2011 Russian legislative election
Legislative elections were held in Russia on 4 December 2011. At stake were the 450 seats in the 6th State Duma, the lower house of the Federal Assembly of Russia. United Russia won the elections with 49.32% of the vote, taking 238 seats or 52.88% of the Duma seats. This result was down from 70 % of the seats in the 2007 elections; the Communist Party of the Russian Federation received 19.19% of the vote and 92 seats, while A Just Russia received 13.24% and 64 seats, with the Liberal Democratic Party of Russia getting 56 seats with 11.67% of the vote. Yabloko, Patriots of Russia and Right Cause did not cross the 7% election threshold; the list of parties represented in the parliament did not change. United Russia lost the two-thirds constitutional majority it had held prior to the election, but it still won a majority of seats in the Duma though it had less than 50% of the popular vote; the Communist Party, Liberal Democratic Party and A Just Russia all gained new seats compared to the previous 2007 elections.
The election received various assessments from abroad: positive from the Commonwealth of Independent States observers, mixed from the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe and critical from some European Union representatives and the United States. Reports of election fraud and voter discontent with the current government have led to major protests in Moscow and Saint Petersburg; the government and United Russia were in their turn supported by rallies of the youth organizations Nashi and Young Guard. The actions of anti-government protesters sparked the fear of a colour revolution in Russian society, a number of the "anti-Orange" protests were set up including one on the Poklonnaya Hill in Moscow, the largest protest action of all the protests so far according to the police; the Central Electoral Commission issued a report on 3 February 2012, in which it said that it received a total of 1686 reports on irregularities, of which only 195 were confirmed true after investigation, a third contained questions about the unclear points of electoral law, only 60 complaints claimed falsifications of the elections results.
On 4 February 2012 the Investigation Committee of the Office of the Prosecutor General of the Russian Federation announced that the majority of videos showing falsifications at polling stations were falsified themselves. Statistical analysis of poll data have shown massive abnormalities that most researchers explain by mass-scale electoral fraud; the threshold for eligibility to win seats is 7.0 percent. In addition, a party which receives between 5.0 and 6.0 percent will get 1 seat in the Duma and those which receive between 6.0 and 7.0 percent will get 2 seats. All seven registered political parties were approved to participate in the elections. Parties which were present in the State Duma were automatically eligible to participate in the elections. Other parties needed to present at least 150,000 signatures to the Central Electoral Commission before 19 October. There was little sign of campaign activity on the ground: few posters, few street agitators, few people gathering at non-United Russia campaign rallies.
Candidates debates were brief and aired at odd times of day and featured strange pairings of parties and not always the top figures on their party lists. The main parliamentary party, the ruling United Russia headed by Vladimir Putin, went into the next elections with a renewed platform. Putin announced the creation of a pre-election People's Front to allow non-party candidates to win election on the United Russia ticket. At the party conference which nominated Putin to the presidency and Medvedev to head the party list leader, the pre-election program was published, with 8 basic guidelines: Modernize the economy, the educational system, the technical-military industry. Fulfill social obligations. Raise salaries and increase grants. Combat poverty and modernize public health services. Eradicate corruption. Achieve transparency in bureaucrat's salaries, state purchases, measures taken by ministries and departments. Strengthen the judicial system on the principles of independence and justice. Make the penal code more humane on so-called economic crimes and toughen punishments for violent crime, most of for all crimes committed against children and for terrorist acts.
Support international and interfaith peace. Fight against illegal migration, ethnic crime, displays of xenophobia and separatism. Support the free growth of all cultures and all confessional traditions of the peoples of Russia. Develop a modern political system which will allow everyone including the smallest social groups to be heard and included in state and social administration processes and to be assured that there are no people without rights or protections in the country. Ensure our internal and external security with an effective police force and a powerful Armed Forces. Raise the prestige of serving in the army, the navy, law enforcement agencies. An independent and rational domestic policy pursues only one goal: to improve the welfare of the people and to guarantee their safety. Our integration projects must create new possibilities for development, for citizens and for business; the customs union between Russia and Kazakhstan is working. A united economic space will become a reality starting January 1 of next year, leading to an deeper degre
Prime Minister of Russia
The Chairman of the Government of the Russian Federation, colloquially referred to as the Prime Minister is the head of the Russian government and the second most powerful figure of the Russian Federation. The official residence of the prime minister is Gorki-9 in Odintsovsky District, Moscow Oblast, but his working residence is in Moscow. Under Article 24 of the Federal Constitutional Law'On the Government of the Russian Federation', the prime minister "heads the Government of the Russian Federation"; the Russian Prime Minister is considered the second highest position in the government, after the President. Due to the central role of the President of Russia in the political system, the activities of the executive branch are influenced by the head of state; the use of the term "Prime Minister" is informal and is never used by the Russian Constitution, Federal Laws and other laws. Until 1905, the head of government was the Emperor. In the absence of the Emperor, the Ministers one by one, starting with the oldest in the rank, each for 4 sessions.
