East Texas is a distinct cultural and ecological area in the U. S. state of Texas. According to the Handbook of Texas, the East Texas area "may be separated from the rest of Texas by a line extending from the Red River in north central Lamar County southwestward to east central Limestone County and southeastward towards eastern Galveston Bay", though most sources separate the Gulf Coast area into a separate region. Another popular, somewhat simpler, definition defines East Texas as the region between the Trinity River and east of Houston, as the western border, the Louisiana border as the eastern border, the Gulf of Mexico as the southern border, the Oklahoma border as the northern border, Arkansas as the northeastern border, extending as far south as Orange, Texas; the East Texas Regions includes Tyler, Longview Lufkin, Palestine, Mount Pleasant, Nacogdoches. Most of the region consists of the Piney Woods ecoregion, East Texas can sometimes be reduced to include only the Piney Woods. At the fringes, towards Central Texas, the forests expand outward toward sparser trees and into open plains.
East Texas comprises 41 counties, 38 of which collaborate in sub-regional Ark-Tex Council of Governments, the East Texas Council of Governments, the Deep East Texas Council of Governments and the South East Texas Regional Planning Commission. Counties included are Anderson, Bowie, Cass, Delta, Gregg, Harrison, Hopkins, Jasper, Lamar, Morris, Newton, Panola, Rains, Red River, Sabine, San Augustine, San Jacinto, Smith, Trinity, Upshur, Van Zandt, Wood County, Texas; the three additional East Texas counties that join with other regional government councils are Chambers County, Liberty County and Walker County, all three in geographic proximity to the Houston metropolitan areas. Outside of the Greater Houston area the average population density is around 18–45 per square mile, with the population density near the Big Thicket dropping below 18 people per sq mi. East Texas's population is large and is centered around the Golden Triangle, Beaumont/Port Arthur/Orange in Southeast Texas. Moving north from the coast and Nacogdoches anchor the population center of Deep East Texas.
Continuing north from Deep East Texas, Tyler and Marshall, in Northeast Texas, along with Texarkana, on the far northeastern border with Arkansas, represent the major population centers in the northern section of East Texas. Only eight miles from the Texas border, Louisiana, is considered the economic and cultural center for the Ark-La-Tex, the area where Arkansas and East Texas meet; the 2010 U. S. Census shows these 41 East Texas counties with a population of 2,057,518 residents, which represents 8% of the total state population of Texas. Per the 2010 US Census records, the five most populous counties are: Jefferson County, Texas Smith County, Texas Gregg County, Texas Bowie County, Texas Angelina County, Texas Per the 2010 US census records, the ten most populous East Texas cities are: Beaumont, Texas Tyler, Texas Longview, Texas Port Arthur, Texas Huntsville, Texas Texarkana, Texas Lufkin, Texas Nacogdoches, Texas Paris, Texas Marshall, Texas According to US Census records from 2010, the population of East Texas counties is 65.93% White Non-Hispanic, 17.44% African-American, 14.29% Hispanic or Latino Origin and 2.34% Other.
East Texas' most ethnically and racially diverse county is Jefferson County, East Texas' largest county which includes the city of Beaumont, with 44.1% White Non-Hispanic, 34.1% African-American, 17.7% Hispanic or Latino Origin and 4.1% Other. Unlike Texas' total state racial demographics, only two counties in East Texas have a majority minority, Jefferson County in the Golden Triangle and Titus County having a 40.6% Hispanic or Latino origin population. East Texas and Southeast Texas has a significant African-American population, ranging to nearly 20% in some counties Climate is the unifying factor in the region's geography—all of East Texas has the humid subtropical climate typical of the Southeast interrupted by intrusions of cold air from the north. East Texas receives 35 to 60 inches, than the rest of Texas. In Houston the average January temperature is 50.4 °F and the average July temperature is 82.6 °F, however Houston has warmer winters than most of East Texas due to its proximity to the coast.
