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Rus' Khaganate

The Rus' Khaganate Ruthenia Kaganate is the name applied by some modern historians to a hypothetical polity postulated to exist during a poorly documented period in the history of Eastern Europe the late 8th and early-to-mid-9th centuries AD. It was suggested that the Rus' Khaganate was a state, or a cluster of city-states, set up by a people called Rus', described in all contemporary sources as being Norsemen, somewhere in what is today European Russia, as a chronological predecessor to the Rurik Dynasty and Kievan Rus'; the region's population at that time was composed of Slavic, Baltic, Finnic and Norse peoples. The region was a place of operations for Varangians, eastern Scandinavian adventurers and pirates. In sparse contemporaneous sources, the leader or leaders of Rus people at this time were referred to by the Old Turkic title Khagan, hence the suggested name of their polity; this period is thought to be the times of the genesis of a distinct Rus' ethnos, which gave rise to Kievan Rus' and states from which modern Russia and Ukraine evolved.

The title of "khagan" for a leader of some groups of Rus' people is mentioned in several historical sources, most of them foreign texts dating from the 9th century, while three East Slavic sources date from the 11th and 12th centuries. The earliest European reference related to the Rus' people ruled by a khagan comes from the Frankish Annals of St. Bertin, which refer to a group of Norsemen who called themselves Rhos and visited Constantinople around 838. Fearful of returning home via the steppes, which would leave them vulnerable to attacks by the Magyars, these Rhos travelled through the Frankish Empire accompanied by Greek ambassadors from the Byzantine emperor Theophilus; when questioned by the Frankish Emperor Louis the Pious at Ingelheim, they stated that their leader was known as chacanus, that they lived far to the north, that they were Swedes. Thirty years in spring 871, the eastern and western emperors, Basil I and Louis II, quarreled over control of Bari, conquered from the Arabs by their joint forces.

The Byzantine emperor sent an angry letter to his western counterpart, reprimanding him for usurping the title of emperor. He argued that the Frankish rulers are simple reges, while the imperial title properly applied only to the overlord of the Romans, that is, to Basil himself, he pointed out that each nation has its own title for the supreme ruler: for instance, the title of chaganus is used by the overlords of the Avars, "Northmen". To that, Louis replied that he was aware only of the Avar khagans, had never heard of the khagans of the Khazars and Normans; the content of Basil's letter, now lost, is reconstructed from Louis's reply, quoted in full in the Salerno Chronicle, it indicates that at least one group of Scandinavians had a ruler who called himself "khagan". Ahmad ibn Rustah, a 10th-century Muslim geographer from Persia, wrote that the Rus' khagan lived on an island in a lake. Constantine Zuckerman comments that Ibn Rustah, using the text of an anonymous account from the 870s, attempted to convey the titles of all rulers described by its author, which makes his evidence all the more precious.

Ibn Rustah mentions only two khagans in his treatise -- those of Rus. A further near-contemporary reference to the Rus' comes from al-Yaqubi, who wrote in 889 or 890 that the Caucasus mountaineers, when besieged by the Arabs in 854, asked for help from the overlords of al-Rum, al-Saqaliba. According to Zuckerman, Ibn Khordadbeh and other Arab authors confused the terms Rus and Saqaliba when describing their raids to the Caspian Sea in the 9th and 10th centuries, but n.b. Ibn Khordādbeh's Book of Roads and Kingdoms does not mention the title of Khagan for the ruler of Rus'. Hudud al-Alam, an anonymous Persian geography text written in the late 10th century, refers to the Rus' king as "Khāqān-i Rus"; as the unknown author of Hudud al-Alam relied on numerous 9th-century sources, including Ibn Khordādbeh, it is possible that his reference to the Rus' Khagan was copied from earlier, pre-Rurikid texts, rather than reflecting contemporary political reality. The 11th century Persian geographer Abu Said Gardizi mentioned "khāqān-i rus" in his work Zayn al-Akhbār.