In 1810, the chairmanship was granted to the state Chancellor count Nikolay Rumyantsev, the former Chairman of the State Council. Since 1812, as Chairman of the Committee has evolved into an independent position, which until 1865 coincide with the presidency of the Council of State. Traditionally, the chairmanship of the Committee was last in the public service honorary position appointed by the dignitaries that have become too old to execution of the duties of the Minister. A number of Committee chairmen was characterized by contemporaries as "barely alive", "miserable". Count Modest Korf jokingly wrote about count Chernyshov: "Look, just live!" Duke Pavel Gagarin died in office at the age of 83 years. The modern post of Prime Minister appeared in 1905. By the decree of Emperor Nicholas II on the 19 October 1905 was established the government — the Council of Ministers bringing together the Ministers in one Cabinet; the Chairman of the Council of Ministers became a full-fledged head of government.
The first Prime Minister was appointed count Sergei Witte. Since 1905, the Prime Minister received extensive powers, had the opportunity to pursue their own policies and reforms. So one of the strongest Prime Ministers is considered Pyotr Stolypin, who during his Premiership has held several major reforms. Despite the presence of the State Duma, the Government was not responsible to Parliament. Although Sergei Witte and Pyotr Stolypin at the beginning of his Premiership, tried to form a coalition government of the largest political organizations, they did not succeed. State Duma tried to gain influence on the government the conflict of the state Duma and the government were evident during the Premiership of Ivan Goremykin; the position of Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the Russian Empire, lasted 12 years, during this time, 7 people took this post. The position was abolished after the Russian revolution, the abdication of Nicholas II from the throne and the formation of the Provisional government.
During the Russian Provisional Government in 1917, the official title of the prime minister was "Minister-Chairman of the Russian Provisional Government". This position was held by Georgy Lvov and Alexander Kerensky; the position lasted about six months, after the October Revolution, was replaced by Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars of the Russian SFSR. In the era of the Soviet Union, the head of government was the Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars and the Chairman of the Council of Ministers. People who held those positions are sometimes referred to as the prime ministers, they may have been referred to as Premier of Ministers, or premier. The formal title is the Chairman of the Government of the Russian Federation. In modern Russia the Prime Minister is appointed by the President with the consent of the State Duma; the Prime Minister is responsible to the President and reports to him, however to the State Duma he reports only once a year. After the election of Boris Yeltsin, President of Russia, the head of the government was Yeltsin personally.
He headed the Russian SFSR Council of Ministers for about six months. In fact, Yeltsin was the first Head of Government of Russia after the dissolution of the Soviet Union, however he was not the Prime Minister. After Yeltsin, Yegor Gaidar became Acting Prime Minister, but the Russian Supreme Soviet refused to approve him as Prime Minister. On 14 December 1992, the Prime Minister appointed was Viktor Chernomyrdin; the Russian political system is similar to the modern French system. For the appointment of the Prime Minister the President needs a majority in the state Duma. If the party President does not have the majority and fails to form a coalition, the President may need to appoint a loyalist to the position of Prime Minister. For example this occurred in 1998 when the state Duma (which had most of the opposition to the P
Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin is a Russian politician and former intelligence officer serving as President of Russia since 2012 holding the position from 2000 until 2008. In between his presidential terms he was the Prime Minister of Russia under his close associate Dmitry Medvedev. Putin was born in Leningrad during the Soviet Union, he studied law at Leningrad State University, graduating in 1975. Putin was a KGB foreign intelligence officer for 16 years, rising to the rank of Lieutenant Colonel before resigning in 1991 to enter politics in Saint Petersburg, he moved to Moscow in 1996 and joined President Boris Yeltsin's administration, rising through the ranks and becoming Acting President on 31 December 1999, when Yeltsin resigned. During his first presidency, the Russian economy grew for eight straight years, GDP measured in purchasing power increased by 72%; the growth was a result of the 2000s commodities boom, recovery from the post-Communist depression and financial crises, prudent economic and fiscal policies.
