Indian Airlines Indian, was a major Indian airline based in Delhi and focused on domestic routes, along with several international services to neighbouring countries in Asia. It was state-owned, after merger of eight pre-Independence domestic airlines and was administered by the Ministry of Civil Aviation. Indian was one of the two flag carriers of India, the other being Air India. On 7 December 2005, the airline was rebranded as Indian for advertising purposes as a part of a program to revamp its image in preparation for an initial public offering; the airline operated with Air India, India's national overseas carrier. Alliance Air was a owned subsidiary of Indian. In 2007, the Government of India announced; as part of the merger process, a new company called the National Aviation Company of India Limited was established, into which both Air India and Indian would be merged. Once the merger was completed, the airline - called Air India - would continue to be headquartered in Mumbai and would have a fleet of over 130 aircraft.
The airline was set up under the Air Corporations Act, 1953 with an initial capital of 32 million and started operations on 1 August 1953. It was established after legislation came into force to nationalise the entire airline industry in India. Two new national airlines were to be formed along the same lines as happened in the United Kingdom with British Overseas Airways Corporation and British European Airways. Air India took over international routes and Indian Airlines Corporation took over the domestic and regional routes. Eight pre-Independence domestic airlines, Deccan Airways, Airways India, Bharat Airways, Himalayan Aviation, Kalinga Airlines, Indian National Airways and Air Services of India and the Domestic wing of Air India, were merged to form the new domestic national carrier Indian Airlines Corporation. International operations of Air India Ltd. was taken over by the newly formed Air India International. Indian Airlines Corporation inherited a fleet of 99 aircraft including 74 Douglas DC-3 Dakotas, 12 Vickers Vikings, 3 Douglas DC-4s and various smaller types from the seven airlines that made it up.
Vickers Viscounts were introduced in 1957 with Fokker F27 Friendships being delivered from 1961. The 1960s saw Hawker Siddeley HS 748s, manufactured in India by Hindustan Aeronautics Limited, join the fleet; the jet age began for IAC with the introduction of the pure-jet Sud Aviation Caravelle airliner in 1964, followed by Boeing 737-200s in the early 1970s. April 1976 saw the first three Airbus A300 wide-body jets being introduced; the regional airline, established in 1981, was reintegrated. By 1990, Airbus A320-200s were introduced; the economic liberalisation process initiated by the Government of India in the early 1990s ended Indian Airlines' dominance of India's domestic air transport industry. The Indian Government liberalised the private sector in mid 80's and with the emergence of new competitors, Indian Airlines faced tough competition from Jet Airways, Air Sahara, East-West Airlines, Skyline NEPC, ModiLuft, yet till 2005, Indian Airlines was the second largest airline in India after Jet Airways while Air Sahara controlled 17% of the Indian aviation industry.
During that time few other domestic carriers like East-West Airlines, Skyline NEPC and ModiLuft discontinued their flight operations. During 1993 another Government established regional feeder airline called Vayudoot was merged with Indian Airlines but still operated as a standalone division until 1997 after which its entire flight operations were transferred to Indian Airlines and its employees absorbed into Indian Airlines and Air India. Since 2003 with the entry of several low-cost airlines in India, such as Air Deccan, SpiceJet, IndiGo, GoAir and others like Kingfisher Airlines along with its low cost arm Kingfisher Red continued to give competition in its market, forcing Indian to cut down air-fares. However, as of 2006, Indian Airlines was still a profit making airline. Indian Airlines Limited was owned by the Government of India through a holding company and has 19,300 employees as of March 2007, its annual turn-over, together with that of its subsidiary Alliance Air, was well over 40 billions.
Together with its subsidiary, Alliance Air, Indian Airlines carried a total of over 7.5 million passengers annually. On 26 February 2011, Indian airlines ceased operating under its own brand and codes with the merger with Air India being complete. Indian had codeshare agreements with the following airlines: Alliance Air GMG Airlines Gulf Air Uzbekistan Airways Indian operated an all-Airbus fleet consisting of the A320 family; the aircraft livery used while the company was called Indian Airlines was one of the longest in continuous use in the airline industry. The logo and the livery were designed by National Institute of Design Ahmedabad, its aircraft were white, with the belly painted in light metallic grey. Above the windows, "Indian Airlines" was written in English on the starboard side and in Hindi on port side; the tail was bright orange, with its logo in white. In most of the aircraft, the logo was painted on the engines over its bare metal colour; when the company was under the title of Indian Airlines, to celebrate its 50th year of service the airline put the slogan "50 years of flying" in gold on many of their aircraft.