All of East Texas lies within the Gulf Coastal Plain, but with less uniformity than the climate with rolling hills in the north and flat coastal plains in the south. Local vegetation varies from north to south with the lower third consisting of the temperate grassland extending from South Texas to South Louisiana; the upper two-thirds of the region dominated by temperate forest known as the Piney Woods, which extends over 23,500 square miles. The Piney Woods are part of a much larger region of pine-hardwood forest that extends into Louisiana and Oklahoma; the Piney Woods thins out. West of the Piney Woods are the ranchlands and remnant oak forests of the East Central Texas forests ecoregion; the Sabine River, Trinity River, Neches River, Angelina River and Sulphur River are the major rivers in East Texas, but the Br
U.S. Route 79
U. S. Route 79 is a United States highway; the route is considered and labeled as a north-south highway, but it is more of a diagonal northeast-southwest highway. The highway's northern/eastern terminus is in Russellville, Kentucky, at an intersection with U. S. Highway 68 and KY 80, its southern/western terminus is in Round Rock, Texas, at an intersection with Interstate 35, ten miles north of Austin. US 79, US 68, Interstate 24/US 62 are the primary east–west access points for the Land Between the Lakes recreation area straddling the Kentucky/Tennessee border. US 79 begins at Interstate 35's Exit #253 north of Austin in Round Rock; the route travels eastward through Hutto and Taylor to Rockdale, where it intersects US 77. In Milano, US 79 begins a concurrency with US 190 until Hearne, Texas; the route continues through Franklin and Jewett before reaching Buffalo, where it intersects Interstate 45 at its Exit #178. US 79 has a brief duplex with US 84 that begins near Oakwood and continues through Palestine before separating.
The route continues to the northeast through Jacksonville, where it has a junction with US 69, Henderson, where it crosses US 259. The highway travels due east to Carthage, where it meets US 59, before resuming a northeasterly direction and crossing into Louisiana near Panola. US 79 is entwined with two tragedies of country music. Johnny Horton was killed by a drunk driver on the highway near Milano in 1960 and Jim Reeves, killed in a plane crash in 1964, is buried and memorialized on US 79 in his hometown of Carthage. US 79 joins US 80 near Greenwood, the two routes are cosigned through Shreveport. US 79/80 continue into Bossier City; the routes parallel Interstate 20 through the old Bossier City Entertainment District until Minden, where the two routes separate: US 80 continues eastward, while US 79 turns to the northeast toward Homer. In Homer, the route resumes a more northerly direction, traveling through Haynesville before crossing the Arkansas border about 7 miles south of Emerson, Arkansas.
US 79 continues northward from Louisiana into Emerson and Magnolia, where it has a brief concurrency with US 82 through the city. From here, the route turns to the northeast, through Camden, where it intersects US 278, Fordyce, in which it has a brief concurrency with US 167. East of Kingsland, the highway travels in a more northerly direction as it prepares to enter the Pine Bluff metropolitan area. In Pine Bluff, U. S. 79 joins the Interstate 530 freeway. After the freeway ends, US 79 and US 63, with which it is cosigned, leave the city toward the north; the two routes stay joined until Stuttgart. US 79 continues to the east and northeast, through Marianna and Hughes, before turning due north to an intersection with Interstate 40 near Jennette. US 79 joins I-40 and the two routes stay cosigned through the concurrency with Interstate 55 in West Memphis, before US 79 joins I-55 to cross the Mississippi River at the Memphis & Arkansas Bridge into Memphis. U. S. Route 79 enters Memphis with U. S. Route 70, U.
S. Route 64 and Tennessee State Route 1, travelling east along E. H. Crump Boulevard, turns north on Third Street and travels through Downtown Memphis along both Second and Third Streets, it continues east on Union Avenue, north along East Parkway, east along Summer Avenue. At Stage Road in Bartlett, it continues along Summer Avenue with US 70 while US 64 turns east along Stage Rd. From here, US 79 continues north from Bartlett, passing through the rest of Shelby County as a 4-lane undivided highway. In Arlington, the road narrows to 2 lanes and passes through Fayette County, Tipton County, Haywood County until Brownsville, Tennessee. In Brownsville, U. S 79, along with U. S. 70 and SR 1, goes to the south along a bypass. On the east side of the city, U. S. 70 and SR 1 turn east while US 79 and 70A continue to the northeast, passing through Crockett and Gibson Counties. The section from Milan, Tennessee to the Carroll County line was widened to 4 lanes. U. S. 70A splits off from US 79 near Atwood, Tennessee and US 79 continues to the northeast into Henry County, passing through the city of Paris and crosses the Tennessee River.
