The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991. It was nominally a union of national republics, but its government. The Soviet Union had its roots in the October Revolution of 1917 and this established the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic and started the Russian Civil War between the revolutionary Reds and the counter-revolutionary Whites. In 1922, the communists were victorious, forming the Soviet Union with the unification of the Russian, Ukrainian, following Lenins death in 1924, a collective leadership and a brief power struggle, Joseph Stalin came to power in the mid-1920s. Stalin suppressed all opposition to his rule, committed the state ideology to Marxism–Leninism. As a result, the country underwent a period of rapid industrialization and collectivization which laid the foundation for its victory in World War II and postwar dominance of Eastern Europe. Shortly before World War II, Stalin signed the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact agreeing to non-aggression with Nazi Germany, in June 1941, the Germans invaded the Soviet Union, opening the largest and bloodiest theater of war in history.
Soviet war casualties accounted for the highest proportion of the conflict in the effort of acquiring the upper hand over Axis forces at battles such as Stalingrad. Soviet forces eventually captured Berlin in 1945, the territory overtaken by the Red Army became satellite states of the Eastern Bloc. The Cold War emerged by 1947 as the Soviet bloc confronted the Western states that united in the North Atlantic Treaty Organization in 1949. Following Stalins death in 1953, a period of political and economic liberalization, known as de-Stalinization and Khrushchevs Thaw, the country developed rapidly, as millions of peasants were moved into industrialized cities. The USSR took a lead in the Space Race with Sputnik 1, the first ever satellite, and Vostok 1. In the 1970s, there was a brief détente of relations with the United States, the war drained economic resources and was matched by an escalation of American military aid to Mujahideen fighters. In the mid-1980s, the last Soviet leader, Mikhail Gorbachev, sought to reform and liberalize the economy through his policies of glasnost.
The goal was to preserve the Communist Party while reversing the economic stagnation, the Cold War ended during his tenure, and in 1989 Soviet satellite countries in Eastern Europe overthrew their respective communist regimes. This led to the rise of strong nationalist and separatist movements inside the USSR as well, in August 1991, a coup détat was attempted by Communist Party hardliners. It failed, with Russian President Boris Yeltsin playing a role in facing down the coup. On 25 December 1991, Gorbachev resigned and the twelve constituent republics emerged from the dissolution of the Soviet Union as independent post-Soviet states
2000 Moscow Victory Day Parade
The Moscow Victory Day Parade of 2000 was held on 9 May 2000 to commemorate the 55th anniversary of the capitulation of Nazi Germany in 1945. The parade marks the Soviet Unions victory in the Great Patriotic War, the parade was commanded by Colonel General Ivan E Puzanov, Commander of the Moscow Military District, and reviewed by Marshal of the Russian Federation Igor Sergeyev, Minister of Defence. The historical part of the parade was commanded by the former Moscow Military District commander General of the army Vladimir Govorov, a speech was made by the newly elected president Vladimir Putin. This parade was the last to feature the old national anthem of Russia and these were followed by veterans of the Baltic and Black Sea Fleets of the Soviet Union. Armed Forces of the Russian Federation Border Guard Service of Russia Troops of the Ministry for Internal Affairs Watch the entire parade here, https, //www. youtube. com/watch. v=h0vgIoBXrks
2008 Moscow Victory Day Parade
The Moscow Victory Parade of 2008 was held on the Victory Day on the 63rd anniversary of the Great Patriotic War ending in the defeat of Nazi Germany. This was the first time the Russian Federation opened its vehicle showcase since 1991, the parade was commanded by Army General Vladimir Bakin, Commander of the Moscow Military District, and reviewed by Anatoliy Serdyukov of the Russian Ministry of Defence. A speech was made by the president of Russia Dmitry Medvedev. This would be notable to be the first ever major Russian military parade seen on television worldwide when RT carried a live broadcast of the parade for the first time in its history. Armed Forces of the Russian Federation Troops of the Border Guard Service of Russia Troops of the EMERCOM Internal Troops of the Ministry for Internal Affairs Military academies students. Other armed forces This was the first time in the history of post-Soviet Russia when armoured fighting vehicles took part in the Red Square parade, the Su-34s came from the 4th Centre for Combat Employment and Retraining of Personnel at Lipetsk air base.
3 Tupolev Tu-22M4 Sukhoi Su-255 Sukhoi Su-27 and 4 Mikoyan MiG-29 Training for the parade took two months in Alabino, Moscow Oblast
The Sukhoi Su-30 is a twin-engine, two-seat supermaneuverable fighter aircraft developed by Russias Sukhoi Aviation Corporation. It is a fighter for all-weather, air-to-air and air-to-surface deep interdiction missions. The Su-30 started out as a development project in the Sukhoi Su-27 family by Sukhoi. The design plan was revamped and the name was official by the Russian Defense Ministry in 1996. Of the Flanker family, only the Su-27, Su-30, Su-34, all the others, such as Su-37, were prototypes. The Su-30 has two distinct branches, manufactured by competing organisations, KnAAPO and the Irkut Corporation, both of which come under the Sukhoi groups umbrella. KnAAPO manufactures the Su-30MKK and the Su-30MK2, which were designed for and sold to China, and Indonesia, Venezuela, due to KnAAPOs involvement from the early stages of developing Su-35, these are basically a two-seat version of the mid-1990s Su-35. The Chinese chose an older but lighter radar so the canards could be omitted in return for increased payload and it is a fighter with both air supremacy and attack capabilities, generally similar to the U. S. F-15E.