After the name change to Indian, the company's aircraft sported a new look inspired by the Sun Temple at Konark in Odisha. The tail of their aircraft had a partial blue whe
Kolkata is the capital of the Indian state of West Bengal. Located on the east bank of the Hooghly River 75 kilometres west of the border with Bangladesh, it is the principal commercial and educational centre of East India, while the Port of Kolkata is India's oldest operating port and its sole major riverine port; the city is regarded as the "cultural capital" of India, is nicknamed the "City of Joy". According to the 2011 Indian census, it is the seventh most populous city. Recent estimates of Kolkata Metropolitan Area's economy have ranged from $60 to $150 billion making it third most-productive metropolitan area in India, after Mumbai and Delhi. In the late 17th century, the three villages that predated Calcutta were ruled by the Nawab of Bengal under Mughal suzerainty. After the Nawab granted the East India Company a trading licence in 1690, the area was developed by the Company into an fortified trading post. Nawab Siraj ud-Daulah occupied Calcutta in 1756, the East India Company retook it the following year.
In 1793 the East India company was strong enough to abolish Nizamat, assumed full sovereignty of the region. Under the company rule, under the British Raj, Calcutta served as the capital of British-held territories in India until 1911, when its perceived geographical disadvantages, combined with growing nationalism in Bengal, led to a shift of the capital to New Delhi. Calcutta was the centre for the Indian independence movement. Following Indian independence in 1947, once the centre of modern Indian education, science and politics, suffered several decades of economic stagnation; as a nucleus of the 19th- and early 20th-century Bengal Renaissance and a religiously and ethnically diverse centre of culture in Bengal and India, Kolkata has local traditions in drama, film and literature. Many people from Kolkata—among them several Nobel laureates—have contributed to the arts, the sciences, other areas. Kolkata culture features idiosyncrasies that include distinctively close-knit neighbourhoods and freestyle intellectual exchanges.
West Bengal's share of the Bengali film industry is based in the city, which hosts venerable cultural institutions of national importance, such as the Academy of Fine Arts, the Victoria Memorial, the Asiatic Society, the Indian Museum and the National Library of India. Among professional scientific institutions, Kolkata hosts the Agri Horticultural Society of India, the Geological Survey of India, the Botanical Survey of India, the Calcutta Mathematical Society, the Indian Science Congress Association, the Zoological Survey of India, the Institution of Engineers, the Anthropological Survey of India and the Indian Public Health Association. Though home to major cricketing venues and franchises, Kolkata differs from other Indian cities by giving importance to association football and other sports; the word Kolkata derives from the Bengali term Kôlikata, the name of one of three villages that predated the arrival of the British, in the area where the city was to be established. There are several explanations about the etymology of this name: The term Kolikata is thought to be a variation of Kalikkhetrô, meaning "Field of Kali".
It can be a variation of'Kalikshetra'. Another theory is. Alternatively, the name may have been derived from the Bengali term kilkila, or "flat area"; the name may have its origin in the words khal meaning "canal", followed by kaṭa, which may mean "dug". According to another theory, the area specialised in the production of quicklime or koli chun and coir or kata. Although the city's name has always been pronounced Kolkata or Kôlikata in Bengali, the anglicised form Calcutta was the official name until 2001, when it was changed to Kolkata in order to match Bengali pronunciation; the discovery and archaeological study of Chandraketugarh, 35 kilometres north of Kolkata, provide evidence that the region in which the city stands has been inhabited for over two millennia. Kolkata's recorded history began in 1690 with the arrival of the English East India Company, consolidating its trade business in Bengal. Job Charnock, an administrator who worked for the company, was credited as the founder of the city.
The area occupied by the present-day city encompassed three villages: Kalikata and Sutanuti. Kalikata was a fishing village, they were part of an estate belonging to the Mughal emperor. These rights were transferred to the East India Company in 1698. In 1712, the British completed the cons
Mumbai is the capital city of the Indian state of Maharashtra. As of 2011 it is the most populous city in India with an estimated city proper population of 12.4 million. The larger Mumbai Metropolitan Region is the second most populous metropolitan area in India, with a population of 21.3 million as of 2016. Mumbai has a deep natural harbour. In 2008, Mumbai was named an alpha world city, it is the wealthiest city in India, has the highest number of millionaires and billionaires among all cities in India. Mumbai is home to three UNESCO World Heritage Sites: the Elephanta Caves, Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj Terminus, the city's distinctive ensemble of Victorian and Art Deco buildings; the seven islands that constitute Mumbai were home to communities of Koli people, who originated in Gujarat in prehistoric times. For centuries, the islands were under the control of successive indigenous empires before being ceded to the Portuguese Empire and subsequently to the East India Company when in 1661 Charles II of England married Catherine of Braganza and as part of her dowry Charles received the ports of Tangier and Seven Islands of Bombay.