The portion from McKenzie, Tennessee to the Tennessee River is 4-lanes, plans are in the works to widen the portion in between this section and the Milan section. The section from Brownsville to the Tennessee River is part of the "Austin Peay Memorial Highway". Once US 79 comes into Stewart County, it passes to the south of the Land Between the Lakes recreation area and crosses the Cumberland River; the portion between the rivers is known as Donelson Parkway. It enters Montgomery County and the city of Clarksville, Tennessee; this portion between Dover and Clarksville is known as Dover Road. One through Clarksville, US 79 enters Kentucky. Wilma Rudolph Boulevard is the name given to the portion of U. S. Route 79 in Clarksville, Tennessee between the Interstate 24 in Clarksville to the Red River bridge near the Kraft Street intersection; this section of Highway 79 in Clarksville was called the Guthrie Highway, for nearby Guthrie, but in 1994, the name was changed to honor Wilma Rudolph, an Olympic runner from Clarksville, who won three gold medals in the 1960 Rome Summer Olympic Games.
Between Clarksville and Dover, the road is known as "Dover Road". US 7
The population was 5,551 at the 2010 census. It is the county seat of Cherokee County; the town was established by an act of the Texas legislature on April 11, 1846. It was named after signer of the Texas Declaration of Independence. By 1850, Rusk had 355 residents. A post office was authorized on March 8, 1847; the city of Rusk is no longer dry. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 7.3 square miles, of which 0.03 square miles, or 0.37%, is water. Rusk is crossed by U. S. Routes 69 and 84. US 69 leads northwest 14 miles to Jacksonville, the largest city in Cherokee County, southeast 43 miles to Lufkin, while US 84 leads east 30 miles to Mount Enterprise and west the same distance to Palestine. Rusk is about 160 miles north of Houston, 125 miles southeast of Dallas, 40 miles south of Tyler; the climate in this area is characterized by hot, humid summers and mild to cool winters. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Rusk has a humid subtropical climate, abbreviated "Cfa" on climate maps.
As of the census of 2010, there were 5,551 people, 1,306 households, 867 families residing in the city. The population density was 745.4 people per square mile. There were 1,539 housing units at an average density of 225.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 62.71% White, 30.01% African American, 0.18% Native American, 0.96% Asian, 5.15% from other races, 0.98% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 6.92% of the population. There were 1,306 households out of which 32.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.6% were married couples living together, 17.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.6% were non-families. 30.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 16.0% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.44 and the average family size was 3.05. In the city, the population was spread out with 17.3% under the age of 18, 8.9% from 18 to 24, 39.3% from 25 to 44, 20.6% from 45 to 64, 13.9% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 154.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 168.4 males. The median income for a household in the city was $27,370, the median income for a family was $33,952. Males had a median income of $24,271 versus $22,438 for females; the per capita income for the city was $11,688. About 16.2% of families and 21.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 29.4% of those under age 18 and 21.0% of those age 65 or over. The presence of state prison units in the city skews the demographics, as the two units house 1,250 inmates at any time, making the actual population of the city closer to 3,835; this affects all other demographic statistics such as ratio of males to females, the racial makeup of the city and the poverty rate. Jim Hogg Park, Rusk State Park, Gourmet Gardens are in Rusk; the longest footbridge in the nation and the longest zip line in Texas are located in Rusk. The Texas State Railroad operates between Palestine.
