the original crosses were removed or destroyed during the Reformation and other iconoclastic periods, or to make room for traffic or other development; the effects of the Norman Conquest are recorded in the 1086 Domesday Book. This indicates that settlements at Long Clawson and Bottesford were of noteworthy size, that Melton Mowbray was a thriving market town of some 200 inhabitants, with weekly markets, two water mills and two priests; the water mills, still in use up to the 18th century, are remembered in the present names of Beckmill Court and Mill Street. So Melton Mowbray has been a market town for over 1,000 years. Recorded as Leicestershire's only market in the 1086 Domesday Survey, it is the third oldest market in England. Tuesday has been market day since royal approval was given in 1324; the market was established with tolls before 1077. Legacies from the Medieval period include consolidation of market town patterns.
The latter had a market in medieval times that continued until 1921, an annual fair of horses and cattle. Many buildings in Melton Market Place, Nottingham Street, Church Lane, King Street and Sherrard Street have ancient foundations. Alterations to No. 16 Church Street revealed a medieval circular stone wall subjected to considerable heat. This is the'Manor Oven' mentioned in 13th century documents. Surveys of 5 King Street show it to be part of an early medieval open-halled house, it fortified Manor of the Mowbrays, which existed in the 14th century. King Richard I and King John may have stayed at an earlier castle. In 1549 following the Dissolution of the chantries and religious guilds, church plate was sold and land purchased for the town. Resulting rents were used to maintain Melton School, first recorded in 1347, as one of the oldest educational establishments in Britain. Funds were used to maintain roads, bridges and to repair the church clock. Anne of Cleves House, now a public house, During the English Civil War, Melton was a Roundhead garrison commanded by a Colonel Rossiter.
Two battles were fought in the town: in November 1643, Royalists caught the garrison unaware and carried away prisoners and booty. Around 300 men were said to have been killed. According to legend a hillside where the battle was thought to have been fought was ankle deep in blood, hence the name'Ankle Hill'. However, this name is alre
In England, a civil parish is a type of administrative parish used for local government, they are a territorial designation, the lowest tier of local government below districts and counties, or their combined form, the unitary authority. Civil parishes can trace their origin to the ancient system of ecclesiastical parishes which played a role in both civil and ecclesiastical administration; the unit rolled out across England in the 1860s. A civil parish can range in size from a large town with a population of about 75,000 to a single village with fewer than a hundred inhabitants. Eight parishes have city status. A civil parish may be known as and confirmed as a town, neighbourhood or community by resolution of its parish council, a right reserved not conferred on other units of English local government. 35% of the English population live in a civil parish. As of 31 December 2015 there were 10,449 parishes in England; the most populous is Weston super Mare and those with cathedral city status are Chichester, Hereford, Ripon, Salisbury and Wells.
On 1 April 2014, Queen's Park became the first civil parish in Greater London. Before 2008 their creation was not permitted within a London borough. Wales was divided into civil parishes until 1974, when they were replaced by communities, which are similar to English parishes in the way they operate. Civil parishes in Scotland were abolished for local government purposes by the Local Government Act 1929, the Scottish equivalent of English civil parishes are community council areas, which were established by the Local Government Act 1973; the Parish system in Europe was established between the 8th and 12th centuries and in England was old by the time of the Conquest. These areas were based on the territory of one or more manors, areas which in some cases derived their bounds from Roman or Iron Age estates. Parish boundaries were conservative, changing little, after 1180'froze' so that boundaries could no longer be changed at all, despite changes to manorial landholdings - though there were some examples of sub-division.