During the mid-18th century, Bombay was reshaped by the Hornby Vellard project, which undertook reclamation of the area between the seven islands from the sea. Along with construction of major roads and railways, the reclamation project, completed in 1845, transformed Bombay into a major seaport on the Arabian Sea. Bombay in the 19th century was characterised by educational development. During the early 20th century it became a strong base for the Indian independence movement. Upon India's independence in 1947 the city was incorporated into Bombay State. In 1960, following the Samyukta Maharashtra Movement, a new state of Maharashtra was created with Bombay as the capital. Mumbai is the financial and entertainment capital of India, it is one of the world's top ten centres of commerce in terms of global financial flow, generating 6.16% of India's GDP and accounting for 25% of industrial output, 70% of maritime trade in India, 70% of capital transactions to India's economy. The city houses important financial institutions such as the Reserve Bank of India, the Bombay Stock Exchange, the National Stock Exchange of India, the SEBI and the corporate headquarters of numerous Indian companies and multinational corporations.
It is home to some of India's premier scientific and nuclear institutes like Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Nuclear Power Corporation of India, Indian Rare Earths, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Atomic Energy Regulatory Board, Atomic Energy Commission of India, the Department of Atomic Energy. The city houses India's Hindi and Marathi cinema industries. Mumbai's business opportunities, as well as its potential to offer a higher standard of living, attract migrants from all over India, making the city a melting pot of many communities and cultures; the name Mumbai is derived from Mumbā or Mahā-Ambā—the name of the patron goddess Mumbadevi of the native Koli community— and ā'ī meaning "mother" in the Marathi language, the mother tongue of the Koli people and the official language of Maharashtra. The Koli people originated in Kathiawad and Central Gujarat, according to some sources they brought their goddess Mumba with them from Kathiawad, where she is still worshipped. However, other sources disagree.
The oldest known names for the city are Galajunkja. In 1508, Portuguese writer Gaspar Correia used the name "Bombaim" in his Lendas da Índia; this name originated as the Galician-Portuguese phrase bom baim, meaning "good little bay", Bombaim is still used in Portuguese. In 1516, Portuguese explorer Duarte Barbosa used the name Tana-Maiambu: Tana appears to refer to the adjoining town of Thane and Maiambu to Mumbadevi. Other variations recorded in the 16th and the 17th centuries include: Mombayn, Bombain, Monbaym, Mombaym, Bombaiim, Boon Bay, Bon Bahia. After the English gained possession of the city in the 17th century, the Portuguese name was anglicised as Bombay. Ali Muhammad Khan, imperial dewan or revenue minister of the Gujarat province, in the Mirat-i Ahmedi referred to the city as Manbai; the French traveller Louis Rousselet who visited in 1863 and 1868 tells us in his book L’Inde des Rajahs: "Etymologists have wrongly derived this name from the Portuguese Bôa Bahia, or, not knowing that the tutelar goddess of this island has been, from remote antiquity, Bomba, or Mamba Dévi, that she still... possesses a temple".
By the late 20th century, the city was referred to as Mumbai or Mambai in Marathi, Gujarati and Sindhi, as Bambai in Hindi. The Government of India changed the English name to Mumbai in November 1995; this came at the insistence of the Marathi nationalist Shiv Sena party, which had just won the Maharashtra state elections, mirrored similar name changes across the country and in Maharashtra. According to Slate magazine, "they argued that'Bombay' was a corrupted English version of'Mumbai' and an unwanted legacy of British colonial rule." Slate said "The push to rename Bombay was part of a larger movement to strengthen Marathi identity in the Maharashtra region." While the city is still referred to as Bombay by some of its residents and by Indians from other regions, mention of the ci
Indian Institute of Technology (BHU) Varanasi
Indian Institute of Technology Varanasi is a public engineering institution located in Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, India. Founded in 1919 as the Banaras Engineering College, it became the Institute of Technology, Banaras Hindu University in 1968, it was designated an Indian Institute of Technology in 2012. IIT Varanasi has 3 inter-disciplinary schools. IIT Varanasi has been known as the Banaras Engineering College, the College of Mining and Metallurgy, the College of Technology and the Institute of Technology, Banaras Hindu University, its establishment is intimately linked with that of the Banaras Hindu University. The first convocation ceremony at BHU was held on 19 January 1919; the Chancellor of the University, Maharaja Krishnaraja Wadiyar of Mysore who had come to preside over and address the convocation, performed the opening ceremony of the Banaras Engineering College Workshop buildings. An Artisan Course was started on 11 February 1919. BHU has the credit of first starting degree classes in Mechanical Engineering, Electrical Engineering and Pharmaceutics, thanks to the foresight of its founder, Pt. Madan Mohan Malaviya.
