Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power.
The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations.
In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci
United States Department of the Treasury
The Department of the Treasury is an executive department and the treasury of the United States federal government. It was established by an Act of Congress in 1789 to manage government revenue, the Department is administered by the Secretary of the Treasury, who is a member of the Cabinet. On February 13,2017, the Senate confirmed Steven Mnuchin as Secretary of the Treasury, the first Secretary of the Treasury was Alexander Hamilton, who was sworn into office on September 11,1789. Hamilton was asked by President George Washington to serve after first having asked Robert Morris, Hamilton almost single-handedly worked out the nations early financial system, and for several years was a major presence in Washingtons administration as well. His portrait is on the obverse of the U. S. ten-dollar bill while the Treasury Department building is shown on the reverse. Besides the Secretary, one of the best-known Treasury officials is the Treasurer of the United States whose signature, along with the Treasury Secretarys, the Treasury prints and mints all paper currency and coins in circulation through the Bureau of Engraving and Printing and the United States Mint.
The Department collects all federal taxes through the Internal Revenue Service, the Congress had no power to levy and collect taxes, nor was there a tangible basis for securing funds from foreign investors or governments. The delegates resolved to issue paper money in the form of bills of credit, the Congress stipulated that each of the colonies contribute to the Continental governments funds. With the signing of the Declaration of Independence on July 4,1776, despite the infusion of foreign and domestic loans to pay for a war of independence, the United Colonies were unable to establish a well-organized agency for financial administration. Michael Hillegas was first called Treasurer of the United States on May 14,1777, the Treasury Office was reorganized three times between 1778 and 1781. The $241.5 million of paper Continental Dollars devalued rapidly, by May 1781, the dollar collapsed at a rate of from 500 to 1000 to 1 against hard currency. Protests against the worthless money swept the colonies and angry Americans coined the expression not worth a Continental, Robert Morris was designated Superintendent of Finance in 1781 and restored stability to the nations finances.
Morris, a colonial merchant, was nicknamed the Financier because of his reputation for procuring funds or goods on a moments notice. His staff included a Comptroller, a Treasurer, a Register, and auditors, who managed the finances through 1784. The Treasury Board of three Commissioners continued to oversee the finances of the confederation of former colonies until September 1789, the First Congress of the United States was called to convene in New York on March 4,1789, marking the beginning of government under the Constitution. Alexander Hamilton took the oath of office as the first Secretary of the Treasury on September 11,1789, Hamilton had served as George Washingtons aide-de-camp during the Revolution, and was of great importance in the ratification of the Constitution. Because of his financial and managerial acumen, Hamilton was a choice for solving the problem of the new nations heavy war debt. Hamiltons first official act was to submit a report to Congress in which he laid the foundation for the financial health
The Juris Doctor degree, known as the Doctor of Jurisprudence degree, is a graduate-entry professional degree in law and one of several Doctor of Law degrees. It is earned by completing law school in Australia and the United States and it has the academic standing of a second-entry, professional baccalaureate degree in Canada, a masters degree in Australia and a professional doctorate in the United States. The degree was first awarded in the United States in the early 20th century and was created as a version of the old European doctor of law degree. Originating from the 19th century Harvard movement for the study of law. It involves a program in most jurisdictions. To be authorized to practice law in the courts of a state in the United States. Lawyers must, however, be admitted to the bar of the court before they are authorized to practice in that court. Admission to the bar of a district court includes admission to the bar of the related bankruptcy court. In the United States, the doctorate in law may be conferred in Latin or in English, as Juris Doctor and at some law schools Doctor of Law.
Juris Doctor literally means Teacher of Law, while the Latin for Doctor of Jurisprudence—Jurisprudentiae Doctor—literally means Teacher of Legal Knowledge, the J. D. is not to be confused with Doctor of Laws or Legum Doctor. In institutions where the latter can be earned, e. g. D, the LL. D. is invariably an honorary degree in the United States. The first university in Europe, the University of Bologna, was founded as a school of law by four famous legal scholars in the 11th century who were students of the school in that city. This served as the model for law schools of the Middle Ages. While Bologna granted only doctorates, preparatory degrees were introduced in Paris, the nature of the J. D. can be better understood by a review of the context of the history of legal education in England. The teaching of law at Cambridge and Oxford Universities was mainly for philosophical or scholarly purposes, the universities taught only civil and canon law but not the common law that applied in most jurisdictions.