The consistency of these boundaries, up until the 19th century is useful to historians, is of cultural significance in terms of shaping local identities, a factor reinforced by the adoption of parish boundaries unchanged, by successor local government units. There was huge variation in size between parishes, for instance Writtle in Essex was 13,568 acres while neighbouring Shellow Bowells was just 469 acres, Chignall Smealy 476 acres; until the break with Rome, parishes managed ecclesiastical matters, while the manor was the principal unit of local administration and justice. The church replaced the manor court as the rural administrative centre, levied a local tax on produce known as a tithe. In the medieval period, responsibilities such as relief of the poor passed from the Lord of the Manor to the parish's rector, who in practice would delegate tasks among his vestry or the monasteries. After the dissolution of the monasteries, the power to levy a rate to fund relief of the poor was conferred on the parish authorities by the Act for the Relief of the Poor 1601.
Both before and after this optional social change, local charities are well-documented. The parish authorities were consisted of all the ratepayers of the parish; as the number of ratepayers of some parishes grew, it became difficult to convene meetings as an open vestry. In some built up, areas the select vestry took over responsibility from the entire body of ratepayers; this innovation allowed governance by a self-perpetuating elite. The administration of the parish system relied on the monopoly of the established English Church, which for a few years after Henry VIII alternated between the Roman Catholic Church and the Church of England, before settling on the latter on the accession of Elizabeth I in 1558. By the 18th century, religious membership was becoming more fractured in some places, due for instance to the progress of Methodism; the legitimacy of the parish vestry came into question and the perceived inefficiency and corruption inherent in the system became a source for concern in some places.
For this reason, during the early 19th century the parish progressively lost its powers to ad hoc boards and other organisations, for example the loss of responsibility for poor relief through the Poor Law Amendment Act 1834. Sanitary districts covered England in Ireland three years later; the replacement boards were each entitled to levy their own rate in the parish. The church rate ceased to be levied in many parishes and became voluntary from 1868; the ancient parishes diverged into two distinct, nearly overlapping, systems of parishes during the 19th century. The Poor Law Amendment Act 1866 declared all areas that levied a separate rate: C of E ecclesiastical parishes, extra-parochial areas and their analogue, chapelries, to be "civil parishes". To have collected rates this means these beforehand had their own vestries, boards or equivalent bodies; the Church of England parishes, which cover more than 99% of England, became termed "ecclesiastical parishes" and the boundaries of these soon diverged from those of the Ancient Parishes in order to reflect modern circumstances.
After 1921 each ecclesiastical parish has been the responsibility of the parochial church councils. In the late 19th century, most of the ancient irregularities inheri
County Dublin is one of the thirty-two traditional counties of Ireland. Prior to 1994 it was an administrative county covering the whole county outside of Dublin City Council. In 1994, as part of a reorganisation of local government within Dublin the boundaries of Dublin City were redrawn, Dublin County Council was abolished and three new administrative county councils were established: Dún Laoghaire–Rathdown and South Dublin. While it is no longer used as an administrative division for local government but retains a strong identity in popular culture, it is in the province of Leinster, is named after the city of Dublin, the capital city of Ireland. County Dublin was one of the first parts of Ireland to be shired by John, King of England following the Norman invasion of Ireland. According to the 2016 census, the total population of County Dublin was 1,345,402; the county is a NUTS 3 region, is part of the NUTS 2 region of Eastern and Midland. There are four local authorities whose remit collectively encompasses the geographic area of the county and city of Dublin.
These are Dublin City Council, South Dublin County Council, Dún Laoghaire–Rathdown County Council and Fingal County Council. Prior to the enactment of the Local Government Act 1993, the county was a unified whole though it was administered by two local authorities – Dublin County Council and Dublin Corporation. Since the enactment of the Local Government Act 2001 in particular, the geographic area of the county has been divided between three entities at the level of "county" and a further entity at the level of "city", they rank as first level local administrative units of the NUTS 3 Dublin Region for Eurostat purposes. There are 34 LAU 1 entities in the Republic of Ireland; each local authority is responsible for certain local services such as sanitation and development, the collection of motor taxation, local roads and social housing. Dublin County Council was abolished in 1994 and the area divided among the administrative counties of Dún Laoghaire–Rathdown and South Dublin each with its county seat.
