click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Russian Republic

The Russian Republic was a short-lived state which controlled, de jure, the territory of the former Russian Empire after its proclamation by the Russian Provisional Government on 1 September 1917 in a decree signed by Alexander Kerensky as Minister-President and Alexander Zarudny as Minister of Justice. Less than six weeks the Republic was overtaken by the October Revolution beginning on 25 October and was superseded by the Russian Soviet Republic; the term "Russian Republic" is sometimes used erroneously for the period between the abdication of the Emperor Nicholas II on 3 March 1917 and the declaration of the Republic in September. However, during that period the future status of the monarchy remained unresolved; the Republic's government was the Provisional Government, although de facto control of the country was contested between it, the soviets, various ethnic-based separatists. Soviets were political organizations of the proletariat, strongest in industrial regions, were dominated by left-wing parties.

Soviets, whose influence was supplemented with paramilitary forces, were able to rival the Provisional Government which had an ineffective state apparatus. The Government's control of the military was tenuous. Seamen of the Baltic Fleet, for example, had far-left views and engaged in political activism in the capital. Right-wing proclivities among the army officers were a problem – Kerensky's attempt to dismiss Gen. Lavr Kornilov led to a failed coup. State Duma of the Russian Empire Council of the Russian Republic Congress of Soviets Russian Provisional Government Directorate Russian Empire Russian Civil War Soviet Union Petrograd Soviet World War I The Russian Republic proclaimed. Presidential Library Browder, R. P. Kerensky, A. F; the Russian Provisional Government, 1917: Documents. "Stanford University Press". Stanford, 1961. ISBN 9780804700238

List of Royal Air Force schools

This is a list of schools within the Royal Air Force, empire flying training scheme and service elementary training schemes, as well as gliding schools. The Royal Air Force operated many schools to train aircrew in the many and various skills required to operate an air force. To train pilots for the Royal Air Force, there have been many flying training schools, which are listed here; as well as powered aircraft, the Royal Air Force has operated a large number of gliders both for military tasks and for Cadet training. Air Cadet Central Gliding School Halley, James J; the Squadrons of the Royal Air Force & Commonwealth 1918-1988. Tonbridge, Kent, UK: Air Britain Ltd. 1988. ISBN 0-85130-164-9. Jefford, C. G. RAF Squadrons, a Comprehensive record of the Movement and Equipment of all RAF Squadrons and their Antecedents since 1912. Shropshire, UK: Airlife Publishing, 1988. ISBN 1-85310-053-6. Lake, Alan. "Flying Units of the RAF". Airlife Publishing. Shrewsbury. 1999. ISBN 1-84037-086-6

Frock coat

A frock coat is a formal man's coat characterised by a knee-length skirt cut all around the base just above the knee, popular during the Victorian and Edwardian periods. It is a fitted, long-sleeved coat with a centre vent at the back and some features unusual in post-Victorian dress; these include the reverse collar and lapels, where the outer edge of the lapel is cut from a separate piece of cloth from the main body and a high degree of waist suppression around the waistcoat, where the coat's diameter round the waist is less than round the chest. This is achieved by a high horizontal waist seam with side bodies, which are extra panels of fabric above the waist used to pull in the cylindrical drape; as was usual with all coats in the 19th century, shoulder padding was minimal. In the end of the 18th century, men abondoned the justaucorps with tricorne hats for the dress coat with breeches and bicorne hats, top hats. However, by the 1820s, the frock coat was introduced along with full-length trousers inspired by the casual country leisure wear frock.

At first early frock coats inherited the higher collars and voluminous lapels of the dress coat style at the time, were sometimes offered in different albeit dark colours. Within its first next few years, plain black soon became the only established practice, with a moderate collar; the top hat followed suit. Although black trousers did occur at daytime, the black frock coat was worn with charcoal grey, pin-striped or checked formal trousers; the single-breasted frock coat sporting the notched lapel was more associated with day-to-day professional informal wear. Yet, from the end of the 19th century, with the gradual introduction of the lounge suit, the frock coat came to embody the most formal wear for daytime. So when double-breasted with peaked lapels, a style sometimes called a Prince Albert after Prince Albert, consort to Queen Victoria; the formal frock coat only buttoned down to the waist seam, decorated at the back with a pair of buttons. The cassock, a coat, buttoned up to the neck, forming a high, stand-up Roman collar for clergymen, was harmonised to the style of the contemporary frock coat.