The original method of education at the Inns of Court was a mix of moot court-like practice and lecture, by the fifteenth century, the Inns functioned like a university akin to the University of Oxford and the University of Cambridge, though very specialized in purpose. With the frequent absence of parties to suits during the Crusades, the importance of the role grew tremendously. The apprenticeship program for solicitors thus emerged and governed by the rules as the apprenticeship programs for the trades
Moshi is a Tanzanian municipality with a population of 184,292 according to the 2012 census. The municipality is in the Kilimanjaro Region and is situated on the slopes of Mount Kilimanjaro. The municipality covers about 59 square kilometres and is the smallest municipality in Tanzania by area, many people from the Chagga and Pare ethnic groups live in Moshi, which lies on the east-west A23 Arusha–Himo road connecting Arusha and Voi, Kenya. Just to the east of Moshi is the intersection with the B1 north–south road eventually connecting with Tanga, Moshi is always considered the cleanest town in Tanzania. Germany established a camp in Moshi in August 1893. The northern line railroad reached Moshi in 1912, Moshi attained the status of a town in 1956. In 1988, it became a municipality under Tanzanian law, but as of 31 October 2014, Moshi is divided administratively into 21 wards and subdivided into 60 hamlets. The municipal budget of Moshi in fiscal year 2012/2013 was estimated to be 22.2 billion Tanzanian shillings or US $14.1 million at a rate of 1,575 shillings per dollar.
Actual expenditures for that year were 20.3 billion shillings, the budget for the 2014/2015 fiscal year is 57.3 billion Tanzanian shillings or US $33.7 million at an exchange rate of 1,700 shillings per dollar. Like all of Tanzania, Moshi has universal primary education, Moshi hosts a number of higher education facilities. KCMCo is a campus of Tumaini University and it was started in 1997 and offers a number of medical courses. The college is located within the Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre complex, SMMUCo is a campus of Tumaini University. It was developed from the Masoka Management Training Institute and the Mwika Lutheran Bible College and it belongs to the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Tanzania - Northern Diocese, and it is a multi-campus university college. Currently, SMMUCo has campuses in Masoka and Moshi, with future campuses planned for Machame, Siha, MWECAU formerly a constituent college of the Saint Augustine University of Tanzania. MWECAU is located 10 kilometres north of Moshi, since May 2004, the Moshi Co-operative University has been a constituent college of the Sokoine University of Agriculture.
Formerly known as the Ushirika College, it is the oldest training institution in Tanzania and is located along Sokoine Road in Moshi, Moshi Co-operative University grew from a college enrolling only 150 students, conducting tailored courses, to a university college with a capacity of 1500 students. CAWM is commonly known as Mweka College and it was established in 1963 following the Arusha Manifesto as a pioneer institution for the training of African wildlife managers. The majority of the CAWMs students come from the SADC region, KSP is owned by the Saint Luke Foundation, a registered trust founded to provide broad spectrum services to an African population that faces serious deficiencies in pharmaceutical and health systems
Major is a military rank of commissioned officer status, with corresponding ranks existing in many military forces throughout the world. When used unhyphenated, in conjunction with no other indicators, major is one rank senior to that of an army captain and it is considered the most junior of the field officer ranks. Majors are typically assigned as specialised executive or operations officers for battalion-sized units of 300 to 1,200 soldiers, in some militaries, notably France and Ireland, the rank of major is referred to as commandant, while in others it is known as captain-major. The rank of major is used in some police forces and other paramilitary rank structures, such as the Pennsylvania State Police, New York State Police, New Jersey State Police. As a police rank, major roughly corresponds to the UK rank of superintendent, the term major can be used with a hyphen to denote the leader of a military band such as in pipe-major or drum-major. Historically, the rank designation develops in English in the 1640s, taken from French majeur, in turn a shortening of sergent-majeur, which at the time designated a higher rank than at present
White House Rose Garden
The White House Rose Garden is a garden bordering the Oval Office and the West Wing of the White House in Washington, D. C. The garden is approximately 125 feet long and 60 feet wide and it balances the Jacqueline Kennedy Garden on the east side of the White House Complex. The White House Rose Garden was established in 1913 by Ellen Loise Axson Wilson, prior to 1902, the area contained extensive stables, housing various horses and coaches, on the grounds of the present-day Oval Office, Cabinet Room, and Rose Garden. During the 1902 Roosevelt renovation, First Lady Edith Roosevelt insisted on having a proper colonial garden in order to replace the conservatory rose house that had formerly stood there. In 1961, during the John F. Kennedy administration, the garden was redesigned by Rachel Lambert Mellon concurrently with extensive repair work to the East Garden. Mellon created a space with a more defined central lawn, bordered by flower beds that were planted in a French style whilst largely using American botanical specimens, a shrub rose, Nevada Rose, serves to add a cool note of white coloration to the landscaping.