Like other Muslim geographers, Gardizi relied on traditions stemming from the 9th century. Extant primary sources make it plausible that the title of khagan was applied to the rulers of the Rus' during a rather short period between their embassy to Constantinople and Basil I's letter. All Byzantine sources after Basil I refer to the Rus' rulers as archons; the dating of the Khaganate's existence has been the subject of debates among scholars and remains unclear. Paul Robert Magocsi and Omeljan Pritsak date the foundation of the Khaganate to be around the year 830. According to Magocsi, "A violent civil war took place during the 820s with "The losers of the internal political struggle, known as Kabars, fled northward to the Varangian Rus' in the upper Volga region, near Rostov, southward to the Magyars, loyal vassals of the Khazars; the presence of Kabar political refugees from Khazaria among the Varangian traders in Rostov helped to raise the latter's prestige, with the consequence that by the 830s a new power center known as the Rus' Kaganate had come into existence."

Whatever the accuracy of such estimates may be, there are no primary sources mentioning the Rus' or its khagans prior to the 830s

Michael Greis

Michael Greis is a former German biathlete. Greis first competed at the 2002 Winter Olympics in Salt Lake City, finishing 15th and 16th in the 10 km sprint and 12.5 km pursuit events in the biathlon. Greis won the World Cup in the individual category in 2004/05, was a member of the winning 4 × 7.5 km relay team in the 2004 Biathlon World Championships, took silver in the individual 20 km category at the 2005 World Championships. At the 2006 Winter Olympics, Greis came into the games heading the World Cup standings and took the first Olympic gold of the games with victory in the individual 20 km ahead of the defending Olympic champion Ole Einar Bjørndalen, he was a member of the German team that won the 4 × 7.5 km relay. On 25 February 2006 Greis won the men's 15 km event and became the first person to capture three gold medals at the Turin Olympic Games. Greis was named German sportsman of the year, along with fellow biathlete Kati Wilhelm, by journalists. In the 2006/07 World Cup season, Greis won the Sprint competition.

In the 2007/08 World Cup season Greis managed onto the podium on a regular basis, attaining three victories, three 2nd places as well as three 3rds. At the season's World Champs in Östersund Greis did not participate in the sprint and in the pursuit but being anchor both in the men's Relay and the mixed Relay, helped to secure a gold and a bronze for his team. Prior to the 2008/09 World Cup season Greis had had a serious disagreement with the Germans' head coach Frank Ullrich the reason being Ullrich's authoritative management of the team, which resulted in Greis' departure from Ullrich's jurisdiction to train on his own; this yielded him quite a solid performance throughout the year, with another two World Cup victories and the relay bronze at the Biathlon World Championships 2009 in South Korea. Greis participated in the 2010 Olympic Games in Vancouver, Canada which turned to be a disappointing performance for his fans as he finished in the mediocre 10th place twice, in the Individual and the Mass Start, along with coming 5th in the relay and the pursuit, adding to a streak of unsuccessful Olympic performances by the German biathlon male team when not a single German won any medal in biathlon for the first time in the Olympic history.

After the first round of the 2012–13 World Cup, Greis announced his retirement on 5 December 2012 citing a lack of motivation, making the 20 km in Östersund on 28 November his last competition as he had dropped the sprint and pursuit. After retiring, Greis studied International Management at Ansbach University of Applied Sciences, he worked as a pundit for Eurosport. Subsequently in 2016 he was appointed as head coach at the national biathlon training centre for east Switzerland at Lenzerheide, where he coached youth biathletes. After two years in this post, in April 2018 he was announced as head coach of the United States men's biathlon team. After one season in this role, in May 2019 he was named as head coach for the Polish women's biathlon team. All results are sourced from the International Biathlon Union. 3 medals *Mass start was added as an event in 2006. 12 medals *During Olympic seasons competitions are only held for those events not included in the Olympic program. **The mixed relay was added as an event in 2005.