In September 2011, Putin announced. He won the March 2012 presidential election with 64% of the vote. Falling oil prices coupled with international sanctions imposed at the beginning of 2014 after Russia's annexation of Crimea and military intervention in Eastern Ukraine led to GDP shrinking by 3.7% in 2015, though the Russian economy rebounded in 2016 with 0.3% GDP growth and the recession ended. Putin gained 76% of the March 2018 presidential vote and was re-elected for a six-year term that will end in 2024. Under Putin's leadership, Russia has scored poorly in Transparency International's Corruption Perceptions Index and experienced democratic backsliding according to both the Economist Intelligence Unit's Democracy Index and Freedom House's Freedom in the World index. Experts do not consider Russia to be a democracy, citing the lack of free and fair elections and jailing of opponents, curtailed press freedom. Human rights organizations and activists have accused Putin of persecuting political critics and activists, as well as ordering them tortured or assassinated.
Officials of the United States government have accused him of leading an interference program against Hillary Clinton in support of Donald Trump during the U. S. presidential election in 2016, an allegation which both Trump and Putin have denied and criticized. Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin was born on 7 October 1952 in Leningrad, Russian SFSR, Soviet Union, the youngest of three children of Vladimir Spiridonovich Putin and Maria Ivanovna Putina, his birth was preceded by the death of two brothers and Albert, born in the mid-1930s. Albert died in infancy and Viktor died of diphtheria during the Siege of Leningrad in World War II. Putin's mother was a factory worker and his father was a conscript in the Soviet Navy, serving in the submarine fleet in the early 1930s. Early in World War II, his father served in the destruction battalion of the NKVD, he was transferred to the regular army and was wounded in 1942. Putin's maternal grandmother was killed by the German occupiers of Tver region in 1941, his maternal uncles disappeared at the war front.
On 1 September 1960, Putin started near his home. He was one of a few in the class of 45 pupils, not yet a member of the Young Pioneer organization. At age 12, he began to practice judo, he is a Judo black belt and national master of sports in Sambo. He wished to emulate the intelligence officers portrayed in Soviet cinema. Putin speaks German fluently. Putin studied Law at the Leningrad State University in 1970 and graduated in 1975, his thesis was on "The Most Favored Nation Trading Principle in International Law". While there, he was required to join the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and remained a member until December 1991. Putin met Anatoly Sobchak, an assistant professor who taught business law, was co-author of the russian constitution, who would be influential in Putin's career. In 1975, Putin trained at the 401st KGB school in Okhta, Leningrad. After training, he worked in the Second Chief Directorate, before he was transferred to the First Chief Directorate, where he monitored foreigners and consular officials in Leningrad.
In September 1984, Putin was sent to Moscow for further training at the Yuri Andropov Red Banner Institute. From 1985 to 1990, he served in East Germany, using a cover identity as a translator. Masha Gessen, a Russian-American who has authored a biography about Putin claims, "Putin and his colleagues were reduced to collecting press clippings, thus contributing to the mountains of useless information produced by the KGB." According to Putin's official biography, during the fall of the Berlin Wall that began on 9 November 1989, he burned KGB files to prevent demonstrators from obtaining them. After the collapse of the Communist East German government, Putin returned to Leningrad in early 1990, where he worked for about three months with the International Affairs section of Leningrad State University, reporting to Vice-Rector Yuriy Molchanov. There, he looked for new KGB recruits, watched the student body, renewed his friendship with his former professor, Anatoly Sobchak, soon to be the Mayor of Leningrad.
2018 Russian presidential election
The 2018 Russian presidential election was held on 18 March 2018. Incumbent Vladimir Putin won reelection for his second consecutive term in office with 77% of the vote. Vladimir Zhirinovsky from the Liberal Democratic Party was the perennial candidate, having unsuccessfully run in five previous presidential elections. Other candidates included Pavel Grudinin, Sergey Baburin, Ksenia Sobchak, Maxim Suraykin, Boris Titov and Grigory Yavlinsky. Anti-corruption activist Alexei Navalny announced his intent to run in December 2016 but was barred from doing so due to a prior criminal conviction, which may have been politically motivated, for corruption. Navalny called for a boycott of the election, he had organized several public rallies against corruption among members of Putin's government. The incumbent Vladimir Putin was eligible to run, he declared his intent to do so on 6 December 2017, being expected to win. This came following several months of speculation throughout the second half of 2017 as, although he was expected to run for another term, Putin made evasive comments including that he had still not decided whether he would like to "step down" from the post of president, that he would "think about running", that he "hadn't yet decided whether to run for another term".
