Count Nikolai Petrovich Rumyantsev, born in Saint Petersburg, was Russia's Foreign Minister and Chancellor of the Russian Empire in the run-up to Napoleon's invasion of Russia. He was the son of Field Marshal Pyotr Rumyantsev-Zadunaisky from the Rumyantsev comital family. During the first years of the 19th century, Rumyantsev was influential with Alexander I and his mother Maria Fyodorovna, serving as Minister of Commerce and President of the State Council; as Foreign Minister, he advocated a closer alliance with France. On receiving the news of Napoleon's invasion of Russia, he lost his hearing; when Napoleon entered Moscow, he advised the Emperor to dismiss Kutuzov and to seek peace at any cost. Alexander lost all confidence in Nikolay Petrovich, who retired in 1814 just before the Congress of Vienna. Nicholas Rumyantsev died on 3 January 1826 in his neo-Palladian palace on English Quay in St Petersburg, his statue stands in front of the Gomel Palace in Belarus. During the years of his foreign service, Nikolay Petrovich amassed a huge collection of historical documents, rare coins, maps and incunabula which formed a nucleus of the Rumyantsev Museum in Moscow.
Showing a keen interest in Russian history, Rumyantsev produced the first printed publications of several old Russian chronicles and ancient literary monuments of the Eastern Slavs. He presided over a circle of young antiquaries that drifted into the Slavophile camp. Rumyantsev became a notable patron of the Russian voyages of exploration, he sponsored the first Russian circumnavigation of the globe. As a result, his name came to be attached to such exotic things as: Spiranthes romanzoffiana, a North American orchid Papilio rumanzovia, a large butterfly from the Philippines Syagrus romanzoffiana, the Queen or Coco Palm tree of South America Romanzoffia, a genus of flowering plants in the waterleaf family from North America Romanzovite, another name for grossular, a type of garnet stone between 1812 and 1842 the Russian name for present day Bodega Bay, California the Romanzof Mountains in Alaska and Yukon territory Cape Romanzof in Alaska, itself giving its name to Cape Romanzof LRRS Airport Romanzov Island, now called Tikei Romanzoff Bay, in La Pérouse Strait
Système universitaire de documentation
The système universitaire de documentation or SUDOC is a system used by the libraries of French universities and higher education establishments to identify and manage the documents in their possession. The catalog, which contains more than 10 million references, allows students and researcher to search for bibliographical and location information in over 3,400 documentation centers, it is maintained by the Bibliographic Agency for Higher Education. Official website
The October Revolution known in Soviet historiography as the Great October Socialist Revolution and referred to as the October Uprising, the October Coup, the Bolshevik Revolution, the Bolshevik Coup or the Red October, was a revolution in Russia led by the Bolshevik Party of Vladimir Lenin, instrumental in the larger Russian Revolution of 1917. It took place with an armed insurrection in Petrograd on 7 November 1917, it followed and capitalized on the February Revolution of the same year, which overthrew the Tsarist autocracy and resulted in a provisional government after a transfer of power proclaimed by Grand Duke Michael, the younger brother of Tsar Nicholas II, who declined to take power after the Tsar stepped down. During this time, urban workers began to organize into councils wherein revolutionaries criticized the provisional government and its actions. After the Congress of Soviets, now the governing body, had its second session, it elected members of the Bolsheviks and other leftist groups such as the Left Socialist Revolutionaries to important positions within the new state of affairs.
This initiated the establishment of the Russian Soviet Republic. On 17 July 1918, his family were executed; the revolution was led by the Bolsheviks, who used their influence in the Petrograd Soviet to organize the armed forces. Bolshevik Red Guards forces under the Military Revolutionary Committee began the occupation of government buildings on 7 November 1917; the following day, the Winter Palace was captured. The long-awaited Constituent Assembly elections were held on 12 November 1917. In contrast to their majority in the Soviets, the Bolsheviks only won 175 seats in the 715-seat legislative body, coming in second behind the Socialist Revolutionary Party, which won 370 seats, although the SR Party no longer existed as a whole party by that time, as the Left SRs had gone into coalition with the Bolsheviks from October 1917 to March 1918; the Constituent Assembly was to first meet on 28 November 1917, but its convocation was delayed until 5 January 1918 by the Bolsheviks. On its first and only day in session, the Constituent Assembly came into conflict with the Soviets, it rejected Soviet decrees on peace and land, resulting in the Constituent Assembly being dissolved the next day by order of the Congress of Soviets.