The Department of Geology was started under BENCO in 1920. Courses in Mining and Metallurgy were introduced by the Geology Department; the Department of Industrial Chemistry was started in July, 1921. In 1923, Mining and Metallurgy were established as separate departments and in 1944, they were raised to the status of a college forming the College of Mining and Metallurgy. BHU was the first Indian university to introduce the study of Pharmaceutical Chemistry; this initiative was taken in 1932 when a new group of subjects for the B. Sc. Examination consisting of Chemistry, Botany with Pharmacognosy and Pharmaceutical Studies was started in 1934 and in 1935 a new three-year program leading to the degree of Bachelor of Pharmacy was introduced; the science departments of the University were under the Central Hindu College. In September 1935, a new College of Science was constituted comprising the departments of Physics, Botany, Geology, Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Industrial Chemistry and Ceramics. In 1937, the Department of Glass Technology came into existence under this college.
The year 1939 witnessed the establishment of a separate College of Technology comprising the departments of Industrial Chemistry, Pharmaceutics and Glass Technology. In 1968, BENCO, TECHNO and MINMET were merged into one and the Institute of Technology was established integrating the departments of Mechanical Engineering, Electrical Engineering and Municipal Engineering, Mining Engineering, Metallurgical Engineering, Chemical Engineering and Technology, Silicate Technology and Pharmaceutics; the Department of Silicate Technology subsequently became the Department of Ceramic Engineering. A separate Department of Electronics Engineering was established; the departments of Applied Physics, Applied Mathematics and Applied Chemistry were established in 1985. The earlier system of regional admission based on merit lists was replaced in 1972 by admission through Indian Institute of Technology Joint Entrance Examination for undergraduate courses and Graduate Aptitude Test in Engineering for postgraduate courses.
In the tenth meeting of IIT Council in 1972, it was proposed to convert the IT-BHU into an IIT and a committee was appointed by IIT Council for the same but because of political reasons, the desired conversion could not be achieved then. In 2003, Committees constituted by MHRD had recommended for the conversion of the Institute into an Indian Institute of Technology. On 17 July 2008, the government of India issued a press release granting "In principle approval for taking over the Institute of Technology, Banaras Hindu University – a constituent unit of the Banaras Hindu University, a Central University, its conversion into an Indian Institute of Technology and integrating it with the IIT system in the country." The BHU Executive Council approved the proposal of the HRD ministry to convert IT-BHU to IIT Varanasi, retaining academic and administrative ties to BHU. On 4 August 2010 a bill seeking to amend the Institutes of Technology Act 1961 to declare IT-BHU an IIT was introduced in the Lok Sabha by Minister of State for HRD, D. Purandeswari.
The Lok Sabha passed The Institutes of Technology Act, 2011 on 24 March 2011 and the Rajya Sabha on 30 April 2012, thereby formalizing the IIT status of the Institute. The Bill was signed by the President of India on 20 June 2012 and notified in the gazette on 21 June. IIT Varanasi offers four year instructional programs for the degree of Bachelor of Technology and five year programs for Integrated Dual Degree; the IDD program offers both B. Tech. and M. Tech. Degrees. Admission to all programs is expressly through the Joint Entrance Examination conducted by the Indian Institutes of Technology. Earlier half of the intake for Pharmaceutical sciences was through JEE and the other half through BHU-PMT, but after the college was converted into an IIT, intake for B. Tech. and the IDD in Pharmaceutical sciences is through Joint Entrance Exam. Postgraduate courses offer Master of Technology and Ph. D. degrees. Admissions to the M. Tech program are made through the Graduate Aptitude Test in Engineering conducted jointly by Indian Institute of Science and Indian Institutes of Technology.