To these areas may be added the area of Dublin city which collectively comprise the Dublin Region and come under the remit of the Dublin Regional Authority. The area lost its administrative county status in 1994, with Section 9 Part 1 of the Local Government Act, 1993 stating that "the county shall cease to exist." In discussing the legislation to dissolve Dublin County Council, Avril Doyle TD said, "The Bill before us today abolishes County Dublin, as one born and bred in these parts of Ireland I find it rather strange that we in this House are abolishing County Dublin. I am not sure whether Dubliners realise that, what we are about today, but in effect, the case."The county is part of the Dublin constituency for the purposes of European elections. For elections to Dáil Éireann, the area of the county is divided into eleven constituencies: Dublin Bay North, Dublin Bay South, Dublin Central, Dublin Fingal, Dublin Mid-West, Dublin North-West, Dublin Rathdown, Dublin South-Central, Dublin South-West, Dublin West, Dún Laoghaire.
Together they return 44 deputies to the Dáil. Despite the legal status of the Dublin Region, the term "County Dublin" is still in common usage. Many organisations and sporting teams continue to organise on a "County Dublin" or "Dublin Region" basis; the area known as "County Dublin" is now defined in legislation as the "Dublin Region" under the Local Government Act, 1991 Order, 1993, this is the terminology used by the four Dublin administrative councils in press releases concerning the former county area. The term Greater Dublin Area, which might consist of some or all of the Dublin Region along with counties of Kildare and Wicklow, has no legal standing; the Dublin Region is a NUTS Level III region of Ireland. The region is one of eight regions of the Republic of Ireland for the purposes of Eurostat statistics, its NUTS code is IE061. It is co-extensive with the old county; the regional capital is Dublin City, the national capital. The latest Ordnance Survey Ireland "Discovery Series" 1:50,000 map of the Dublin Region, Sheet 50, shows the boundaries of the city and three surrounding counties of the region.
Extremities of the Dublin Region, in the north and south of the region, appear in other sheets of the series, 43 and 56 respectively. Local radio stations include 98FM, FM104, 103.2 Dublin City FM, Q102, SPIN 1038, Sunshine 106.8, TXFM, Raidió Na Life and Radio Nova. Local newspapers include Northside People, Southside People and the Liffey Champion. Most of the area can receive the five main UK television channels as well as the main Irish channels, along with Sky TV and Virgin Media Ireland cable television. Road: The major roads are the N2, N3, N4 and N7 national primary roads, the M1, M11 and M50 motorways. Heavy rail: The InterCity and Commuter rail services. Light rail: The Luas tram system serving Dublin City and its southern and western suburbs. Rapid transit: The DART and the proposed Dublin Metro line. Port: Dublin Port and Dún Laoghaire Harbour. Air: Dublin International Airport; the economy of County Dublin was identified as being the powerhouse behind the Celtic Tiger, a period of strong economic growth of the state.
This resulted in the economy of the county expanding by 100% between the early 1990s and 2007. This growth resulted from incoming high-value industries, such as financial services and software manufacturing, as well as low-skilled retail and domestic services, w
England and Wales
England and Wales is a legal jurisdiction covering England and Wales, two of the four nations of the United Kingdom. "England and Wales" forms the constitutional successor to the former Kingdom of England and follows a single legal system, known as English law. The devolved National Assembly for Wales was created in 1999 by the Parliament of the United Kingdom under the Government of Wales Act 1998 and provides a degree of self-government in Wales; the powers of the Assembly were expanded by the Government of Wales Act 2006, which allows it to pass its own laws, the Act formally separated the Welsh Government from the Assembly. There is no equivalent body for England, directly governed by the Parliament and the government of the United Kingdom. During the Roman occupation of Britain, the area of present-day England and Wales was administered as a single unit, with the exception of the land to the north of Hadrian's Wall – though the Roman-occupied area varied in extent, for a time extended to the Antonine/Severan Wall.