11 victories *Results are from UIPMB and IBU races which include the Biathlon World Cup, Biathlon World Championships and the Winter Olympic Games. List of multiple Olympic gold medalists in one event Official website Michael Greis at BiathlonWorld.com and BiathlonResults.com from IBU

Piano Quartets (Beethoven)

The Piano Quartets, WoO 36, by Ludwig van Beethoven are a set of three piano quartets, completed in 1785 when the composer was aged 15. They are scored for piano, violin and cello, he composed a quartet in C major, another in E-flat major, a third in D major. They were first published posthumously in 1828, however numbered in a different order: Piano Quartet No. 1 in E-flat major, Piano Quartet No. 2 in D major, Piano Quartet No. 3 in C major. When Beethoven composed these three piano quartets at age 15 the genre was rare. Two works by Mozart, Piano Quartet No. 1 in G minor and Piano Quartet No. 2 in E-flat major, are the only significant contemporary contributions that are comparable. Beethoven modeled his piano quartets after a set of Mozart violin sonatas published in 1781, with Beethoven's C major work written in the same key and borrowing some thematic material from Mozart's Violin Sonata No. 17, K. 296. Apart from Beethoven's own arrangement of his Quintet for Piano and Wind Instruments for piano quartet, these three works are the only compositions he wrote for piano, violin and cello.

Beethoven reused material from the C major quartet for two of his early Piano Sonatas: No. 1 and No. 3. In Beethoven's original manuscript, the work in C major comes first, followed by E-flat major and D major; when the quartets were published after his death by Artaria in Vienna, there were in a different order: E-flat major, D major and C major. Each quartet is in three movements, they are listed in the order of the original manuscript: Allegro vivace Adagio con espressione Rondo: AllegroIn the exposition of the first movement, Beethoven wrote a piano sonata with string accompaniment, but in the development and recapitulation, they play a more individual role. The third movement is in rondo form; the theme is introduced by the piano and taken by the violin. The first episode is accompanied by plucked strings. A second episode is in A minor. Beethoven reused the theme of the second movement for the Adagio of his Piano Sonata in F minor, Op. 2/1. He reused material from the first movement of his Piano Sonata in C major, Op. 2/3, dedicated to Joseph Haydn in 1796.

Adagio assai Allegro con spirito Theme and variations: CantabileIn the second quartet, the piano and the strings are equal partners. It opens unusually with an Adagio assai movement; the second movement is in sonata form, in E-flat minor. Some elements seem to anticipate the last movement of the Piano Sonata No. 8, the Pathétique. The finale movement is in seven variations on a theme. Allegro moderato Andante con moto Rondo: AllegroThe quartet in D major begins, more conventionally than the others, with a movement in sonata form, with a rather short development section; the second movement, marked Andante con moto, is in F-sharp minor, but a middle section in A major. The final movement is a rondo, with a theme repeated by the violin; the episodes are contrasting, recall similar movements by Mozart. The piano quartets were recorded by the New Zealand Piano Quartet in 2005. Piano Quartet No.1 in E-flat major, WoO 36: Scores at the International Music Score Library Project Piano Quartet No.2 in D major, WoO 36: Scores at the International Music Score Library Project Piano Quartet No.3 in C major, WoO 36: Scores at the International Music Score Library Project

Nobutake Kondō

Nobutake Kondō, was an admiral in the Imperial Japanese Navy during World War II. As commander of IJN 2nd Fleet, the Navy's principal detached force for independent operations, Kondō was regarded as second in importance only to Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto. Kondō was a native of Osaka, he graduated at the head of his class of 172 cadets from the 35th session of the Imperial Japanese Navy Academy in 1907. As a midshipman he served on the cruiser battleship Mikasa. After his commissioning as ensign, he was assigned to the cruiser Aso, destroyer Kisaragi and battleship Kongō. From 1912-1913, he was a naval attaché to the United Kingdom. After his return to Japan, he served on the Fusō in a number of staff positions throughout World War I. From 1916-1917, he was chief Gunnery Officer on Akitsushima. After the end of the war, Kondō attended the Naval Staff College, was promoted to lieutenant commander on 1 December 1919. From 1920-1923, Kondō was stationed in Germany, as part of the Japanese delegation to confirm Germany's adherence to the provision of the Treaty of Versailles.

On his return to Japan, he was stationed for six months on the battleship Mutsu, promoted to commander on 1 December 1923. From 1924-1925, he was an aide-de-camp to Crown Prince Hirohito. On completion of this task, he became an instructor at the Imperial Japanese Navy Academy and was promoted to captain, he subsequently served in a number of positions on the Imperial Japanese Navy General Staff. He was captain of the Kako from 1929–1930 and of the battleship Kongō from 1932-1933. Kondō was promoted to rear admiral on 15 November 1933, Chief of Staff of the Combined Fleet in 1935, vice admiral on 15 November 1937. After the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War, Kondō commanded the IJN 5th Fleet in the Hainan Island Operation and Swatow Operation off of southern China. At the time of the attack on Pearl Harbor, Kondō commanded the IJN 2nd Fleet, participating in the invasions of Malaya, the Philippines and the Dutch East Indies, he was overall commander for the Indian Ocean Raid. During the Battle of Midway, he commanded Covering Group.