The admission of students to the institute is through JEE Advanced for undergraduate courses and Graduate Aptitude Test in Engineering for postgradu
In cuisine, an omelette or omelet is a dish made from beaten eggs fried with butter or oil in a frying pan. It is quite common for the omelette to be folded around a filling such as cheese, vegetables, meat, or some combination of the above. Whole eggs or egg whites are beaten, sometimes with a small amount of cream, or water; the fluffy omelette is a refined version of an ancient food. According to Alan Davidson, the French word omelette came into use during the mid-16th century, but the versions alumelle and alumete are employed by the Ménagier de Paris in 1393. Rabelais mentions an homelaicte d'oeufs, Olivier de Serres an amelette, François Pierre La Varenne's Le cuisinier françois has aumelette, the modern omelette appears in Cuisine bourgoise. According to the founding legend of the annual giant Easter omelette of Bessières, Haute-Garonne, when Napoleon Bonaparte and his army were traveling through southern France, they decided to rest for the night near the town of Bessières. Napoleon feasted on an omelette prepared by a local innkeeper, thought it was a culinary delight.
He ordered the townspeople to gather all the eggs in the village and to prepare a huge omelette for his army the next day. On March 19, 1994, the largest omelette in the world at the time was made with 160,000 eggs in Yokohama, but was subsequently overtaken by another, weighing 2,950 kilograms, made by the Canadian Lung Association at the Brockville Memorial Centre in Brockville, Canada, on May 11, 2002. In turn, that record was surpassed on August 11, 2012, by an omelette cooked by the Ferreira do Zêzere City Council in Santarém, Portugal; this record-breaking omelette weighed 6,466 kg, required 145,000 eggs and a 10.3-metre diameter pan. Nargesi or Spinach Omelette, an Iranian dish, is made with fried onions and spinach, is spiced with salt and pepper. Baghala ghatogh, an Iranian dish made with Baghalas, dill and spices. A Chinese omelette can be an oyster omelette. A Denver omelette known as a Southwest omelette or Western omelette, is an omelette filled with diced ham and green bell peppers, though there are many variations on fillings.
Served in the Southwestern United States, this omelette sometimes has a topping of cheese and a side dish of hash browns or fried potatoes. A Hangtown fry, containing bacon and breaded oysters, is an unusual omelette that originated in Placerville, during the gold rush. An egg white omelette is a variation which omits the yolks to remove fat and cholesterol, which reside in the yolk portion of an egg; the French omelette is smoothly and briskly cooked in an hot pan specially made for the purpose. The technique relies on clarified butter in great ratio to the eggs. Good with just salt and pepper, this omelette is flavored with tomato and finely chopped herbs or chopped onions. A frittata is a kind of open-faced Italian omelette that can contain cheese, vegetables, or leftover pasta. Frittata are cooked slowly. Except for the cooking oil, all ingredients are mixed with the eggs before cooking starts; the Spanish tortilla de patatas, or tortilla española in other Spanish-speaking countries, is a traditional and popular thick omelette containing sliced potatoes sautéed in cooking oil.
It includes sliced onions and less other additional fillings, such as cheese, bell peppers, cooked diced ham. In Japan, tamagoyaki is a traditional omelette in which eggs are beaten with mirin, soy sauce, bonito flakes and water, cooked in a special rectangular frying pan; the omelette is cooked by frying a thin layer of egg mixture and rolling it up with a pair of chopsticks to form a sausage shape in one end of the pan. Another thin layer of egg is added to the bottom of the pan and is again rolled, with the original rolled, cooked egg at the centre, over to the other end of the pan; this is repeated until all the egg has been used up, resulting in a dense cylindrical omelette containing many thin layers. This is squeezed into a rectangular or circular cross-section using a sushi mat, sliced into segments for serving. Omelette can mean a Western omelette. Omurice is an omelette filled with rice and served with a large amount of tomato ketchup. Omu-soba is an omelette with yakisoba as its filling.
