Georges Aleksandrovich Duperron, born 24 September 1877, died 23 July 1934, was a Russian sports journalist, football organizer and one of the founders of Olympic movement in Russia. Duperron was a footballer who played at the first ever match in Russia. It was arranged on 24 October 1897 in Saint Petersburg, in 1901 he was one of the organizers of the first Russian football league, the St Petersburg Football League. After the establishment of Russian Olympic Committee in 1911 Duperron was elected as its first secretary, from 1913 to 1915 he was a member of the International Olympic Committee. Duperron was the first manager of the Russian Empire national football team as the team participated the 1912 Summer Olympics in Stockholm, Duperron published more than 30 books about football, athletics and winter sports. He wrote articles for the sport magazines Samokat, Le Cycliste, media related to Georges Duperron at Wikimedia Commons
Russian Professional Football League
The Professional Football League, formerly the Russian Second Division is the third level of Russian professional football. In 1998–2010, it was run by the Professional Football League, the 2011–12 season was run by the Department of Professional Football of the Russian Football Union. From 2013–14 season the league is run by the Professional Football League. The PFL is geographically divided into 5 zones, Centre, Ural-Povolzhye, the number of clubs in each zone varies between years. In the 2015–16 season, there are 62 clubs in the division, the winners of each zone are automatically promoted to the Russian National Football League. The bottom finishers of each zone lose professional status and are relegated to the Russian Amateur Football League, in the lowest populated East zone, each club plays each opponent three times, while in all other zones traditional home-and-away scheme applies. Professional Football League official website Department of professional football of the Russian Football Union
International Olympic Committee
The International Olympic Committee is the supreme authority of the worldwide Olympic movement. It is an international, non-profit, non-governmental organization based in Lausanne and its mission is enshrined in the Olympic Charter, to support the development of competitive sport by ethical and environmentally sustainable means. The IOC was created by Pierre de Coubertin, on 23 June 1894 with Demetrios Vikelas as its first president, today its membership consists of 100 active members,32 honorary members, and 1 honour member. The IOC is the authority of the worldwide modern Olympic movement. The IOC organises the modern Olympic Games and Youth Olympic Games, held in summer and winter, the first Summer Olympics organised by the IOC was held in Athens, Greece, in 1896, the first Winter Olympics was in Chamonix, France, in 1924. Until 1992, both Summer and Winter Olympics were held in the same year, the first Summer Youth Olympics were in Singapore in 2010 and the first Winter Youth Olympics were held in Innsbruck in 2012.
In 2009, the UN General Assembly granted the IOC Permanent Observer status and this decision enables the IOC to be directly involved in the UN Agenda and to attend UN General Assembly meetings where it can take the floor. This has provided the possibility to promote sport at a new level, during each proclamation at the Olympics, announcers speak in different languages, French is always spoken first followed by an English translation and the dominant language of the host nation. The stated mission of the International Olympic Committee is to promote Olympic throughout the world and it is the IOC’s supreme organ and its decisions are final. Extraordinary Sessions may be convened by the President or upon the written request of at least one third of the members, among others, the powers of the Session are, To adopt or amend the Olympic Charter. To elect the members of the IOC, the Honorary President, to elect the President, the Vice-Presidents and all other members of the IOC Executive Board. To elect the host city of the Olympic Games, the Olympic Laurel is awarded to individuals for promoting education, culture and peace through sport.
For most of its existence, the IOC was controlled by members who were selected by other members, countries that had hosted the Games were allowed two members. When named, they did not become the representatives of their countries to the IOC. The membership of IOC members ceases in the circumstances, Resignation. Non re-election, any IOC member ceases to be a member without further formality if they are not re-elected, age limit, any IOC member ceases to be a member at the end of the calendar year during which they reach the age of 80. Failure to attend Sessions or take part in IOC work for two consecutive years. Transfer of domicile or of main center of interests to an other than the country which was theirs at the time of their election
Russia, officially the Russian Federation, is a country in Eurasia. The European western part of the country is more populated and urbanised than the eastern. Russias capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world, other urban centers include Saint Petersburg, Yekaterinburg, Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a range of environments. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk, the East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, in 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus ultimately disintegrated into a number of states, most of the Rus lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion. The Soviet Union played a role in the Allied victory in World War II.
The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the worlds first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the second largest economy, largest standing military in the world. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic, the Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russias extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the producers of oil. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction, Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. The name Russia is derived from Rus, a state populated mostly by the East Slavs. However, this name became more prominent in the history, and the country typically was called by its inhabitants Русская Земля.