As the revolution was not universally recognized, there followed the struggles of the Russian Civil War and the creation of the Soviet Union in 1922. At first, the event was referred to as the October coup or the Uprising of 3rd, as seen in contemporary documents. In Russian, however, "переворот" has a similar meaning to "revolution" and means "upheaval" or "overturn", so "coup" is not the correct translation. With time, the term October Revolution came into use, it is known as the "November Revolution" having occurred in November according to the Gregorian Calendar. The February Revolution had toppled Tsar Nicholas II of Russia, replaced his government with the Russian Provisional Government. However, the provisional government was riven by internal dissension, it continued to wage World War I, which became unpopular. A nationwide crisis developed in Russia, affecting social and political relations. Disorder in industry and transport had intensified, difficulties in obtaining provisions had increased.
Gross industrial production in 1917 had decreased by over 36% from what it had been in 1914. In the autumn, as much as 50% of all enterprises were closed down in the Urals, the Donbas, other industrial centers, leading to mass unemployment. At the same time, the cost of living increased sharply. Real wages fell about 50% from what they had been in 1913. Russia's national debt in October 1917 had risen to 50 billion rubles. Of this, debts to foreign governments constituted more than 11 billion rubles; the country faced the threat of financial bankruptcy. Throughout June and August 1917, it was common to hear working-class Russians speak about their lack of confidence and misgivings with those in power in the Provisional Government. Factory workers around Russia felt unhappy with the growing shortages of food and other materials, they blamed their own managers or foremen and would attack them in the factories. The workers blamed many rich and influential individuals, such as elites in positions of power, for the overall shortage of food and poor living conditions.
Workers labelled these rich and powerful individuals as opponents of the Revolution, called them words such as "bourgeois and imperialist."In September and October 1917, there were mass strike actions by the Moscow and Petrograd workers, miners in Donbas, metalworkers in the Urals, oil workers in Baku, textile workers in the Central Industrial Region, railroad workers on 44 railway lines. In these months alone, more than a million workers took part in strikes. Workers established control over production and distribution in many factories and plants in a social revolution. Workers were able to organize these strikes through factory committees; the factory committees represented the workers and were able to negotiate better working conditions and hours. Though workplace conditions may have been increasing in quality, the overall quality of life for workers was not improving. There were still shortages of food and the increased wages workers had obtained did little to provide for their families.
By October 1917, peasant uprisings were common. By autumn the peasant movement ag
National Library of Russia
The National Library of Russia in Saint Petersburg, is not only the oldest public library in the nation, but the first national library in the country. The NLR is ranked among the world’s major libraries, it has the second richest library collection in the Russian Federation, a treasury of national heritage, is the All-Russian Information and Cultural Center. Over the course of its history, the Library has aimed for comprehensive acquisition of the national printed output and has provided free access to its collections, it should not be confused with the Russian State Library, located in Moscow. The Imperial Public Library was established in 1795 by Catherine the Great, it was based on the Załuski Library, the famous Polish national library built by Bishop Załuski in Warsaw, seized by the Russians in 1794 after the Partitions of Poland. The idea of a public library in Russia emerged in the early 18th century but did not take shape until the arrival of the Russian Enlightenment; the plan of a Russian public library was submitted to Catherine in 1766 but the Empress did not approve the project for the imperial library until 27 May 1795, eighteen months before her death.
A site for the building was found at the corner of Nevsky Avenue and Sadovaya Street, right in the center of the Russian Imperial capital. The construction work began and lasted for fifteen years; the building was designed in a Neoclassical style by architect Yegor Sokolov. The cornerstone of the foreign-language department came from the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in the form of Załuski's Library, seized in part by the Russian government at the time of the partitions, though many volumes were lost en route to theft by Russian soldiers who sold them for profit; the Polish-language books from the library were returned to Poland by the Russian SFSR in 1921. For five years after its foundation, the library was run by Comte Marie-Gabriel-Florent-Auguste de Choiseul-Gouffier; the stocks were arranged according to a specially compiled manual of library classification. In 1810, Emperor Alexander I approved Russia’s first library law stipulating, among other things, that two legal copies of all printed matter in Russia be deposited in the Library.
The Library was to be opened for the public in 1812 but, as the more valuable collections had to be evacuated because of Napoleon’s invasion, the inauguration was postponed for two years. Under Count Alexander Stroganov, who managed the library during the first decade of the 19th century, the Rossica project was inaugurated, a vast collection of foreign books touching on Russia, it was Stroganov who secured for the library some of its most invaluable treasures, namely the Ostromir Gospel, the earliest book written in the Old East Slavic dialect of Church Slavonic, the Hypatian Codex of the Russian Primary Chronicle. He, along with other bibliophiles reviewed the collection of manuscripts and letters brought by Peter P. Dubrowsky who had stayed in the diplomatic service for more than 20 years outside the fatherland. Based on the review, Stroganov recommended to Alexander I the creation of a manuscript depot. Alexander decreed the creation of such a department on February 27, 1805, named Dubrowsky as the first keeper of the depot of manuscripts.