The Heritage Center of Cherokee County & Cherokee Civic Theater are located in Rusk. The city of Rusk and surrounding rural areas are served by the Rusk Independent School District; the United States Postal Service operates the Rusk Post Office. The Texas Department of State Health Services operates the Rusk State Hospital in Rusk. At that site, the Texas Prison System operated the Rusk Penitentiary. Rusk has been home to three former governors, James Stephen Hogg, Thomas M. Campbell, John B. Kendrick. Rusk has been the home to Jim Swink and Johnny Horton. Adrian Matthew Burk from Rusk played for the Baltimore Colts and the Philadelphia Eagles in the 1950's. Cody Glen played in the Superbowl with the Indianapolis colts. City of Rusk official website Rusk Chamber of Commerce Rusk, Texas at Handbook of Texas
Henderson is a city in Rusk County, northeast Texas, United States. The population was 13,712 at the 2010 census, it is the county seat of Rusk County. Henderson is named for the first governor of Texas; the city has functioned as a major crossroads in Northeast Texas over the last two centuries. Several major highways pass through the business district of the town, including U. S. Route 259, Texas State Highway 64, U. S. Route 79, Texas State Highway 43, Texas State Highway 42 and Texas State Highway 64. Annual events in the city of Henderson include the Heritage Syrup Festival in November, celebrating the east Texas tradition of syrup making, the East Texas Sacred Harp Convention in August featuring shape note music; the city has a vibrant downtown historic district, with many buildings dating to before the American Civil War. The city has 19 historical markers, including homes dating from the 1880s, colleges. Downtown Henderson is one of the most charming downtowns in the East Texas area. Colorful, canvas awnings highlight the ornate buildings which house Henderson's downtown merchants and offer shade to downtown shoppers visiting the various antiques stores, clothing stores, restaurants lining the Main Streets.
The city of Henderson was established by European Americans. It was developed on land donated by W. B. Ochiltree and James Smith; the First Methodist and First Baptist churches were established in 1845, respectively. The first courthouse, made of wood, was completed in 1849. After the Civil War, the International and Great Northern Railroad crossed through Rusk County but bypassed Henderson. In 1874, the Henderson and Overton Branch Railroad Company built a stretch of railroad connecting Henderson to the tracks running through Overton; this stretch of railroad was sold to the Missouri Pacific Railroad and remains in use to this day. In 1878, a small fire destroyed the courthouse, a brick courthouse was built in its place; this encouraged the construction of several other brick buildings, including the Howard Dickinson House, now a historical site. In 1930, C. M. "Dad" Joiner brought in the Daisy Bradford #3 Discovery Well six miles northwest of Henderson. The discovery of oil in October 1930 created a booming economy in the area, with the population of Henderson increasing from 2,000 to over 10,000 in a few months.
The oil fields in and surrounding Henderson, part of the hugely producing five-county East Texas Oil Field, continue to provide a large part of the wealth of the town and region. During World War II, airmen cadets from the Royal Air Force, flying from their training base at Terrell, Texas flew to Henderson on training flights; the community served as a stand-in for the British for Dunkirk, France, the same distance from London, England as Henderson is from Terrell. On August 5, 1860, a fire burned most of the booming town of Henderson. Forty-three buildings, including two hotels, were destroyed in the fire, for a loss of $220,000. According to the Depot Museum, a man named John Crow recalled the fire as follows: I was about eight years old when Henderson burned. I went to town with my father the day after the fire, it burned every house as well as I recollect, except the Flanagan Brick Building. I remember I was careful not to burn my feet. My father said at the time they thought a fellow named Green Herndon, a union man, had hired a negro woman to burn Henderson.
Herndon was a pronounced opponent of secession. On the negro woman's testimony, a mob gathered, threw a loop around his neck, tied it to a saddle horse which went around the public square dragging Herndon to death, they hung the body to a tree and shot it full of holes... War was in preparation and people were in fits of anger; when the war broke out, the men got all the files they could find and went to the blacksmith shops and made knives and swords. There was much laughter and I remember they said, "We'll whip those damn Yankees with axes and butcher knives. Everyone was anxious to go." 2015 Henderson Tornado On Memorial Day, May 25, 2015, An EF-2 rated. That day, multiple tornadoes had struck other areas in Texas and Oklahoma; the tornado took a path that uprooted trees, damaged buildings, caused minor damage to areas such as downtown. No severe damage was recorded. Henderson is located at 32°9′14″N 94°48′10″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 12.0 square miles, of which, 11.9 square miles of it is land and 0.1 square miles of it is water.