Irkut traditionally served the Soviet Air Defense and, in the years of Flanker development, was given the responsibility of manufacturing the Su-27UB. When India showed interests in the Su-30, Irkut offered the multirole Su-30MKI, along with its ground-attack capabilities, the series adds features for the air-superiority role, such as canards, thrust-vectoring, and a long-range phased-array radar. Its derivatives include the Su-30MKM, MKA, and SM for Malaysia, the Russian Air Force operates several Su-30s and has ordered the Su-30SM version. While the original Su-27 had good range, it still did not have enough range for the Soviet Air Defense Forces, the Air Defense Forces needed to cover the vast expanse of the Soviet Union. Hence, development began in 1986 on the Su-27PU, an improved-capability variant of the Su-27 capable of serving as an interceptor or airborne command post. The two-seat Su-27UB combat trainer was selected as the basis for the Su-27PU, because it had the performance of a single-seat Su-27, a proof-of-concept demonstrator flew 6 June 1987, and this success led to the kick-off of development work on two Su-27PU prototypes.
The first Su-27PU flew at Irkutsk on 31 December 1989, the Su-30 is a multirole fighter. It has a cockpit with an airbrake behind the canopy. The integrated aerodynamic configuration, combined with the thrust vectoring control ability, results in high manoeuvrability and unique takeoff, equipped with a digital fly-by-wire system, the Su-30 is able to perform some very advanced manoeuvres, including the Pugachevs Cobra and the tailslide. The aircrafts powerplant incorporates two Saturn AL-31F afterburning low-bypass turbofan engines, fed through intake ramps, two AL-31Fs, each rated at 123 kN of full afterburning thrust ensures Mach 2 in level flight,1,350 km/h speed at low altitude, and a 230 m/s climbing rate
Aerobatics is the practice of flying maneuvers involving aircraft altitudes that are not used in normal flight. Aerobatics are performed in airplanes and gliders for training, entertainment, some helicopters, such as the MBB Bo 105, are capable of limited aerobatic maneuvers. An example of a fully aerobatic helicopter, capable of performing loops, the term is sometimes referred to as acrobatics, especially when translated. Most aerobatic maneuvers involve rotation of the aircraft about its longitudinal axis or lateral axis, other maneuvers, such as a spin, displace the aircraft about its vertical axis. Maneuvers are often combined to form a complete sequence for entertainment or competition. Aerobatic flying requires a set of piloting skills and exposes the aircraft to greater structural stress than for normal flight. In some countries, the pilot must wear a parachute when performing aerobatics, aerobatic training enhances a pilots ability to recover from unusual flight conditions, and thus is an element of many flight safety training programs for pilots.
While many pilots fly aerobatics for recreation, some choose to fly in aerobatic competitions, in the early days of flying, some pilots used their aircraft as part of a flying circus to entertain. Among the earliest innovators in aerobatics the Frenchman Euclids name is foremost, maneuvers were flown for artistic reasons or to draw gasps from onlookers. In due course some of these maneuvers were found to allow aircraft to gain tactical advantage during combat or dogfights between fighter aircraft. Aerobatic aircraft fall into two categories—specialist aerobatic, and aerobatic capable, specialist designs such as the Pitts Special, the Extra 200 and 300, and the Sukhoi Su-26M and Sukhoi Su-29 aim for ultimate aerobatic performance. This comes at the expense of general use such as touring. Flight formation aerobatics are flown by teams of up to sixteen aircraft, some are state funded to reflect pride in the armed forces while others are commercially sponsored. Coloured smoke trails may be emitted to emphasise the patterns flown and/or the colours of a national flag, usually each team will use aircraft similar to one another finished in a special and dramatic colour scheme, thus emphasising their entertainment function.
Teams often fly V-formations — they will not fly directly behind another aircraft because of danger from wake vortices or engine exhaust, aircraft will always fly slightly below the aircraft in front, if they have to follow in line. Aerobatic maneuvers flown in an aircraft are limited in scope as they cannot take advantage of the gyroscopic forces that a propeller driven aircraft can exploit. Jet-powered aircraft tend to fly faster, which increases the size of the figures. Jet aerobatic teams often fly in formations, which restricts the maneuvers that can be safely flown
Red Square is a city square in Moscow, Russia. It separates the Kremlin, the royal citadel and currently the official residence of the President of Russia. Red Square is often considered the central square of Moscow since Moscows major streets, the name Red Square neither originates from the pigment of the surrounding bricks nor from the link between the colour red and communism. Rather, the name came about because the Russian word красная, several ancient Russian towns, such as Suzdal and Pereslavl-Zalessky, have their main square named Krasnaya ploshchad. The rich history of Red Square is reflected in paintings by Vasily Surikov, Konstantin Yuon. The square was meant to serve as Moscows main marketplace and it was the site of various public ceremonies and proclamations, and occasionally a coronation for Russias Tsars would take place. The square has been built up since that point and has been used for official ceremonies by all Russian governments since it was established. The relevant decrees were issued in 1493 and 1495 and they called for the demolition of all buildings within 110 sazhens of the wall.