Seasonal flowers are interspersed to add nearly year-round color and variety to the garden. Some of the Spring blooming bulbs planted in the present-day Rose Garden include jonquil, fritillaria, grape hyacinth, chionodoxa, summer blooming annuals are changed on a near yearly basis. In the fall and flowering kale bring color leading all the way up until the winter days. Beginning with the establishment of the garden in the twentieth century the Rose Garden has been used for events. President Wilson met there with the press for informal questions, President Hoover began a tradition of welcoming and being photographed with prominent citizens there. Calvin Coolidge used the garden for making public announcements about policy, President John F. Kennedy welcomed Project Mercury astronauts in the garden. Many presidential news conferences take place in the garden, as well as occasional White House dinners, the marriage of President Richard Nixons daughter Tricia to Edward F. Cox took place in the Rose Garden in 1971.
In recent years, joint news conferences with the president and a head of state have been held in the Rose Garden. Presidents frequently host American Olympic and major league athletes in the Rose Garden after winning in their respective sport, george W. Bush welcomed the Stanley Cup champion Carolina Hurricanes to the Rose Garden after their victory in 2006. The phrase Rose Garden strategy refers to staying inside or on the grounds of the White House as opposed to traveling throughout the country. For example, Jimmy Carters initial efforts to end the Iran hostage crisis were a Rose Garden strategy because he held discussions with his close advisers in the White House. On July 25,1994 a declaration of peace between Israel and Jordan was signed in the Rose Garden, in 1935, President Franklin D. Roosevelt commissioned Frederick Law Olmsted, Jr. to redesign the gardens, and he installed cast iron furniture pieces
St. Albans School (Washington, D.C.)
St. Albans School is an independent college preparatory day and boarding school for boys in grades 4–12, located in Washington, D. C. The school is named after Saint Alban, traditionally regarded as the first British martyr, within the St. Albans community, the school is commonly referred to as S-T-A. St. Albans, along with its schools on the Cathedral Close. The school was founded in 1909, with $300,000 in funding bequeathed by Harriet Lane Johnston, initially, it was a school for boy choristers to the Washington National Cathedral, a program that the school continues today. The school mascot is the bulldog, a symbol adopted under the fourth headmaster, Canon Charles S. Martin. The St. Albans motto, Pro Ecclesia et Pro Patria, translates to For Church, St. Albans requires all students to attend Chapel twice a week in The Little Sanctuary. The school seeks to develop in its students a sense of moral responsibility through Chapel, its Honor Code, and a co-curricular social service program. A2004 article in the Wall Street Journal found that among U. S.
schools, St. Albans had the 11th-highest success rate in placing graduates at 10 selective universities. In 2012, St. Albans sent 24 out of its 75 graduates, or 32%, to an Ivy league School, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, or Stanford, making its matriculation one of the best in the country. The class of 2013 similarly fared well, with 21 graduates attending Ivy League schools or Stanford and 2 each attending the University of Chicago and the United States Military Academy. From the 76 member class of 2014,16 headed to the Ivy League,2 to Stanford,1 to Duke, a 2015 article in Business Insider ranked St. Albans the smartest boarding school in America. Almost 75% of the faculty at the school have advanced degrees, the school maintains one writer-in-residence, who teaches English classes while developing his or her work. The schools seventh headmaster is Vance Wilson, who has recently served as the President of the International Boys School Coalition. The school opened its new Upper School building - Marriott Hall - in 2009–2010, the St.