In order to distinguish this state from other states derived from it, it is denoted as Kievan Rus by modern historiography, an old Latin version of the name Rus was Ruthenia, mostly applied to the western and southern regions of Rus that were adjacent to Catholic Europe. The current name of the country, Россия, comes from the Byzantine Greek designation of the Kievan Rus, the standard way to refer to citizens of Russia is Russians in English and rossiyane in Russian. There are two Russian words which are translated into English as Russians
Robert Ferdinandovich Fulda, born 18 April 1873, died 16 February 1944, was a Russian sports enthusiast who is considered as the pioneer of Russian sport. He was born into a family of German merchants, emigrated to Russia in the mid-19th century, Fulda graduated from the Moscow University as a lawyer, but was not interested in practicing his profession. As an athlete, he was interested in tennis and football. Fulda was one of the pioneers of Russian football and the founder of Sokolniki Sports Club, in 1904 he translated the rules of association football and organized the Moscow Football League. At the 1912 Summer Olympics he was the assistant coach of the Russian Empire national football team, in 1914 Fulda became the manager of national team and was elected as the chairman of the All-Russian Football Union. After the 1917 Russian Revolution Fulda fled to Germany and settled in Switzerland
Nikolai Aleksandrovich Tolstykh is a Russian football administrator and a former player. He is the president of Russian Football Union, as a player, he made his professional debut in the Soviet Top League in 1977 for FC Dynamo Moscow. He has been the president of the Russian Professional Football League since its founding in 1992, until 2001 that organization conducted the Russian Top Division competition, and since that year it is limited to Russian First Division and Russian Second Division. European Cup Winners Cup 1979–80,1 game
Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin is a Russian politician. Putin is the current President of the Russian Federation, holding the office since 7 May 2012 and he was Prime Minister from 1999 to 2000, President from 2000 to 2008, and again Prime Minister from 2008 to 2012. During his second term as Prime Minister, he was the Chairman of the ruling United Russia Party, born in Leningrad, Putin studied German in high school and speaks the language fluently. He studied Law at the Saint Petersburg State University, graduating in 1975, Putin was a KGB Foreign Intelligence Officer for 16 years, rising to the rank of Lieutenant Colonel before retiring in 1991 to enter politics in Saint Petersburg. He moved to Moscow in 1996 and joined President Boris Yeltsins administration, rising quickly through the ranks and becoming Acting President on 31 December 1999, when Yeltsin resigned. Putin won the subsequent 2000 Presidential election by a 53% to 30% margin, thus avoiding a runoff with his Communist Party of the Russian Federation opponent and he was re-elected President in 2004 with 72% of the vote.
During Putins first presidency, the Russian economy grew for eight straight years, the growth was a result of the 2000s commodities boom, high oil prices, and prudent economic and fiscal policies. Because of constitutionally mandated term limits, Putin was ineligible to run for a third presidential term in 2008. The 2008 Presidential election was won by Dmitry Medvedev, who appointed Putin Prime Minister, in September 2011, after presidential terms were extended from four to six years, Putin announced he would seek a third term as president. He won the March 2012 Presidential election with 64% of the vote, under Putins leadership, Russia has scored poorly on both the Democracy index and the Corruption index. Putin has enjoyed high approval ratings during his career. In 2007, he was the Time Person of the Year, in 2015, he was #1 on the Times Most Influential People List. Forbes ranked him the Worlds Most Powerful Individual every year from 2013 to 2016, Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin was born on 7 October 1952 in Leningrad, Russian SFSR, Soviet Union, the youngest of three children of Vladimir Spiridonovich Putin and Maria Ivanovna Putina.
His birth was preceded by the death of two brothers and Albert, born in the mid-1930s, Albert died in infancy and Viktor died of diphtheria during the Siege of Leningrad. Putins mother was a worker and his father was a conscript in the Soviet Navy. Early in World War II, his father served in the battalion of the NKVD. Later, he was transferred to the army and was severely wounded in 1942. On 1 September 1960, Putin started at School No.193 at Baskov Lane and he was one of a few in the class of approximately 45 pupils who was not yet a member of the Young Pioneer organization
Russia national football team
The Russia national football team represents Russia in association football and is controlled by the Russian Football Union, the governing body for football in Russia. Russias home grounds are Otkrytie Arena, Luzhniki Stadium and Lokomotiv Stadium, Russia qualified for three World Cups, and they have automatically qualified for 2018 as hosts. They have qualified for five European Championships, led by manager Pavel Sadyrin, Russia were in Group 5 for the qualification campaign for the 1994 FIFA World Cup which consisted of Greece, Iceland and Luxembourg. The suspension of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia reduced the group to five teams, Russia eventually qualified alongside Greece with six wins and two draws. Russia went to the USA to start a new era of Russian football as an independent country, in the final tournament, Russia was drawn into group B with Cameroon and Brazil. This was considered a group with Russia having limited chances of qualifying for the second round. In their first two games Russia lost 2–0 to Brazil and 3–1 to Sweden, teetering on elimination, Russia defeated Cameroon 6–1 with Oleg Salenko scoring record five goals in a single match.