At that time, most of the native inhabitants of Roman Britain spoke Brythonic languages, were all regarded as Britons, divided into numerous tribes. After the conquest, the Romans administered this region as the province of Britain. Long after the departure of the Romans, the Britons in what became Wales developed their own system of law, first codified by Hywel Dda when he was king of most of present-day Wales. However, after the Norman invasion of Wales in the 11th century, English law came to apply in the parts of Wales conquered by the Normans. In 1283, the English, led by Edward I, with the biggest army brought together in England since the 11th century, conquered the remainder of Wales organised as the Principality of Wales; this was united with the English crown by the Statute of Rhuddlan of 1284. This aimed to replace Welsh criminal law with English law. Welsh law continued to be used for civil cases until the annexation of Wales to England in the 16th century; the Laws in Wales Acts 1535–1542 consolidated the administration of all the Welsh territories and incorporated them into the legal system of the Kingdom of England.
Prior to 1746 it was not clear whether a reference to "England" in legislation included Wales, so in 1746 Parliament passed the Wales and Berwick Act. This specified that in all prior and future laws, references to "England" would by default include Wales; the Wales and Berwick Act was repealed in 1967, although the statutory definition of "England" created by that Act still applies for laws passed before 1967. In new legislation since 1967, what was referred to as "England" is now "England and Wales", while references to "England" and "Wales" refer to those political divisions. England and Wales are treated as a single unit for some purposes, because the two form the constitutional successor to the former Kingdom of England; the continuance of Scots law was guaranteed under the 1706 Treaty of Union that led to the Acts of Union 1707, as a consequence English law—and after 1801, Irish law—continued to be separate. Following the two Acts of Union, Parliament can restrict the effect of its laws to part of the realm, the effect of laws, where restricted, was applied to one or more of the former kingdoms.
Thus, most laws applicable to England applied to Wales. However, Parliament now passes laws applicable to Wales and not to England, a practice, rare before the middle of the 20th century. Examples are the Welsh Language Acts 1967 and 1993 and the Government of Wales Act 1998. Measures and Acts of the National Assembly for Wales passed since the Government of Wales Act 2006 apply in Wales but not in England. Following the Government of Wales Act, effective since May 2007, the National Assembly for Wales can legislate on matters devolved to it. Following a referendum on 3 March 2011, the Welsh Assembly gained direct law-making powers, without the need to consult Westminster; this was the first time in 500 years that Wales had its own powers to legislate. Each piece of Welsh legislation is known as an Act of the Assembly. For a company to be incorporated in the United Kingdom, its application for registration with Companies House must state "whether the company's registered office is to be situated in England and Wales, in Scotland or in Northern Ireland", which will determine the law applicable to that business entity.
A registered office must be specified as "in Wales" if the company wishes to use a name ending cyfyngedig or cyf, rather than Limited or Ltd. or to avail itself of certain other privileges relating to the official use of the Welsh language. Outside the legal system, the position is mixed; some organisations combine as "England and Wales", others are separate. In sports, cricket has a combined international team administered by the England and Wales Cricket Board, who govern the sport across both nations, whilst football, rugby union, rugby league, the Commonwealth Games and other sports have separate national representative teams for each country. A few Welsh association football clubs, most notably Cardiff City F. C. and Swansea City F. C. play in the English football league system, while The New Saints F. C. which represents places on both sides of the border, plays in the Welsh football league system. Some religious denominations organise on the basis of England and Wales, most notably the Roman Catholic Church, but small denominations, e.g. the Evangelical Presbyterian Church.