Different sources predicted that he would run as an independent to capitalize more support from the population, although he could have been nominated by the United Russia party as in 2012, Putin chose to run as an independent. The President of Russia is directly elected for a term of six years, since being extended from four years in 2008 during Dmitry Medvedev's administration. According to Article 81 of the Constitution of the Russian Federation, a candidate for president must be at least 35 years old, hold no dual nationality, have permanently resided in Russia for the past 10 years, cannot serve more than two terms consecutively. Parties with representation in the State Duma are able to nominate a candidate to run for the office while candidates from registered parties that are not in parliament have to collect at least 100,000 signatures. Independent candidates have to collect at least 300,000 signatures with no more than 7,500 from each federal subject of Russia and from action groups made up of at least 500 people.
The nomination process took place during Russia's winter holiday period, 31 January 2018 was the last day for submitting signatures in support of contested access candidates. On 3 March 2017, senators Andrey Klishas and Anatoly Shirokov submitted to the State Duma draft amendments to the electoral legislation. One of the amendments involves the transfer of elections from the second to the third Sunday in March, i.e. from 11 to 18 March 2018. According to article 5, paragraph 7 of Russian Federal law No. 19-FZ, "If the Sunday on which presidential elections are to be held coincides with the day preceding a public holiday, or this Sunday falls on week including a public holiday or this Sunday in is declared to be a working day, elections are appointed on the following Sunday". The second week of March includes International Women's Day, an official holiday in Russia; the bill passed through the State Duma and Federation Council without delay in May 2017 and was signed into law by Vladimir Putin on 1 June 2017.
On 15 December, the upper house of the Federal Assembly, the Federation Council confirmed that 18 March 2018 will be the date of the election beginning the process of campaigning and registration for candidates. This date is significant in the country as it is the fourth anniversary of Russian annexation of Crimea. A total of 97,000 polling stations were open across the country from 08:00 until 20:00 local time. Political parties represented in the State Duma or the legislative bodies of not less than one-third of the federal subjects could nominate a candidate without collecting signatures; the following parties could nominate candidates without collecting signatures: Civic Platform, the Communist Party of the Russian Federation, the Liberal Democratic Party of Russia, A Just Russia and United Russia. On 1 July 2017, Chairman of Rodina Aleksey Zhuravlyov announced that his party would only support incumbent president Vladimir Putin in the election. On 11 December, the leader of Civic Platform Rifat Shaykhutdinov said that his party would support Putin.
On 24 December, the leader of A Just Russia Sergey Mironov stated that his party would not put forward a candidate. Senior party member Mikhail Yemelyanov confirmed. Individuals belonging to a party without any seats in the State Duma had to collect 105,000 signatures to become candidates, while those running as independents had to collect 315,000 and to form a group of activists made up of at least 500 people. Multiple political commentators, including former presidential hopeful Irina Khakamada, talked about the difficulty of gathering signatures without the support of a political party, a hurdle which cast doubt on many of the claims of the large number of people who said that they would run for president as independents. However, according to CEC Chairwoman Ella Pamfilova, the conditions for contested-access candidates were easier than because such potential candidates no longer had to collect 1,000,000 signatures. Pamfilova incorrectly predicted that there could be more candidates in this election than there were in 2000, when 11 candidates contested the presidency.
In July 2017, Party of Growth announced that it would hold primaries t
Chairman of the State Duma
The Chairman of the State Duma of the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation called Speaker, is the presiding officer of the lower house of the Russian parliament. His responsibilities include overseeing the day-to-day business of the State Duma presiding and maintaining order at the regular sessions of the parliament; the Speaker chairs the Council of the Duma which includes representatives from all the parliamentary parties and determines the legislative agenda. The Speaker of the Duma may intervene and express his views but is supposed to be unbiased in his activities at the regular sessions of the parliament; the position Chairman of the State Duma was established in 1906, when the State Duma of the Russian Empire was established. The first chairman was Sergey Muromtsev; this position existed for 11 years. It was abolished together with the State Duma after the Russian Revolution, it was restored after 76 years, after the dissolution of the Soviet Union and the constitutional crisis of 1993.