Subsequently, his forces played a leading role during the Guadalcanal campaign, seeing combat in the Battle of the Eastern Solomons and the Battle of the Santa Cruz Islands. Kondō led Japanese forces at the Battle off Savo Island. After the first Naval Battle of Guadalcanal, Kondō led the battleship Kirishima along with cruisers Atago, Nagara and Takao, in what was to have been a decisive attack to eliminate the threat from Henderson Field through a massive nocturnal shelling. Instead, Kondō was confronted by an American task force with battleships USS Washington and USS South Dakota, was defeated, losing Kirishima; this defeat marked a turning point of the entire Guadalcanal campaign. Kondō was tainted by the Guadalcanal failures, was soon removed from seagoing commands, or indeed any positions of real authority. Yamamoto's demotion of Kondō was nonetheless less harsh than that of his predecessor, Hiroaki Abe, due to Imperial Navy culture and politics. Kondō, who held the position of second in command of the Combined Fleet, was a member of the upper staff and "battleship clique" of the Imperial Navy while Abe was a career destroyer specialist.

Kondō was not reprimanded or reassigned but instead was left in command of one of the large ship fleets based at Truk. Kondō was appointed Deputy Commander of the Combined Fleet in October 1942 and was promoted to full admiral on 29 April 1943, he became Commander in Chief of the China Area Fleet from December 1943 until May 1945, when he was appointed to the Supreme War Council. Nishida, Hiroshi. "Imperial Japanese Navy". L, Klemen. "Forgotten Campaign: The Dutch East Indies Campaign 1941-1942". D'Albas, Andrieu. Death of a Navy: Japanese Naval Action in World War II. Devin-Adair Pub. ISBN 0-8159-5302-X. Dull, Paul S.. A Battle History of the Imperial Japanese Navy, 1941-1945. Naval Institute Press. ISBN 0-87021-097-1. Dupuy, Trevor N.. Encyclopedia of Military Biography. I B Tauris & Co Ltd. ISBN 1-85043-569-3. Parrish, Thomas; the Simon and Schuster Encyclopedia of World War II. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-671-24277-6. Van Der Vat, Dan. Pacific Campaign: The U. S.-Japanese Naval War 1941-1945. New York: Simon & Schuster.

ISBN 0-671-79217-2

Charles Thomas Ick

Charles Thomas Ick was Mayor of Christchurch from December 1878 to December 1880. Born in Shropshire, he learned the trade of a draper; the Icks had five children when they emigrated to Otago in 1858. He worked in his learned trade in Dunedin for five years before becoming a farmer in Waikouaiti for seven years. In 1870, he came to Christchurch and set himself up as an auctioneer and opened a drapery business. Ick was born in Shrewsbury, England in 1827, he was the only son of Joseph Ick. Ick married Jane Wainwright in 1849 and their children born in England were Stella, Kate, Emily Jane, Eliza Anne; the family emigrated to New Zealand on the Lord Worsley, arriving in Port Chalmers on 4 October 1858. They had further children in New Zealand. Ick was in business in Dunedin with his premises in Princes Street. In January 1862, he announced that he would no longer provide credit to his customers, but would offer cash deals only, as that would reduce prices for consumers, he leased his business premises in December 1862 and held a clearance sale during January 1863.

In 1863, he purchased a farm in Waikouaiti. Ick shot him in the arm, he remained in Waikouaiti until 1870, first advertising his property for sale in April 1870. His stock and farm produce were auctioned on 26 May by Wright Stephenson. Moving to Christchurch, he was an auctioneer from 1870 to 1882. At first, he was in partnership with Thomas Preece, who had come out to New Zealand on the same ship as Ick; the business arrangement was terminated in August 1872. His auction rooms were in High Street opposite the City Hotel, he leased business premises from George Gould in Whately Road, set up a drapery shop in a building he named Bradford House near the Victoria Bridge. The business opened on 1 February 1874. On 29 November 1862, Ick had a long advertisement in the Otago Daily Times about his inaugural election candidacy, he announced his political views for election to the High Ward of Dunedin's town board. The election was held on 1 December. In November 1863, Ick received a requisition asking him to stand in the Bell Ward for the town board.