Albans application process begins in the fall prior to the students intended year of attendance. In September, a family may schedule a tour and interview, in addition to the visit, a general application form, personal statement, teacher recommendations, standardized testing, and a school transcript are required for the application. St. Albans operates a need-blind admission policy, as a result, a students application for financial aid has no bearing on his application for admission. The St. Albans Skip Grant Program offers financial aid and other support to enrolled students from a diversity of socioeconomic and ethnic backgrounds. This program was started by former St. Albans teacher Brooks Johnson and is now named after the second director, former teacher, coach
Jamestown, Rhode Island
Jamestown is a town in Newport County, Rhode Island, in the United States. The population was 5,405 at the 2010 census, Jamestown is situated almost entirely on Conanicut Island, the second largest island in Narragansett Bay. It includes the uninhabited Dutch Island and Gould Island. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has an area of 35.3 square miles, the total area is 72. 55% water. Rhode Island Route 138 is the state highway in Jamestown, connecting the town and island to North Kingstown to the west. Humans arrived in the area about 10,000 to 12,000 years ago, at the end of the last ice age, ongoing melting of glaciers caused the sea level to rise, covering low-lying areas and eventually filling Narragansett Bay. The rising sea forced humans to higher elevations, and submerged most traces of the earliest inhabitants, the oldest human artifacts found on Conanicut Island date from around 3000 BC. In 1524, the Italian navigator Giovanni da Verrazzano and his crew visited Narragansett Bay, in 1636 or 1637, Dutch Island was used by fur traders.
In 1638 the English made arrangements to use Conanicut Island for grazing sheep, ferries were in operation between Conanicut Island and Newport by 1675. In 1678, Conanicut Island was incorporated as the town of Jamestown, the town was named for James, Duke of York, who would become King James II in 1685. By 1710, many of Conanicut Islands current roads were in place, in 1728, the town of Jamestown built a windmill for grinding corn, which used the sea breeze for power since there was no source of running water to turn a waterwheel. On December 10,1775,200 British and Hessian troops landed at East Ferry on Conanicut Island and marched to West Ferry, where they burned the ferry house. As they returned to East Ferry, they destroyed many buildings, including fourteen homes, in December 1776, a British fleet arrived in Narragansett Bay and occupied Newport. The British took over the colonial militia batteries at Fort Dumpling, the British left Narragansett Bay in October 1779. As they departed, they destroyed the fortifications they had occupied, by 1784, Beavertail Light was back in operation.
In 1787, Jamestown rebuilt the Jamestown Windmill and Quaker Meetinghouse that had destroyed during the occupation. In 1800 Fort Dumpling was established on the site of previous fortifications overlooking East Passage, a tall stone tower atop the highest cliff could hold eight guns. In 1872, the town of Jamestown commissioned a steam powered ferryboat, in May 1873, service was initiated between Jamestown and Newport
National Academy of Sciences
The National Academy of Sciences is a United States nonprofit, non-governmental organization. NAS is part of the National Academies of Sciences and Medicine, along with the National Academy of Engineering, as a national academy, new members of the organization are elected annually by current members, based on their distinguished and continuing achievements in original research. Election to the National Academies is one of the highest honors in the scientific field, members serve pro bono as advisers to the nation on science and medicine. The group holds a congressional charter under Title 36 of the United States Code, … to provide scientific advice to the government whenever called upon by any government department. The Academy receives no compensation from the government for its services, as of 2016, the National Academy of Sciences includes about 2,350 members and 450 foreign associates. It employed about 1,100 staff in 2005, the current members annually elect new members for life. Approximately 200 members have won a Nobel Prize, the National Academy of Sciences is a member of the International Council for Science.