Russia was eliminated from the tournament with three points from one win and two losses, Sadyrin was sacked following what was a poor performance. After Sadyrin was sacked, Oleg Romantsev was appointed coach to lead Russia to Euro 96, Romantsev was expected to qualify Russia for the final tournament and perform well. In his squad he selected many players from the 1994 FIFA World Cup such as Viktor Onopko, Aleksandr Mostovoi, Vladimir Beschastnykh, and Valery Karpin. During qualifying, Russia overcame Scotland, Finland, San Marino, in the final tournament Russia was in Group C with Germany, Czech Republic, and Italy. Group C was considered the group of death with Russia dubbed the weakest team, Russias last game against the Czech Republic ended 3–3. Germany and Czech Republic went on to meet in the final, in the qualifying stage Russia was in Group 5 with Bulgaria, Israel and Luxembourg. Russia and Bulgaria were considered the two contenders to qualify from the group with Israel considered a minor threat.
Russia began the campaign with two victories against Cyprus and Luxembourg and two draws against Israel and Cyprus and they continued with victories against Luxembourg and Israel. Russia suffered their only defeat of the campaign with a 1–0 loss to Bulgaria and they ended the campaign with a 4–2 victory in the return game over Bulgaria and qualify for the play-off spot. In the play-offs, Russia was drawn with Italy, in the first leg Russia drew 1–1. In the away leg, Russia were defeated 1–0 and failed to qualify for the World Cup, after failing to qualify for the World Cup in France, Russia were determined to qualify for the UEFA Euro 2000 co-hosted by Belgium and the Netherlands
Vitaly Leontiyevich Mutko is a Russian politician who has served as Deputy Prime Minister of Russia since 2016. He was the Minister of Sport from 2008 to 2016, Mutko was previously president of the Russian side FC Zenit Saint Petersburg, and is the President of the Russian Football Union. Mutko was born on 8 December 1958 in the village of Kura of Apsheronsky District in Krasnodar Krai and he started working as a technician on shipping vessels in 1977. In 1983, he was selected to work for the committee of Kirov district of Leningrad. He attended the Water Transport Institute in Leningrad, graduating from the River Vocational College in 1987, in 1990, he was appointed as a member of the district council and the head of the district administration a year later. He graduated from the Law Department of Saint Petersburg State University in 1999, in 1992, he became the deputy mayor of Saint Petersburg as well as the chairman of the City Committee on Social Issues. He served in both the positions until 1996 and he moved into sports administration and became the president of FC Zenit Saint Petersburg in 1997.
During his tenure, he oversaw the rise to sporting prominence as well as economic transformation. He founded the Russian Premier League in 2001 and became its President and he was appointed to the committee of Russian Paralympic Committee in 2002 and has chaired committees and charities for helping people with mental disabilities. On 29 October 2003, he became a member of the house of the Russian parliament. He was elected as the President of Russian Football Union in April 2005 and he was appointed as the Minister of Sport and Youth Policy on 12 May 2008 by President Dmitry Medvedev. He was appointed as a member of FIFAs Executive Committee in 2009 and he was the chairman of Russias successful 2018 FIFA World Cup bid. He was reappointed as Minister of Sport on 21 May 2012 by President Putin, on 2 September 2015, he was appointed as the President of Russian Football Union for a second time without any opposition. Although government officials arent allowed to hold top positions in sports organizations, on 19 October 2016, he was appointed as a Deputy Prime Minister of Russia.
His deputy Pavel Kolobkov was appointed to him as the Minister of Sport. Mutko was the chairman for Russias successful bid to host the World Cup in 2018 and he has, been criticised for his comments about the rival English bid, such as by suggesting that English football is corrupt. By way of explanation, he said, What I meant was that sometimes the English media say there is corruption in Russia, Mutko accompanied the Russian team to the Winter Olympics in Vancouver in 2010. Afterwards, a report by the Russian parliaments Audit Chamber criticised him for claiming for a total of 97 breakfasts during the teams stay in Canada