State Highway 64 State Highway 42 State Highway 43 Highway 259 Highway 79 As of the census of 2000, there were 11,273 people, 4,350 households, 2,971 families residing in the city. The population density was 947.6 people per square mile. There were 4,831 housing units at an average density of 406.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 68.98% White, 22.34% African American, 0.27% Native American, 0.47% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 6.80% from other races, 1.13% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 11.80% of the population. There were 4,350 households out of which 32.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.3% were married couples living together, 13.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.7% were non-families. 28.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 17.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.52 and the average family size was 3
Longview is the forty-fifth largest city in the state of Texas. The city is located in Gregg County, of which it is the county seat. Longview is located in East Texas, where Interstate 20 and U. S. Highways 80 and 259 converge just north of the Sabine River. According to the 2010 U. S. census, the city had a population of 80,455. The estimated population in 2017 was 81,522. Longview is the principal city of the Longview metropolitan statistical area, comprising Gregg and Rusk counties; the population of the metropolitan area as of 2017 census estimates is 217,481. Longview became a railroad route in East Texas. Today, Longview is considered a major hub city for the region. In 2014, Forbes magazine ranked Longview as the sixth fastest-growing small city in the United States. Companies with significant presence in Longview are Eastman Chemical and Trinity Rail Group and Consolidated Electrical Distributors. Longview was founded in the 1870s by Sr.. In 1870, Methvin sold 100 acres to the Southern Pacific Railroad for one dollar to persuade them to build their line in the direction of land he owned.
That year, he sold another 100 acres for $500 in gold. He hoped. Methvin coined the name of the town when he stated, "What a long view!" from his home. In June 1871, Longview was incorporated as the first town in Gregg County. In 1884 the elite Mobberly Hotel opened for business servicing the railroad travelers and served as the center of social gatherings for Longview; the hotel featured cherry wood furniture with carved bed posters, marble top wash stands, linen table cloths, electric crystal chandeliers and a fireplace in every room. Mobberly was located in the junction part of town near the train depot; the hotel was destroyed by fire on June 13, 1965. In July 1919, a reporter for The Chicago Defender was in Longview looking into the mysterious death of a black man named Lemuel Walters. An armed white mob attacked a home where the reporter, S. L. Jones, attempted to batter their way in. A gunfight began between the men in the house. Jones made a getaway; the white men began to burn buildings in the black section of the town.
In 1942, construction began on the Big Inch pipeline in Longview. From 1943 to 1945, the pipeline transported over 261,000,000 barrels of crude oil to the East Coast. At the time of construction, Big Inch and its smaller twin, Little Inch, comprised the longest petroleum pipeline built in the world. Both were integral in supplying the United States war effort in World War II. After World War II Longview's population grew from 24,502 to 40,050 in 1960, its growth fueled by migration from rural Gregg County and the annexation of Greggton and Spring Hill. Longview is located at 32°30′33″N 94°45′14″W, it is bordered to the west by the city of White Oak and is surrounded by many other cities and towns, including Kilgore, Gilmer, Ore City, Harleton and Lakeport. It is 37 miles northeast of the sized city of Tyler. Incorporated areas include Spring Hill, Pine Tree and Longview Heights. Winters are mild. Average snowfall is less than 2 inches, with one or two ice storms each winter. Normal highs are from the 50s–60s.
Lows range from the 30s to the 40s. In Longview, the temperature dips below 20 °F and can get as warm as 80 °F during the winter months; the spring season brings storms as a transition from winter to summer. Temperatures range from the 60s to 80s for the high, the 40s to the 60s for the low; the average date of the last frost is April 4. Severe thunderstorms are common during this season; this is the wettest time of year. Summers are humid. Temperatures climb from the 90s to over 100 going into the dog days of summer; this is the sunniest time of year. The heat index can climb to around 110 °F. Fall is marked by the first cold front. Foliage begins to change in late October. Temperatures cool down and dew points drop. In the 2010 census, Longview had a population of 80,455; the median age was 34. The racial and ethnic composition of the population was 56.2% non-Hispanic white, 22.6% non-Hispanic black, 0.5% Native American, 1.4% Asian, 9.5% from some other race, 2.3% from two or more races and 18.0% Hispanic or Latino.