By the late 19th century, the knee-length dress coat, morning coat and shorter cut lounge suit were all popularised. While the dress coat and the morning coat are knee-length coats like the frock coat and traditionally share the waist seam of the precursor, they are distinguished by the cutaway of the skirt which gives dress coats and morning coats tails at the back. From the 1920s, the frock coat was replaced as day formal wear by the cut-away morning coat. In 1936, it was suspended from the protocol of audiences at the British royal court. While relegated to a rarity in formal wear since, it does occur in certain formal marriages and traditional processions; the name frock coat appeared out from the earlier frock. Earlier terminology used redingote, derived from a French alteration of the English "riding coat", an example of reborrowing. Frock coats emerged during the Napoleonic Wars, where they were worn by officers in the Austrian and various German armies during campaign, they efficiently kept the wearer warm as well as protecting his uniform.

Privates and non-commissioned officers would wear greatcoats on campaign. During the mid 17th century the older doublets, paned hose and jerkins were replaced by the precursor to the three piece suit comprising waistcoat, tight breeches and a long coat called a justacorps, topped by a powdered wig and tricorne hat; this coat, popularised by Louis XIII of France and Charles II of England, was knee length and looser fitting than the frock coat, with turn-back cuffs and two rows of buttons. English and French noblemen wore expensive brocade coats decorated with velvet, gold braid and gold buttons to demonstrate their wealth. Before the frock coat existed, there was another garment called the frock in the 18th century, unrelated to the frock coat, sharing only a similarity in name; the earlier frock was country clothing that became common around 1730. Formal dress was so elaborate that it was impractical for everyday wear, so the frock became fashionable as half dress, a less formal alternative.

By the 1780s the frock was worn as town wear and, towards the end of the 18th century, started to be made with a single-breasted cut away front and tails. It was thus the precursor to the modern dress coat worn with white tie dress code; these relations can be seen in similar foreign terms. The modern word for a dress coat in Italian, French and Spanish is frac. Coats with horizontally cut away skirts like a dress coat were referred to as a frock in the late eighteenth and early 19th century, before being renamed to dress coat; this suggests that the earlier frock from the 18th century is more the direct ancestor of the modern dress coat, whereas the frock coat in the 19th century, the subject under discussion here, is a different garment altogether with separate military origins in the 19th century. However a remote historical connection to the frock cannot be excluded, as is the case with similar looks variably referred to as redingote or riding coat. Other meanings of the term frock include clerical garb and a type of woman's dress combining a skirt with a shirt–blouse top.

The first military frock coats were issued late i

3rd Regiment of Riflemen

The 3rd Regiment of Riflemen was a unit of the U. S. Army in the early nineteenth century, it was first activated in 1814 during the War of 1812 when the War Department created three additional rifle regiments based on the success of the Regiment of Riflemen. The regiment never fought and was deactivated in May 1815; the regiment was activated on February 10, 1814. It was consolidated with the other regiments of riflemen on May 17, 1815. Regimental depots were placed in Charlotte, North Carolina. Fredriksen, John C.. Green Coats and Glory: The United States Regiment of Riflemen, 1808-1821. Youngstown, New York: Old Fort Niagara Association, Inc. ISBN 0-941967-22-0. Heitman, Francis B.. "Historical register and dictionary of the United States Army". War Department. Retrieved August 20, 2014

Common European Framework of Reference for Languages

The Common European Framework of Reference for Languages: Learning, Assessment, abbreviated in English as CEFR or CEF or CEFRL, is a guideline used to describe achievements of learners of foreign languages across Europe and in other countries. It was put together by the Council of Europe as the main part of the project "Language Learning for European Citizenship" between 1989 and 1996, its main aim is to provide a method of learning and assessing which applies to all languages in Europe. In November 2001, a European Union Council Resolution recommended using the CEFR to set up systems of validation of language ability; the six reference levels are becoming accepted as the European standard for grading an individual's language proficiency. An intergovernmental symposium in 1991 titled "Transparency and Coherence in Language Learning in Europe: Objectives, Certification" held by the Swiss Federal Authorities in the Swiss municipality of Rüschlikon found the need for a common European framework for languages to improve the recognition of language qualifications and help teachers co-operate.