The Imperial Public Library was inaugurated on 14 January 1814 in the presence of Gavrila Derzhavin and Ivan Krylov. Over 100 thousand titles were issued to the visitors in the first three decades, the second Library building facing the Catherine Garden was erected between 1832-1835 to accommodate the growing collections; the library's third, arguably most famous, director was Aleksey Olenin. His 32-year tenure at the helm, with Sergey Uvarov serving as his deputy, raised the profile of the library among Russian intellectuals; the library staff included prominent men of letters and scholars like Ivan Krylov, Konstantin Batyushkov, Nikolay Gnedich, Anton Delvig, Mikhail Zagoskin, Alexander Vostokov, Father Ioakinf, to name but a few. Librarianship progressed to a new level in the 1850s; the reader community grew several times. At the same time, many gifts of books were offered to the library. Collection growth rates in the 1850s were five times higher than the annual growth rate of five thousand new acquired during the first part of the century.
In 1859, Vasily Sobolshchikov prepared the first national manual of library science for the library entitled Public Library Facilities and Cataloguing. By 1864, the Public Library held 90 per cent of all Russian printed output; the influx of new visitors required a larger reading room in the new building closing the library court along the perimeter. The visitors were offered such novelties as continuous reading room service by library staff members, a reference desk, printed catalogues and guide books, lists of new acquisitions, longer hours of service in the reading room. An avalanche-like growth of attendance persisted in the second part of the 19th century. Library cards and attendance grew tenfold between 1860 and 1913; the public principle triumphed when the class barriers maintained until the mid-19th century were abolished and the petty bourgeois and women were seen among the visitors. Women were employed by the Library but only as volunteer members rather than formal staf
The Pushkin State Museum of Fine Arts is the largest museum of European art in Moscow, located in Volkhonka street, just opposite the Cathedral of Christ the Saviour. The International musical festival Sviatoslav Richter's December nights has been held in the Pushkin museum since 1981; the museum's current name is somewhat misleading, in that it has no direct associations with the famous Russian poet Alexander Pushkin, other than as a posthumous commemoration of his name and fame. The facility was founded by professor Ivan Tsvetaev. Tsvetaev persuaded the millionaire and philanthropist Yuriy Nechaev-Maltsov and the fashionable architect Roman Klein of the urgent need to give Moscow a fine arts museum. After going through a number of name-changes in the transition to the Soviet-era and the return of the Russian capital to Moscow, the museum was renamed to honour the memory of Pushkin in 1937, the 100th anniversary of his death; the Pushkin State Museum of Fine Arts' building was designed by Vladimir Shukhov.
Construction lasted from 1898 until early 1912, with Ivan Rerberg heading structural engineering effort on the museum site for the first 12 years. In 2008, President Dmitri A. Medvedev announced plans for a $177 million restoration. A Rbn22 billion expansion, developed by Norman Foster in collaboration with local architectural firm Mosproject-5, was confirmed in 2009, but became mired in disputes with officials and preservationists and concern grew that it would not be completed on schedule for 2018. After Moscow’s chief architect Sergei Kuznetsov issued an ultimatum, demanding that Foster take a more active role in the project and prove his commitment by coming to the Russian capital within a month, Norman Foster’s firm resigned from the project in 2013. In 2014, Russian architect Yuri Grigoryan, his firm Project Meganom, were chosen to take over the project. Grigoryan’s design provides new modern buildings and, following the protest of heritage groups who campaigned to save the pre-revolutionary architecture, preserves the historic 1930s gas station near the Pushkin’s main building inside a glass structure.
The holdings of the Pushkin State Museum of Fine Arts include around 700,000 paintings, drawings, applied works and archaeological and animalistic objects. The Department of Manuscripts houses documents on the Museum’s history; the Museum owns studios for a Scientific Library. The earliest monuments from the Museum collection are pieces of Byzantine art: icons; the early stage of development of Western European painting is represented by a small, but impressive, collection of Italian Primitives. The hall of early Italian art was opened on October 10, 1924, but the first original paintings were presented to the Alexander III Fine Arts Museum in 1910 by Mikhail Schekin, the Russian consul in Trieste, include unique Old Master works such as painting by Giambattista Pittoni. After 1924, many paintings from Moscow and St. Petersburg state-owned and private collections were provided to the Museum; these were artworks by Western European painters from the Rumyantsev Museum, as well as the private collections of Sergei Tretyakov, the Yusupovs, the Shuvalovs, Henri Brocard, Dmitry Schukin, other Russian collectors.