In the census of 2000, 73,344 people, 28,363 households, 19,116 families resided in the city. The population density was 1,341.8 people per square mile. The 30,727 housing units averaged a density of 562.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 70.10% White, 22.11% African American, 0.50% Native American, 0.83% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 4.92% from other races, 1.51% from two or more races. Hispanics or Latinos of any race were 10.31% of the population. Of the 28,363 households, 33.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.9% were married couples living together, 14.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.6% were not families. About 27.9% of all households were individuals who lived alone, 10.7% of all households were 65 years of age or more and living alone. The average household size was 2.50 a
The Cherokee are one of the indigenous people of the Southeastern Woodlands of the United States. Prior to the 18th century, they were concentrated in what is now southwestern North Carolina, southeastern Tennessee, the tips of western South Carolina and northeastern Georgia; the Cherokee language is part of the Iroquoian language group. In the 19th century, James Mooney, an American ethnographer, recorded one oral tradition that told of the tribe having migrated south in ancient times from the Great Lakes region, where other Iroquoian-speaking peoples lived. Today there are three federally recognized Cherokee tribes: the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians in North Carolina, the United Keetoowah Band of Cherokee Indians in Oklahoma, the Cherokee Nation in Oklahoma. By the 19th century, European settlers in the United States classified the Cherokee of the Southeast as one of the "Five Civilized Tribes", because they were agrarian and lived in permanent villages and began to adopt some cultural and technological practices of the European American settlers.
The Cherokee were one of the first, if not the first, major non-European ethnic group to become U. S. citizens. Article 8 in the 1817 treaty with the Cherokee stated that Cherokees may wish to become citizens of the United States; the Cherokee Nation has more than 300,000 tribal members, making it the largest of the 567 federally recognized tribes in the United States. In addition, numerous groups claim Cherokee lineage, some of these are state-recognized. A total of more than 819,000 people are estimated to claim having Cherokee ancestry on the US census, which includes persons who are not enrolled members of any tribe. Of the three federally recognized Cherokee tribes, the Cherokee Nation and the UKB have headquarters in Tahlequah, Oklahoma; the UKB are descendants of "Old Settlers", Cherokee who migrated to Arkansas and Oklahoma about 1817 prior to Indian Removal. They are related to the Cherokee who were forcibly relocated there in the 1830s under the Indian Removal Act; the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians is on the Qualla Boundary in western North Carolina.
A Cherokee language name for Cherokee people is Aniyvwiyaʔi, translating as "Principal People". Tsalagi is the Cherokee word for Cherokee. Many theories, though none proven, abound about the origin of the name "Cherokee", it may have been derived from the Choctaw word Cha-la-kee, which means "people who live in the mountains", or Choctaw Chi-luk-ik-bi, meaning "people who live in the cave country". The earliest Spanish transliteration of the name, from 1755, is recorded as Tchalaquei. Another theory is; the Iroquois Five Nations based in New York have called the Cherokee Oyata'ge'ronoñ. The word Cherokee means “people of different speech.” Anthropologists and historians have two main theories of Cherokee origins. One is that the Cherokee, an Iroquoian-speaking people, are relative latecomers to Southern Appalachia, who may have migrated in late prehistoric times from northern areas around the Great Lakes, the traditional territory of the Haudenosaunee nations and other Iroquoian-speaking peoples.
Another theory is. Researchers in the 19th century recorded conversations with elders who recounted an oral tradition of the Cherokee people migrating south from the Great Lakes region in ancient times, they may have moved south into Muscogee Creek territory and settled at the sites of mounds built by the Mississippian culture and earlier moundbuilders. In the 19th century, European-American settlers mistakenly attributed several Mississippian culture sites in Georgia to the Cherokee, including Moundville and Etowah Mounds. However, other evidence shows that the Cherokee did not reach this part of Georgia until the late 18th century and could not have built the mounds; the Connestee people, believed to be ancestors of the Cherokee, occupied western North Carolina circa 200 to 600 CE. Pre-contact Cherokee are considered to be part of the Pisgah Phase of Southern Appalachia, which lasted from circa 1000 to 1500. Despite the consensus among most specialists in Southeast archeology and anthropology, some scholars contend that ancestors of the Cherokee people lived in western North Carolina and eastern Tennessee for a far longer period of time.