A project followed to develop language-level classifications for certification to be recognized across Europe. The CEFR is intended to make it easier for educational institutions and employers to evaluate the language qualifications of candidates to education admission or employment; as a result of the symposium, the Swiss National Science Foundation set up a project to develop levels of proficiency, to lead on to the creation of a "European Language Portfolio" – certification in language ability which can be used across Europe. A preliminary version of the Manual for Relating Language Examinations to the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages was published in 2003; this draft version was piloted in a number of projects, which included linking a single test to the CEFR, linking suites of exams at different levels, national studies by exam boards and research institutes. Practitioners and academics shared their experiences at a colloquium in Cambridge in 2007, the pilot case studies and findings were published in Studies in Language Testing.

The findings from the pilot projects informed the Manual revision project during 2008–2009. The CEFR divides general competences in knowledge and existential competence with particular communicative competences in linguistic competence, sociolinguistic competence, pragmatic competence; this division does not match well-known notions of communicative competence, but correspondences among them can be made. The CEFR has three principal dimensions: language activities, the domains in which the language activities occur, the competencies on which we draw when we engage in them; the CEFR distinguishes among four kinds of language activities: reception,production and mediation. General and particular communicative competences are developed by producing or receiving texts in various contexts under various conditions and constraints; these contexts correspond to various sectors of social life. Four broad domains are distinguished: educational, occupational and personal; these correspond to register. A language user can develop various degrees of competence in each of these domains and to help describe them, the CEFR has provided a set of six Common Reference Levels.

The Common European Framework divides learners into three broad divisions that can be divided into six levels. The following table indicates these levels. A more thorough description of each level, with criteria for listening, reading and writing, is available on the Internet; these descriptors can apply to any of the languages spoken in Europe, there are translations in many languages. Educational bodies for various languages have offered estimates for the amount of study needed to reach levels in the relevant language. Multiple organizations have been created to serve as an umbrella for language schools and certification businesses that claim compatibility with the CEFR. For example, the European Association for Language Testing and Assessment is an initiative funded by the European Community to promote the CEFR and best practices in delivering professional language training; the Association of Language Testers in Europe is a consortium of academic organizations that aims at standardizing assessment methods.

EAQUALS is an international association of institutions and organizations involved in language education, active throughout Europe, following the CEFR. In France, the Ministry for Education has created a government-mandated certificate called CLES, which formalizes the use of the CEFR in language teaching programs in French higher education institutions. In Germany, Telc, a non-profit agency, is the federal government's exclusive partner for language tests taken at the end of the integration courses for migrants, following the CEFR standards. Studies have addressed correspondence with the ACTFL Proficiency Guidelines and the United States ILR scale. For convenience, the following abbreviations will be used for the ACTFL levels: NL/NM/NH – Novice Low/Mid/High IL/IM/IH – Intermediate Low/Mid/High AL/AM/AH – Advanced Low/Mid/High S – Superior D – Distinguished A 2008 statistical study by Alfonso Martínez Baztán of Universidad de Granada based on the performances of a group of subjec

Oleg Timchenko

Oleg Timchenko is a contemporary painter and founder of the "10th Floor Group". He was studied painting at the Tbilisi Academy of Fine Arts. In 1917, shortly after the Russian Revolution, the family of Oleg Timchenko's mother fled to Georgia to escape repressions due to the noble origins of their family, his grandfather was the painter Evgenyi Gulitskii. Gulitskii was a businessman aiding the first Russian aviators and various progressive technologically advanced projects. Oleg Timchenko's father, Ivan Timchenko, was a painter. From Vitebsk, Ivan Timchenko was working in Caucasus, where he met Oleg's mother. Timchenko's brother, worked in a royal chancellery of the Emperor Nicholas II. Oleg Timchenko's ancestors migrated to Georgia from St Vitebsk. For this reason "migration" is the artist’s fate determined by physical resettlement of his ancestors and embodied in his art, his paintings are imitation of "migration" to various countries, epochs and cultural layers, through his personal or genetic memory.