In Thai cuisine, a traditional omelette is called khai chiao ไข่เจียว, in which the beaten egg mixture and a small quantity of fish sauce is deep fried in a wok filled with 1-2 cups of vegetable oil and served over steamed rice. The dish is served with Sriracha sauce and cilantro. A variation on this dish is khai chiao songkhrueang, where the plain egg omelette is served together with a stir-fry of meat and vegetables, yet another type of Thai omelette is khai yat sai "eggs filled with stuffing". In Parsi cuisine, an omelette is called Pora which consists of eggs, tomato, green chillies, coriander leaves. Had for breakfast with Indian/Irani tea and bread. List of egg dishes List of brunch foods
Christ Church, Oxford
Christ Church is a constituent college of the University of Oxford in England. Christ Church is a joint foundation of the college and the cathedral of the Oxford diocese, which serves as the college chapel and whose dean is ex officio the college head. Founded in 1546 by King Henry VIII, it is one of the larger colleges of the University of Oxford with 629 students in 2016, it is the second wealthiest college with an endowment of £550m as of 2018. Christ Church has a number of architecturally significant buildings including Tom Tower, Tom Quad, the Great Dining Hall, the seat of the parliament assembled by King Charles I during the English Civil War; the buildings have inspired replicas throughout the world in addition to being featured in films such as Harry Potter and The Golden Compass. This has helped Christ Church become the most popular Oxford college for tourists with half a million visitors annually. Christ Church has many notable alumni including thirteen British prime ministers, King Edward VII, King William II of the Netherlands, seventeen Archbishops, writers Lewis Carroll and W.
H. Auden, philosopher John Locke, scientist Robert Hooke. Christ Church is partly responsible for the creation of University College Reading, which gained its own Royal Charter and became the University of Reading; the first female undergraduates matriculated at Christ Church in 1980. In 1525, at the height of his power, Thomas Wolsey, Lord Chancellor of England and Cardinal Archbishop of York, suppressed the Priory of St Frideswide in Oxford and founded Cardinal College on its lands, using funds from the dissolution of Wallingford Priory and other minor priories, he planned the establishment on a magnificent scale, but fell from grace in 1529, with the buildings only three-quarters complete, as they were to remain for 140 years. In 1531 the college was itself suppressed, but it was refounded in 1532 as King Henry VIII's College by Henry VIII, to whom Wolsey's property had escheated. In 1546 the King, who had broken from the Church of Rome and acquired great wealth through the dissolution of the monasteries in England, refounded the college as Christ Church as part of the reorganisation of the Church of England, making the demolished priory church the cathedral of the created Diocese of Oxford.
Christ Church's sister college in the University of Cambridge is Trinity College, founded the same year by Henry VIII. Since the time of Queen Elizabeth I the college has been associated with Westminster School; the dean remains to ex officio member of the school's governing body. Major additions have been made to the buildings through the centuries, Wolsey's Great Quadrangle was crowned with the famous gate-tower designed by Sir Christopher Wren. To this day the bell in the tower, Great Tom, is rung 101 times at 9 pm at the former Oxford time every night, for the 100 original scholars of the college. In former times this was done at midnight, signalling the close of all college gates throughout Oxford. Since it took 20 minutes to ring the 101, Christ Church gates, unlike those of other colleges, did not close until 12:20; when the ringing was moved back to 9:00 pm, Christ Church gates still remained open until 12.20, 20 minutes than any other college. Although the clock itself now shows GMT/BST, Christ Church still follows Oxford time in the timings of services in the cathedral.
King Charles I made the Deanery his palace and held his Parliament in the Great Hall during the English Civil War. In the evening of 29 May 1645, during the second siege of Oxford, a "bullet of IX lb. weight" shot from the Parliamentarians warning-piece at Marston fell against the wall of the north side of the Hall. Several of Christ Church's deans achieved high academic distinction, notably Owen under the Commonwealth and Fell in the Restoration period and Gaisford in the early 19th century and Liddell in the high Victorian era. For over four centuries Christ Church admitted men only. Christ Church, formally titled "The Dean and Students of the Cathedral Church of Christ in Oxford of the Foundation of King Henry the Eighth", is the only academic institution in the world, a cathedral, the seat of the Bishop of Oxford; the Visitor of Christ Church is the reigning British sovereign, the Bishop of Oxford is unique among English bishops in not being the Visitor of his own cathedral. The head of the college is the Dean of Christ Church, an Anglican cleric appointed by the crown as dean of the cathedral church.
There are a senior and a junior censor the former of whom is responsible for academic matters, the latter for undergraduate discipline. A censor theologiae is appointed to act as the dean's deputy; the form "Christ Church College" is considered incorrect, in part because it ignores the cathedral, an integral part of the unique dual foundation. The governing body of Christ Church consists of the dean and chapter of the cathedral, together with the "Students of Christ Church", who are not junior members but rather the equivalent of the fellows of the other colleges; until the 19th century, the students differed from fellows in that they had no governing powers in their own college, these residing with the dean and chapter. Christ Church si