During the late Archaic and Woodland Period, Native Americans in the region began to cultivate plants such as marsh elder, pigweed and some native squash. People created new art forms such as shell gorgets, adopted new technologies, developed an elaborate cycle of religious ceremonies. During the Mississippian culture-period, local women developed a new variety of maize called eastern flint corn, it resembled modern corn and produced larger crops. The successful cultivation of corn surpluses allowed the rise of larger, more complex chiefdoms consisting of several villages and concentrated populations during this period. Corn became celebrated among numerous peoples in religious ceremonies the Green Corn Ceremony. Much of what is known about pre-18th-century Native American cultures has come from records of Spanish expeditions; the earliest ones of the mid-16th-century encountered people of the Mississippian culture, the ancestors to tribes in the Southeast such as
U.S. Route 259
U. S. Route 259 is a north–south spur of U. S. Route 59 that runs for 250 miles through rural areas of southeast Oklahoma; the highway's southern terminus is near Nacogdoches, Texas at an interchange with its parent route, US 59. Its northern terminus is in the Ouachita Mountains, about 15 miles south of Heavener, Oklahoma where it reunites with U. S. 59. For most of its length, US 259 lies 30–50 miles to the west of its parent route. US 259 begins at an intersection with US 59, on the north side of Nacogdoches, Texas; the highway continues due north, passing through Mount Enterprise, around the eastern side of Henderson and Kilgore. In Kilgore, Texas, US 259 is known as the Charles K. Devall Memorial Highway, as named by the Texas legislature, it has a concurrency with Interstate 20 of about 6 miles continues north around the eastern edge of Longview along Eastman Rd. The highway continues due north, crossing Interstate 30 in northern Morris County, crossing into Oklahoma in northwest Bowie County.
After crossing into McCurtain County, Oklahoma, US-259 meets up with State Highway 87, continues north through Harris. Maps indicate that US-259 and SH-87 overlap to Idabel, but this is not the case, ODOT signage does not reflect a concurrency. US-259 bypasses Idabel to the south and east, concurring with U. S. Highway 70 Bypass. East of Idabel, the bypass route ends, US-259 begins a concurrency with mainline US-70 and SH-3; the three highways continue north to Broken Bow, where US-70 splits to the east toward DeQueen, Arkansas and SH-3 splits to the west, bound for Antlers. US-259 continues north alone, taking a winding path through the Ouachita Mountains of southeastern Oklahoma; the route passes Broken Bow Lake on its west side, with State Highway 259A serving as an access loop to the lake and Beavers Bend State Resort. Near the lake, US-259 crosses through the Ouachita National Forest for the first time. Near Smithville, the highway serves as the western terminus of State Highway 4. North of the SH-4 junction, US-259 crosses into Le Flore County.
The U. S. route serves as the eastern terminus of SH-144 near Octavia. US-259 reenters the National Forest north of this junction, intersects SH-63 at Big Cedar, it has a junction with SH-1, the Talimena Drive. The highway reunites with US-59 about 10 miles south of Heavener. In Texas, the highway was designated in 1962 and assumed the entire route of a previous iteration and alignment of State Highway 26, cancelled. Prior to 1985, US 259 between Kilgore and Longview followed the current route of Texas State Highway 31, it entered Longview from the southwest at the intersection of South St. and Spur 63. It followed Spur 63 to US 80. US 259 ran concurrently with US 80 to Eastman Road. At the US 80/Eastman Rd. intersection, the previous alignment of US 259 turned left to go north on Eastman. In 1985, US 259 was rerouted to its current route along Interstate 20 to Eastman Rd. left to go north, along the eastern edge of Longview, bypassing the central business district. US-259 has one Business route in Texas.
In 2006, a new bypass was completed around the eastern side of Kilgore. The bypass had been proposed as early as 1965, but funding did not become available until the late 1990s; the new bypass was designated as US-259, while the previous route through the Kilgore business district was designated as a business route. The new business route was approved by the AASHO in September 2006. US-259 continued into downtown Idabel, the southeast portion of the Idabel bypass was double-designated as US-70 Bypass and US-259 Bypass. On 6 March 2000, the bypass route was decommissioned, mainline US-259 was moved onto the bypass. However, as of 2008, some bypass signage is still in place, including signage indicating the former terminus of Bypass US-259 at US-70/SH-3. SH-259A, an Oklahoma state highway, is a 10-mile loop to Broken Bow Lake and Beavers Bend Resort Park north of Broken Bow, Oklahoma, it lies in the Ouachita National Forest and is signed as a U. S. highway. U. S. Route 59 U. S. Route 159 Media related to U.
S. Route 259 at Wikimedia Commons Endpoints of U. S. Highway 259