Pieces provided by the State Hermitage were of particular importance. However, the gallery was completed only in 1948, when artworks by French painters of the late 19th and early 20th centuries were transferred from the State Museum of New Western Art; the Department of Prints and Drawings was founded in 1924, when the Museum received the holdings of the Printing Cabinet of the Moscow Public and Rumyantsev Museum. In 1861, Alexander II made a valuable gift to the Printing Cabinet: the Moscow Public and Rumyantsev Museum received more than 20,000 prints from the Hermitage; the Department received a number of private collections from Dmitry Rovinsky, Nikolay Mosolov, Sergey Kitaev. During the Soviet period, the Department’s holdings were increased by means of gifts and transfers from other museums. Today, the Department of Prints and Drawings is a solid collection of graphic art pieces that includes around 400,000 prints, books with prints, pieces of applied graphics, bookplates; these were created by masters of Western Europe, America and Eastern countries from the 15th century to modern day.
The collection includes works by famous artists such as Albrecht Dürer, Rubens, Picasso, Karl Bryullov, Favorsky, Utamaro and Hiroshige. The collection of Western European sculptures includes more than 600 pieces; the Museum has expanded its holdings over the years and owns artworks from the 6th-21st centuries. The first artifacts presented to the Museum of Fine Arts were sculptures from Mikhail Schekin’s collections. After the revolution, the Museum received many sculptures from nationalized collections. In 1924, a few painting halls were opened in the Museum; the first original pieces found their places there. Gradual acquisition of original sculptur
Fyodor Mikhailovich Dostoevsky, sometimes transliterated Dostoyevsky, was a Russian novelist, short story writer, essayist and philosopher. Dostoevsky's literary works explore human psychology in the troubled political and spiritual atmospheres of 19th-century Russia, engage with a variety of philosophical and religious themes, his most acclaimed works include Crime and Punishment, The Idiot and The Brothers Karamazov. Dostoevsky's oeuvre consists of 11 novels, three novellas, 17 short stories and numerous other works. Many literary critics rate him as one of the greatest psychologists in world literature, his 1864 novella Notes from Underground is considered to be one of the first works of existentialist literature. Born in Moscow in 1821, Dostoevsky was introduced to literature at an early age through fairy tales and legends, through books by Russian and foreign authors, his mother died in 1837 when he was 15, around the same time, he left school to enter the Nikolayev Military Engineering Institute.
After graduating, he worked as an engineer and enjoyed a lavish lifestyle, translating books to earn extra money. In the mid-1840s he wrote his first novel, Poor Folk, which gained him entry into St. Petersburg's literary circles. Arrested in 1849 for belonging to a literary group that discussed banned books critical of Tsarist Russia, he was sentenced to death but the sentence was commuted at the last moment, he spent four years in a Siberian prison camp, followed by six years of compulsory military service in exile. In the following years, Dostoevsky worked as a journalist and editing several magazines of his own and A Writer's Diary, a collection of his writings, he began to travel around western Europe and developed a gambling addiction, which led to financial hardship. For a time, he had to beg for money, but he became one of the most read and regarded Russian writers. Dostoevsky was influenced by a wide variety of philosophers and authors including Pushkin, Augustine, Dickens, Lermontov, Poe, Cervantes, Kant, Hegel, Solovyov, Sand and Mickiewicz.
His writings were read both within and beyond his native Russia and influenced an great number of writers including Russians like Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn and Anton Chekhov as well as philosophers such as Friedrich Nietzsche and Jean-Paul Sartre. His books have been translated into more than 170 languages. Dostoevsky's parents were part of a multi-ethnic and multi-denominational noble family, its branches including Russian Orthodox Christians, Polish Roman Catholics and Ukrainian Eastern Catholics; the family traced its roots back to a Tatar, Aslan Chelebi-Murza, who in 1389 defected from the Golden Horde and joined the forces of Dmitry Donskoy, the first prince of Muscovy to challenge the Mongol authority in the region, whose descendant, Danilo Irtishch, was ennobled and given lands in the Pinsk region in 1509 for his services under a local prince, his progeny taking the name "Dostoevsky" based on a village there called Dostoïevo. Dostoevsky's immediate ancestors on his mother's side were merchants.