Prior to the disestablishment of the Church in Wales in 1920, the Anglican churc
Enclave and exclave
An enclave is a territory, or a part of a territory, surrounded by the territory of one other state. Territorial waters have the same sovereign attributes as land, enclaves may therefore exist within territorial waters. An exclave is a portion of a state or territory geographically separated from the main part by surrounding alien territory. Many exclaves are enclaves. Enclave is sometimes used improperly to denote a territory, only surrounded by another state. Vatican City and San Marino, enclaved by Italy, Lesotho, enclaved by South Africa, are enclaved states. Unlike an enclave, an exclave can be surrounded by several states; the Azerbaijani exclave of Nakhchivan is an example of an exclave. Semi-enclaves and semi-exclaves are areas that, except for possessing an unsurrounded sea border, would otherwise be enclaves or exclaves. Enclaves and semi-enclaves can exist as independent states, while exclaves always constitute just a part of a sovereign state. A pene-enclave is a part of the territory of one country that can be conveniently approached—in particular, by wheeled traffic—only through the territory of another country.
Pene-enclaves are called functional enclaves or practical enclaves. Many pene-exclaves border their own territorial waters, such as Point Roberts, Washington. A pene-enclave can exist on land, such as when intervening mountains render a territory inaccessible from other parts of a country except through alien territory. A cited example is the Kleinwalsertal, a valley part of Vorarlberg, accessible only from Germany to the north; the word enclave is French and first appeared in the mid-15th century as a derivative of the verb enclaver, from the colloquial Latin inclavare. It was a term of property law that denoted the situation of a land or parcel of land surrounded by land owned by a different owner, that could not be reached for its exploitation in a practical and sufficient manner without crossing the surrounding land. In law, this created a servitude of passage for the benefit of the owner of the surrounded land; the first diplomatic document to contain the word enclave was the Treaty of Madrid, signed in 1526.
The term enclave began to be used to refer to parcels of countries, fiefs, towns, etc. that were surrounded by alien territory. This French word entered the English and other languages to denote the same concept, although local terms have continued to be used. In India, the word "pocket" is used as a synonym for enclave. In British administrative history, subnational enclaves were called detachments or detached parts, national enclaves as detached districts or detached dominions. In English ecclesiastic history, subnational enclaves were known as peculiars; the word exclave, modeled on enclave, is a logically extended back-formation of enclave. Enclaves exist for a variety of historical and geographical reasons. For example, in the feudal system in Europe, the ownership of feudal domains was transferred or partitioned, either through purchase and sale or through inheritance, such domains were or came to be surrounded by other domains. In particular, this state of affairs persisted into the 19th century in the Holy Roman Empire, these domains exhibited many of the characteristics of sovereign states.
Prior to 1866 Prussia alone consisted of more than 270 discontiguous pieces of territory. Residing in an enclave within another country has involved difficulties in such areas as passage rights, importing goods, provision of utilities and health services, host nation cooperation. Thus, over time, enclaves have tended to be eliminated. For example, two-thirds of the then-existing national-level enclaves were extinguished on August 1, 2015, when the governments of India and Bangladesh implemented a Land Boundary Agreement that exchanged 162 first-order enclaves; this exchange thus de-enclaved another two dozen second-order enclaves and one third-order enclave, eliminating 197 of the Indo-Bangladesh enclaves in all. The residents in these enclaves had complained of being stateless. Only Bangladesh's Dahagram–Angarpota enclave remained. For illustration, in the figure, A1 is a semi-enclave. Although A2 is an exclave of A, it cannot be classed as an enclave because it shares borders with B and C; the territory A3 is both an exclave of A and an enclave from the viewpoint of B.