Three square gates existed on this side of the wall, which in the 17th century, were known as, the last two are directly opposite Red Square, while the Konstantino-Elenensky gate was located behind Saint Basils Cathedral. In the early 19th century, the Arch of Konstantino-Elenensky gate was paved with bricks, from this gate and stone bridges stretched across the moat. Books were sold on this bridge and stone platforms were built nearby for guns – raskats, the Tsar Cannon was located on the platform of the Lobnoye mesto. The square was called Veliky Torg or simply Torg, Troitskaya by the name of the small Troitskaya Church, after that, the square held the name Pozhar, which means burnt. It was not until 1661–62, when it was first mentioned by its contemporary Krasnaya – Red name, Red Square was the landing stage and trade centre for Moscow. Ivan the Great decreed that trade should only be conducted from person to person, but in time, after a fire in 1547, Ivan the Terrible reorganised the lines of wooden shops on the Eastern side into market lines.
The streets Ilyinka and Varvarka were divided into the Upper lines, Middle lines and Bottom lines, after a few years, the Cathedral of Intercession of the Virgin, commonly known as Saint Basils Cathedral, was built on the moat under the rule of Ivan IV. This was the first building which gave the square its present-day characteristic silhouette, in 1595, the wooden market lines were replaced with stone. By that time, a platform for the proclamation of the tsars edicts. Red Square was considered a sacred place, during the expulsion of Poles from Moscow in 1612, Prince Dmitry Pozharsky entered the Kremlin through the square
Aero India is a biennial air show and aviation exhibition held in Bengaluru, India at the Yelahanka Air Force Station. It is organised by the Defence Exhibition Organisation, Ministry of Defence and it is the second largest air show in the world after the Paris Air Show. The first edition of the air show was held in 1996, during this Aero India Show, many manufacturers and service providers from the Indian aerospace and aviation industry meet the potential buyers of their products. After 1996, the 4th edition of the air show took place in 2003, about 176 exhibitors from 22 countries all over the world came to grace the show. In the year 2005, more than 380 participants came to the Aero India show’s 5th edition, in this show, many military and civil aircraft as well as aerospace products were displayed. The 2007 Aero India show was held at Yelahanka Air Force Station in Bangalore in Karnataka, the 7th edition was held from 11 to 15 February 2009, and included 592 exhibitors from over 25 countries.
The eighth edition started on 9 February 2011, in recent years, the Aero India has emerged as one of the worlds most important and largest military aviation exhibitions. The Mikoyan MiG-35 and F-16IN Super Viper were unveiled for the first time at the 6th and 7th editions of Aero India respectively, the first edition of Aero India was held in 1996. Since then, the event has earned international recognition, and has seen increased participation from exhibitors since then. The second edition started on 8 December 1998 at the Yelahanka Air Force Base and it was inaugurated by George Fernandes, Indias Defence Minister. It included fly pasts by three Jaguars, three MiG-23s, three HAL Tejas,9 HAL Kiran aircraft of the Surya Kiran aerobatic team, Hawk 200, Mirage 2000 and this was followed by sky diving display by nine sky divers of the Akash Ganga team. The exhibition stalls included displays by Boeing, Allied Signal, Bell Textron, Airbus Industries, Dassault, British Aerospace, HAL, DRDO, ADA, BEL and NAL.
The French and Russian presence was strong, and the highlights were the detailed models of all Boeing commercial aircraft starting from Boeing 717 to Boeing 777. Bangalores third air show opened at the Yelahanka AF Base on 7 February 2001,176 companies from 22 countries participated in the 4th edition of the event from 5 to 9 February 2003 in Yelahanka at the outskirts of Bangalore. It was inaugurated by the Defence Minister of India, George Fernandes, about 50 delegations from the United States, Russia, the Middle East, Asia-Pacific and Africa visited Bangalore for the event. The French delegation was led by the Prime Minister of France, a pair of HAL Dhruv performed their first display, and a composite formation was flown which was led by the Dhruv, followed by a pair of Kiran, Mirage 2000 and Sukhoi Su-30s. The 5th Aero India 2005, the biennial air-show-cum-defence exhibitions, was held at the Yelahanka Air Force Base in Bangalore from 9–13 February 2005. The Aero India 2005 attracted record 380 exhibitors from the leading industries in the field of civil and military aviation, aerospace