The first Chairman of the State Duma after the restoration of the post was Ivan Rybkin. Since January 1995, the speaker of the State Duma is a member of the Security Council of the Russian Federation. Current Chairman Vyacheslav Volodin was elected October 5, 2016. According to the 101st article of the Russian Constitution and the Regulations of the State Duma, the Chairman is elected from among its members by secret ballot, using ballot papers of the candidates who have the right to nominate deputy associations and deputies. State Duma may decide to hold an open vote. 5 October 2016: According to Article 11 of the Regulations of the State Duma, the Chairman is allowed to: Preside over the meetings of the chamber.
Vyacheslav Viktorovich Volodin is a Russian politician who has served as the 10th Chairman of the State Duma since 5 October 2016. He is a former aide to President Vladimir Putin; the former Secretary-General of the United Russia party, he was a deputy in the State Duma from 1999 until 2011 and from 2016 to present day. From 2010 until 2012 he was Deputy Chairman of the Government of the Russian Federation, he is a former first deputy Chief of Staff of the Presidential Administration of Russia. Volodin engineered Putin's conservative turn in his third term. Volodin was graduated in mechanical engineering from the Faculty of organization and technology of the Saratov Institute of Mechanization of Agriculture in 1986, followed by a degree in law from the Russian State Service Academy under the President of the Russian Federation in 1995 and a Ph. D. in law from the Interior Ministry's St. Petersburg Institute in 1996 with the thesis, "A Russian Constituent Entity: Problems of Power, Law-making and Administration."
He worked as a assistant professor as well. In 1990 he was elected as a member of the City Council of Saratov. Since 1992 Volodin was the Deputy of the Head of Administration of Saratov, since 1994 deputy chairman of the Saratov Regional Duma and in 1996 he was appointed to the Vice Governor of the Saratov region. In the Russian legislative election in 1999 he was a candidate of the political bloc Fatherland – All Russia. After being elected Volodin became deputy chairman of the third State Duma, from September 2001 he was the head of the Fatherland – All Russia. In 2003 he ran for a seat in the fourth State Duma and was elected as a representative of Balakovo, Saratov region. In the fourth State Duma he was deputy chairman again and appointed first deputy head of the fraction of the ruling party United Russia, founded in 2001. Since 2005 he was the party's Secretary-General of its Council Presidium. In 2007, he was elected to the Russian State Duma in its fifth session; until October 2010, he was once more Deputy of the Chairman of the Duma.
In 21 October 2010 he was appointed Deputy Prime Minister under Dmitry Medvedev. as well as—after the dismissal of Sergey Sobyanin in connection with his approval to the Mayor of Moscow—Chief of Staff of the Presidential Executive Office. In 28 April 2014, following the Crimean status referendum, the U. S. Treasury put Volodin on the Specially Designated Nationals List, a list of individuals sanctioned as "members of the Russian leadership's inner circle." The sanctions ban him from entering the United States. On 12 May 2014, Volodin was added to the European Union sanctions list due to his role in the 2014 Crimean crisis, he is barred from entering the EU countries, his assets in the EU have to be frozen. Since 2009 the author of over 50 scientific publications is the Head of State management School of Moscow University. Volodin has two sons. Eighty-two-year-old mother of Vyacheslav Volodin Barabanov Lidia Petrovna, born April 6, 1936, worked all her life as a primary school teacher - in particular, in the Alekseevka working village in the Saratov region.
According to Rosreestr, as of August 2018, Baradova Lidia Petrovna owns an apartment in the elite residential complex "White Swan" in the Moscow district of Ramenka with an area of 390.6 square meters. Lidia Barabanova owns Dniprovo Holding JSC, Gorodnyanskoye Agricultural Enterprise LLC. For the first time rumors that Volodin could become the new Chairman of the State Duma after the 2016 legislative election appeared before the election. However, this information has not been confirmed. After the 2016 legislative election, the previous Chairman of the State Duma Sergey Naryshkin was appointed Director of the Foreign Intelligence Service. On 23 September 2016, President Vladimir Putin proposed to the United Russia to nominate Vyacheslav Volodin to the post of Chairman of the State Duma; the majority leader Vladimir Vasilyev said that the United Russia faction will support the candidacy of Volodin. Candidacy Volodin supported the faction of the Liberal Democratic Party and A Just Russia. On 5 October Vyacheslav Volodin was elected Chairman of the State Duma, received 404 votes.