Although there is no relationship with state and local academies of science. The National Academies is governed by a 17-member Council, made up of five officers and 12 Councilors, the National Academy of Sciences meets annually in Washington, D. C. which is documented in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, its scholarly journal. The National Academies Press is the publisher for the National Academies, since 2004, the National Academy of Sciences has administered the Marian Koshland Science Museum to provide public exhibits and programming related to its policy work. The museums current exhibits focus on change and infectious disease. The National Academy of Sciences maintains multiple buildings around the United States, the building has a neoclassical architectural style and was built by architect Bertram Grosvenor Goodhue. The building was dedicated in 1924 and is listed on the National Register of Historic Places, the building is used for lectures, symposia and concerts, in addition to annual meetings of the NAS, NAE, and NAM.
The 2012 Presidential Award for Math and Science Teaching ceremony was held here on March 5,2014, approximately 150 staff members work at the NAS Building. More than 1,000 National Academies staff members work at The Keck Center of the National Academies at 500 Fifth Street in northwest Washington, the Keck Center provides meeting space and houses the National Academies Press Bookstore. The NAS maintains conference centers in California and Massachusetts, the J. Erik Jonsson Conference Center located at 314 Quissett Avenue in Woods Hole, Massachusetts, is another conference facility. The Act of Incorporation, signed by President Abraham Lincoln on March 3,1863, created the National Academy of Sciences, many of the original NAS members came from the so-called Scientific Lazzaroni, an informal network of mostly physical scientists working in the vicinity of Cambridge, Massachusetts. Senator Henry Wilson of Massachusetts was to name Agassiz to the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution, Agassiz was to come to Washington at the governments expense to plan the organization with the others
African Wildlife Foundation
The African Wildlife Foundation, founded in 1961 as the African Wildlife Leadership Foundation, is an international conservation organization that focuses on critically important landscapes in Africa. AWF’s programs and conservation strategies are designed to protect the wildlife and wild lands of Africa, AWF stops the degradation of animals and the worlds environment. The African Wildlife Leadership Foundation was founded in 1961 by Russell E. Train, a judge and hunter. Train was worried that European park managers would be replaced by unqualified Africans in conservation work as African countries gained their independence, twenty African countries became independent in 1960 and 1961. Train wrote In Tanganyika alone, the government recently ordered 100 percent Africanization of the service by 1966. Replacement of European staff by untrained, unqualified men spells disaster for the game and he felt that it was urgent to train Africans to become wildlife professionals. The first major grant of the AWLF was $47,000 to help found the College of African Wildlife Management at Mweka, the college was organized by Bruce Kinloch, Chief Game Warden of Tanganyika, as a pioneer institution for the training of African wildlife managers.
Funding for Mweka was provided by the U. S, agency for International Development, and the Frankfurt Zoological Society, with facilities donated by the government of Tanganyika. By 2010 the college had trained over 4,500 wildlife managers from 28 African countries and 18 non-African countries, in 1963 AWLF started a scholarship program to bring young Africans to American universities where they could study biology and wildlife management. The AWLF built an education center in the same year. In 1967 the AWLF provided $50,000 to finance construction of a Research Institute in Tanzania, in 1970 the AWF established a school for wildlife management in Garoua, giving instruction in French. In 1969 the AWLF took the lead in a campaign supported by other groups to protect rhinos. In 1974 the foundation began a program to study cheetahs, in 1983 the AWF dropped Leadership from its name. Train was disappointed with the change, considering that the organization had lost sight of its original mandate, instead, it had become just another conservation organization, giving funding to westerners to conduct research on animals.
However, research such as Dian Fosseys work on gorillas and Cynthia Mosss work on elephants, the foundation struggled to raise money. In 1968 the annual budget was less than US$250,000, in 1988, the year in which the AWF launched a campaign against elephant poaching, the foundation had a staff of six and an annual budget of just $2 million. When the AWF turned 30 in 1991, the board of trustees continued to be dominated by prominent and wealthy Americans, in more recent years the AWF has modelled its program around three objectives, empowering people, conserving wildlife and protecting land. Conserving wildlife involves research into species and into how these interact with people
The environmental movement, including conservation and green politics, is a diverse scientific and political movement for addressing environmental issues. Environmentalists advocate the sustainable management of resources and stewardship of the environment through changes in public policy, in its recognition of humanity as a participant in ecosystems, the movement is centered on ecology and human rights. The environmental movement is a movement, represented by a range of organizations, from the large to grassroots. Due to its membership and strong beliefs, and occasionally speculative nature. The movement encompasses some other movements with a specific focus. At its broadest, the movement includes private citizens, religious devotees, scientists, nonprofit organizations, early interest in the environment was a feature of the Romantic movement in the early 19th century. The origins of the movement lay in the response to increasing levels of smoke pollution in the atmosphere during the Industrial Revolution.