His father, Mikhail Andreevich, was expected to join the clergy but instead ran away from home and broke with the family permanently. In 1809, the 20-year-old Mikhail Andreevich Dostoevsky enrolled in Moscow's Imperial Medical-Surgical Academy. From there he was assigned to a Moscow hospital, where he served as military doctor, in 1818, he was appointed a senior physician. In 1819 he married Maria Nechayeva; the following year, he took up a post at the Mariinsky Hospital for the poor. In 1828, when his two sons and Fyodor, were eight and seven he was promoted to collegiate assessor, a position which raised his legal status to that of the nobility and enabled him to acquire a small estate in Darovoye, a town about 150 km from Moscow, where the family spent the summers. Dostoevsky's parents subsequently had six more children: Varvara, Lyubov, Vera and Aleksandra. Fyodor Dostoevsky, born on 11 November 1821, was the second child of Dr. Mikhail Dostoevsky and Maria Dostoevskaya, he was raised in the family home in the grounds of the Mariinsky Hospital for the Poor, in a lower class district on the edges of Moscow.
Dostoevsky encountered the patients, who were at the lower end of the Russian social scale, when playing in the hospital gardens. Dostoevsky was introduced to literature at an early age. From the age of three, he was read heroic sagas, fairy tales and legends by his nanny, Alena Frolovna, an influential figure in his upbringing and love for fictional stories; when he was four his mother used the Bible to teach him to write. His parents introduced him to a wide range of literature, including Russian writers Karamzin and Derzhavin. Although his father's approach to education has been described as strict and harsh, Dostoevsky himself reports that his imagination was brought alive by nightly readings by his parents; some of his childhood experiences found their way into his writings. When a nine-year-old girl had been raped by a drunk, he was asked to fetch his
Mokhovaya Street, is a one-way street in central Moscow, Russia, a part of Moscow's innermost ring road - Central Squares of Moscow. In 1961-1990 it formed part of Karl Marx Avenue; the street runs from the Borovitskaya Square in the south past Vozdvizhenka Street, Bolshaya Nikitskaya Street and Manege Square, ending at Tverskaya Street in the north. Traffic on Mokhovaya follows a northwards counterclockwise pattern as the parallel Manege Street is closed to regular traffic; the name of a street Moss Street, emerged in the 18th century after the Moss Market that stood on site of Moscow Manege and traded in moss for caulking log houses. The street is much older, dating back to the court of Sophia of Lithuania, wife of Vasili I of Russia. At that time the area was known as Vagankovo. Ivan IV of Russia has set his Oprichnina court south from Bolshaya Nikitskaya Street. In 1780s-1790s the street acquired monumental early neoclassical buildings by Vasily Bazhenov and Matvey Kazakov. In 1812, Kazakov's Moscow State University burnt down and was rebuilt with a different, late neoclassical, facade.
Across the street, Agustín de Betancourt and Joseph Bove erected the block-wide Moscow Manege. In the early 1930s, communist administration has cleared blocks between the street and Moscow Kremlin all the way to Theatre Square. After completion of Hotel Moskva, the large tract of land between it and the Manege was paved into what was known as Manege Square. In 1933-1935, Mokhovaya was the site of a massive subway construction. Here, the westbound trains from Sokolniki interleaved between proceeding straight to Park Kultury, or taking a sharp right turn to Smolenskaya via Alexandrovsky Sad; this arrangement is now impossible, as the construction of Manege Square pit in 1990s destroyed the tunnels between Sokolnicheskaya Line and Alexandrovsky Sad. Construction of the shopping centre blocked all of Manege Square for street traffic converting Manege Street and Revolution Square into large parking lots without through traffic. 3 - Pashkov House, former Rumyantsev Museum, now the Old Building of Russian State Library 5 - Russian State Library, "new" building by Vladimir Schuko 8 - Neoclassical "old Moscow" house, former Mikhail Kalinin museum 9 - Moscow State University with Saint Tatiana Church by Yevgraph Tyurin Moscow Manege, across the University, has an official address at 1, Manege Street 11 - Moscow State University built by Matvey Kazakov in 1784-1790s, restored after the Fire of Moscow by Domenico Giliardi and Afanasy Grigoriev 13 - Neo-Renaissance Mokhovaya Building by Ivan Zholtovsky.
This early stalinist architecture landmark was "restored" by facadist methodes, leaving only the exterior wall intact. Intended as apartment building, in the 1940s it housed the United States Embassy and Intourist. 15 - Hotel National Russian: П.В.Сытин, "Из истории московских улиц", М, 1948 Russian: "Москва начала века", М, ООО "O-Мастер", 2001 ISBN 5-9207-0001-7