His only rival was the communist Dmitry Novikov. In October 2016, he was among the three most influential politicians in Russia by rating of the Center for Political Technologies. According to a survey conducted by the expert-analytical center of RANEPA, the level of recognition of Vyacheslav Volodin is at a high level. 83 % of respondents know. In addition, 78% of Russians have a positive or neutral view of Volodin's activities as Chairman of the State Duma. On 24 November 2016, he was elected Chairman of the Parliamentary Assembly of the Collective Security Treaty Organization and on 26 December 2016 he was elected Chairman of the Parliamentary Assembly of the Union State; as Chairman Volodin began to deal with the discipline of deputies. At first he forbade deputies to vote by proxy for other deputies. In this connection, the deputies have to attend the meetings in person. Fines for missing meetings without a valid reason were introduced. On 6 March 2019, Vyacheslav Volodin, during a meeting of the State Duma, interrupted the report of the Minister of Economic Development Maxim Oreshkin and did not allow him to finish his speech.
Volodin offered to report again in a month. According to some deputies, this case is the first in the entire post-Soviet history of Russia. On 6 April 2019, Volodin proposed amendments to the Constitution allowing the
Russian presidential elections
Russian presidential elections determine who will serve as the President of Russia for the next six years. Since the establishment of the position of the President of Russia in 1991, the presidential elections have taken place seven times: in 1991, 1996, 2000, 2004, 2008, 2012 and 2018; the next presidential election is scheduled for March 2024. Russian presidential elections are governed by the Russian Constitution, the Federal law on basic guarantees of electoral rights and the right to participate in referendums of citizens of the Russian Federation and the Federal law on Presidential elections of the Russian Federation; the provisions of the electoral legislation were evolving, but the foundations of the electoral system remained unchanged. Laws on elections of the President of Russia were adopted 4 times. From 1991 to 2003, before each election a new law was adopted: in 1991, in 1995, in 1999 and in 2003. There is a Federal law "on Presidential elections of the Russian Federation" #19-FZ from January 10, 2003, in the version from December 5, 2017.
According to law, any citizen of Russia not younger than 35 years can be registered as the candidate for President of the Russian Federation, except persons: living in Russia less than 10 years. From all candidates for President of Russia, only 3 were female candidates; these were Ella Pamfilova in 2000, Irina Hakamada in 2004 and Ksenia Sobchak in 2018. In addition, there were other women who ran for president, but for one reason or another were not registered. From all candidates, seven candidates participated in the elections more than once; the record for participation in the elections is Vladimir Zhirinovsky, who six times participated in the elections, from the first election in 1991 to 2018. Gennady Zyuganov and Vladimir Putin were candidates four times each. Aman Tuleyev and Grigory Yavlinsky — three times, while in 1996 Tuleyev withdrew his candidacy a few days before the election, Yavlinsky tried to run in 2012, but was rejected. Boris Yeltsin and Sergey Mironov — twice. Candidates can run as independents.
Political parties represented in the State Duma and/or in legislative bodies of state power in at least one-third of the constituent entities may nominate their candidate without collecting signatures. A candidate from a political party with no parliamentary representation must gather 100,000 signatures, down from 2 million before amendments to the law in 2012. An independent candidate must gather 300,000 signatures; the elections are held on the second Sunday of the month. If this day coincides with a day preceding a holiday day, or this Sunday falls on the week including a public holiday or Sunday is duly announced a work day, elections are called for the next Sunday; the president is elected by direct popular vote in a two-round majoritarian contest: if no candidate receives over 50% of the vote in the first round, the two candidates with the most votes advance to a run-off. The second round is held three weeks after the first; the second round shall appoint with the written consent of the candidate to participate in the second round.
If, prior to the second round, one of the registered candidates to be voted on has withdrawn his candidacy or has left it for other reasons, his / her place shall, by the decision of the Central Election Commission, be transferred to the next registered candidate by the number of votes obtained. A new candidate shall be put to the vote if there is a written Declaration of consent to participate in the second round