The modern conservation movement was first manifested in the forests of India and this was the first case of state management of forests in the world. In 1860, the Department banned the use shifting cultivation, dr. Hugh Cleghorns 1861 manual, The forests and gardens of South India, became the definitive work on the subject and was widely used by forest assistants in the subcontinent. Sir Dietrich Brandis joined the British service in 1856 as superintendent of the forests of Pegu division in eastern Burma. During that time Burmas teak forests were controlled by militant Karen tribals and he introduced the taungya system, in which Karen villagers provided labour for clearing and weeding teak plantations. He formulated new forest legislation and helped research and training institutions. The Imperial Forest School at Dehradun was founded by him, the late 19th century saw the formation of the first wildlife conservation societies. The zoologist Alfred Newton published a series of investigations into the Desirability of establishing a Close-time for the preservation of animals between 1872 and 1903.
His advocacy for legislation to protect animals from hunting during the season led to the formation of the Plumage League in 1889. The society acted as a protest group campaigning against the use of great crested grebe and kittiwake skins, the Society attracted growing support from the suburban middle-classes, and influenced the passage of the Sea Birds Preservation Act in 1869 as the first nature protection law in the world. For most of the century from 1850 to 1950, the Coal Smoke Abatement Society was formed in 1898 making it one of the oldest environmental NGOs. It was founded by artist Sir William Blake Richmond, frustrated with the pall cast by coal smoke, although there were earlier pieces of legislation, the Public Health Act 1875 required all furnaces and fireplaces to consume their own smoke
Reserve Officers' Training Corps
The Reserve Officers Training Corps are a group of college-based officer training programs for training commissioned officers of the United States Armed Forces. ROTC officers serve in all branches of the U. S. armed forces, under ROTC, a student may receive a competitive, merit-based scholarship, covering all or part of college tuition, in return for an obligation of active military service after graduation. The U. S. Coast Guard offers a program to ROTC under a different name. The students participate in regular drills during the year. Some of the training that is offered to cadets in the Army ROTC program are, Air Assault, Mountain Warfare, WHINSEC. Army ROTC units are organized as brigades and companies, Air Force ROTC units are detachments with the students organized into wings, groups and flights. Army and Air Force ROTC students are referred to as cadets, Navy ROTC units are organized as battalions, and include NROTC students under Marine Option who will eventually be commissioned as officers in the Marine Corps.
Marine NROTC students may be formed in a company when the program includes sufficient numbers. All Navy ROTC students are referred to as midshipmen, the term of obligatory service varies based on the type of commission the cadet or midshipman receives, as well as any scholarship contract signed. They can serve as duty or in a reserve status. Additionally, a cadet on active duty can receive either a regular appointment or a reserve appointment and this affects the required years, as well as how many must be completed on active duty, in an active reserve capacity, or in the Individual Ready Reserve. Under federal law, graduates of an ROTC scholarship program incur an active duty service obligation. Recipients incur an eight-year MSO if they accept a commission and serve in a reserve component, recipients incur at least a six-year MSO and up to an eight-year ADSO if they accept a commission and serve in a reserve component with at least two years of active duty. Army ROTC students who receive an Army ROTC scholarship or enter the Army ROTC Advanced Course must agree to complete a period of service.
This can include three active duty, with the balance in the IRR. The service obligation for a Navy ROTC student is five years in the Navy, the active-duty service obligation for an Air Force ROTC student is four years, or eight years for Combat Systems Officers, or six years Air Battle Management officers, or ten years for pilots. The concept of ROTC in the United States began with the Morrill Act of 1862 which established the land-grant colleges, part of the federal governments requirement for these schools was that they include military tactics as part of their curriculum, forming what became known as ROTC. The college from which ROTC originated is Norwich University in Northfield, Norwich was founded in 1819 at Norwich, Vermont, as the American Literary and Military Academy