Of five candidates, Ick was thus unsuccessful. In 1865, Ick was on the committee that secured the election of Thomas Dick as Superintendent of Otago Province. While in Otago, Ick was chairman for five years in total of two road boards, he was on a town council, chaired a district school committee. Ick resigned from those posts. In September 1872, Ick received a numerously-signed requisition, requesting that he would stand for election to Christchurch City Council, to which he consented. Before 1916, elections for Christchurch City Council were held annually. Ick was elected onto the city council five times: in 1872, 1874, 1877, 1879 and 1880; the mayor was for the first time elected by voters on 20 December 1876. The 20 December 1876 mayoral election was contested by James Gapes and Ick, with Gapes representing working class interests, whereas Ick represented the wealthier part of the population. Gapes and Ick received 680 and 515 votes and Gapes was thus declared elected. Ick next stood for election as mayor two years in 1878, challenging the incumbent, Henry Thomson.

Ick was installed on 18 December of that year. Ick won the 1879 mayoral election against Aaron Gapes. Ick did not stand again in 1880, his successor, James Gapes, was installed on 15 December, he died on 27 April 1885 at his residence in Papanui Road and is buried at Barbadoes Street Cemetery. His funeral was well-attended, with the current mayor, Charles Hulbert, former mayors James Gapes, Henry Thomson, George Ruddenklau as pallbearers. Halton Street in Papanui is named after his father's estate

2010 FA Trophy Final

The 2010 FA Trophy Final was the 40th final of the Football Association's cup competition for levels 5–8 of the English football league system. The match was contested by Stevenage Borough who won the competition in 2007 and 2009, Barrow who won the competition in 1990. Although Stevenage Borough, who had won the Football Conference were pre-match favourites ahead of Barrow who had finished 15th, Barrow won 2–1 in extra time, after the match had ended in a 1–1 draw. Stevenage Borough were the first non-league team to appear three times at the new Wembley Stadium, London after winning two of the previous three FA Trophy competitions through victories in 2007 and 2009. Stevenage became the first team to win a competitive match, subsequently, a competition trophy following the reconstruction of Wembley Stadium; the supporters of the club occupied the West End of Wembley Stadium and will do so again in the 2010 final. The last time Barrow appeared, they were making their first appearance at the redeveloped Wembley Stadium, in their second season in the Conference National following promotion from the Conference North.

Barrow seemed to begin the game more brightly out of the two sides, with three shots in the first ten minutes. It was on the ten-minute mark where, in Borough's first attack of the game, Andy Drury lashed a strike straight into the top corner of Barrow keeper Stuart Tomlinson's goal; this goal seemed to change the feel of the game, with Stevenage applying more and more pressure until, on 28 minutes, Stevenage midfielder David Bridges was shown a straight red card for serious foul play on Barrow No. 7, Andy Bond. The game was evenly balanced from until half-time. Barrow began the second-half brightly. On 79 minutes, substitute Lee McEvilly placed a header into the bottom right corner of Chris Day's net. Barrow exerted more and more pressure from onwards, until 90 minutes when Borough keeper Day suffered an injury and was replaced by Ashley Bayes. Deep into added time when extra time seemed Robin Hulbert went in for a challenge with his elbow, meaning the referee had no choice but to show red. Stevenage substitute Charlie Griffin had a huge amount of blood coming from his face, there was no way he could continue.

They had used all three subs, meaning the extra time was played 10 against 9. The first half of extra time was but Barrow were edging it; the second half of extra time could not have started better for Barrow as Jason Walker struck a stunning 25-yard strike into the top left corner of the goal. Barrow seemed to try and play the clock down and Stevenage had a few decent chances, before on 117 minutes Barrow had a 3-against-1 on the keeper, which amazingly, they missed. In the end, it didn't matter and the trophy went to Barrow