The singular territory D, although an enclave, is not an exclave. An enclave is a part of the territory of a state, enclosed within the territory of another state. To distinguish the parts of a state enclosed in a single other state, they are called true enclaves. A true enclave cannot be reached without passing through the territory of a single other state that surrounds it. Vinokurov calls this the restrictive definition of "enclave" given by international law, which thus "comprises only so-called'true enclaves'". Two examples are Büsingen am Hochrhein, a true enclave of Germany, Campione d'Italia, a true enclave of Italy, both of which are surrounded by Switzerland; the definition of a territory comprises territorial waters. In the case of enclaves in territorial waters, they are called maritime (those surrounded by ter
A county council is the elected administrative body governing an area known as a county. This term has different meanings in different countries; the county councils created under British rule in 1899 continue to exist in Ireland, although they are now governed under legislation passed by Oireachtas Éireann, principally the Local Government Act 2001. The Local Government Act 1898 introduced county councils to Ireland; the administrative and financial business carried by county grand juries and county at large presentment sessions were transferred to the new councils. Principal among these duties were the maintenance of highways and bridges, the upkeep and inspection of lunatic asylums and the appointment of coroners; the new bodies took over some duties from poor law boards of guardians in relation to diseases of cattle and from the justices of the peace to regulate explosives. The Irish county councils differed in constitution from those in Great Britain. Most of the council was directly elected: each county was divided by the Local Government Board for Ireland into electoral divisions, each returning a single councillor for a three-year term.
In addition urban districts were to form electoral divisions: depending on population they could return multiple county councillors. The county councils were to consist of "additional members": The chairman of each rural district council in the county was to be an ex officio member. Where the chairman had been elected to the council or was disqualified, the RDC was to appoint another member of their council to be an additional member; the council could co-opt one or two additional members for a three-year term. The first county council elections were held on 6 April 1899, the first business of their inaugural meetings being the appointment of additional members; the triennial elections were postponed in 1914 on the outbreak of World War I. The Local Government Act, 1919 introduced proportional representation to county councils: all councillors were to be elected by single transferable vote from multi-member electoral areas. There was only one election under the new system, held in January 1920 and on 2 June 1920, during the Irish War of Independence.
The Irish Free State inherited the local authorities created by the United Kingdom legislation of 1898 and 1919, elections were held on 23 June 1925. The first native legislation was the Local Government Act 1925; the act passed their powers to the county councils. At the following election all county councils were to be increased: the number of extra councillors was to be twice the number of abolished rural districts; the act set out the powers and duties of county councils and gave the Minister for Local Government the power to dissolve councils if he was satisfied that "the duties of a local council are not being duly and effectually discharged". He could order new elections to be held, or transfer the power and properties of the council "to any body or persons or person he shall think fit"; the power was used by ministers of all parties. For example, Kerry County Council was dissolved from 1930 to 1932, from 1945 to 1948, with commissioners appointed to perform the council's function; the number of county councils was increased from twenty-seven to twenty-nine in 1994 when the Local Government Act 1993 split County Dublin into three counties: Dún Laoghaire–Rathdown and South Dublin.
In the Republic of China, a county council governs each county. Members of the councils are elected through local elections held every 4–5 years. From the two provinces of the Republic of China, their county councils are County councils of Taiwan Province are Changhua County Council, Chiayi County Council, Hsinchu County Council, Hualien County Council, Miaoli County Council, Nantou County Council, Penghu County Council, Pingtung County Council, Taitung County Council, Yilan County Council and Yunlin County Council. County councils of Fujian Province are Lienchiang County Council. County councils were formed in the late 19th century. In the various constituent countries of the United Kingdom councils had different powers and different memberships. Following local government reforms in the 1970s, county councils no longer exist in Scotland or Northern Ireland. In England they form the top level in a two-tier system of administration. In England county councils were introduced in 1889, reformed in 1974.
Since the mid-1990s a series of local government reorganisations has reduced the number of county councils as unitary authorities have been established in a number of areas. County councils are large employers with a great variety of functions including education, social services, highways and rescue services, waste disposal, consumer services and town and country planning; until the 1990s they ran colleges of further education and the careers services. That decade saw the privatisation of some traditional services, such as highway maintenance and school meals. County councils were created by the Local Government Act 1888 taking over the administrative functions of the unelected county courts of quarter sessions. County councils consisted of councillors, directly elected by the electorate. There was one county alderman for every three councillors; the first elections to the councils were held at various dates in January 1889, they served as "provisional" or shadow councils until 1 April, when they came into their powers.
Elections of all councillors and half of the aldermen took