From 1987–1991, Oleg worked as a painter in the Marjanishvili Theater. During this time and his friends created the theater group called "10th Floor Group", composed of Georgian Happening artists. Several Years he established another artist group called "Marjanishvili", his early works of the 1980s are noted with an ascetic expressionism and were replaced by firework expression determined by intensity of color and stroke. Timchenko follows these two trends from the beginning, but with time the margin between them becomes more obvious. Migration plays a part in the Timchenko’s work representing various countries, epochs and cultural layers, through his personal or genetic memory. In general, Timchenko is interested in characters – whether it is Ophelia, the Sphinx, Pontius Pilate, or a dwarf, – and is said to be an empathetic participant of the story rather than a distant story-teller, he makes his characters and attributes in the images of people, toys and objects that turn into the models of his art and he makes up new stories about each of them.

He has been considered a "transformer" artist. Timchenko's works create a whole set of contrasting characters – sad angels, tragic dancing gnomes, wonder-struck forest ghosts with childish and non-childish expressions decorated with roses, precious stones, jewelry. Timchenko employs invention in this process of transformation: Infantas make friends with “dolls”, princes with leopards, Ali Baba with a crane, a toy horse with a childish and naïve expression gallops from one picture to another, his most noted work, "Ophelia" was born from the idea of creating a projection in waters. The themes surrounding Ophelia have a close link to all of Timchenko's work. For him she embodies the paradox of "beauty" and "transitoriness". Timchenko: "I paint neither trees nor leaves. I paint the wind touching the leaves" — in this case the water touching Ophelia. Timchenko realized a more literal version of this idea in 1998 in Prague, where he installed a projector at the Charles Bridge and a canvas of 8 x 3 metres beneath the surface of the Vltava river.

After a subsequent exhibition in Bratislava, he installed a projector over an aquarium of the original size of the painting 1999 in Paris. Oleg Timchenko is a “reactionary” artist and his reaction is compassion, he is interested in and suffers from the "pain" of the latter. His personal feelings are transformed into eternal topics, he touches on the themes involving a drama, strong emotions: love, beauty, psycho-somatic difference, fear, pain. He is a bit grotesque, expressly childish, but not naïve, he rather has a nostalgic approach of an adult toward childhood, having a desire to play and a priority to detect beauty in every happening. Expression was there from the start – as early as in the "tenth floor" period. However, in the beginning the dramatic tension was not so permeated with beauty; this occurred i.e. one vision was enriched with another. The ascetic expressionism of the 1980s was replaced by fireworkish expression determined by intensity of color and stroke; the effect of "firework," i.e. processing of the surface of the picture with paint, creates the effect of'explosion," "pulsation" of a color and gives the picture vibrating visual impression creating illusion of a celebration and fairy tale.

The firework-like style, sometimes with a touch of "kitsch," and minimalism of the style – the artist follows these two trends from the beginning, but with time the margin between them becomes more obvious. The topic of the picture itself dictates to the painter the style, sometimes realistic and surface patterned, sometimes so poster-like and generalized that the image can be presented as a sign or symbol; that is, the "reality is replaced by the signs of reality." As a result of such generalization, the symbol separated from the basic reality, acquires new meaning. Therefore, in Oleg Timchenko's paintings ordinary items, objects or characters maintaining their historic or cultural context become inhabitants of a new hyper-real world created by the painter. At the same time this world contains continuous surprises. Through each new series of pictures the artist extends the "territory" of his works and expands the "map" of his world; the figure tied to the flying crane’s leg from the series of Ali Baba’s journey is the symbol of the artist himself who shares with us his impressions of this "journey" through his works.

2011 – "Come Together", Art Bazaar, New York, New York 2008 – "The Condition", Georgia 2008 – Embassy of Georgia, Holland 20