Pacific Fleet (Russia)
The Pacific Fleet is the Russian Navy fleet in the Pacific Ocean. Established in 1731 as part of the Imperial Russian Navy, the fleet was known as the Okhotsk Military Flotilla and Siberian Military Flotilla, formed to defend Russian interests in the Russian Far East region along the Pacific coast. In 1918 the fleet was inherited by the Russian SFSR the Soviet Union in 1922 as part of the Soviet Navy, being reformed several times before being disbanded in 1926. In 1932 it was re-established as the Pacific Fleet, was known as the Red Banner Pacific Fleet after World War II as it had earned the Order of the Red Banner. In the Soviet years, the fleet was responsible for the Soviet Navy's operations in the Indian Ocean and Arabian Sea. Following the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, the Red Banner Pacific Fleet was inherited by the Russian Federation as part of the Russian Navy and its current name was adopted; the Pacific Fleet's headquarters is located in Vladivostok, with numerous facilities within the Peter the Great Gulf in Primorsky Krai, Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky and Vilyuchinsk in Avacha Bay on the Kamchatka Peninsula in Kamchatka Krai.
Following the APEC Russia 2012 summit, it was announced that the main naval base of the Pacific Fleet in the Russian Far East will be moved to the town of Fokino, Primorsky Krai. The current commander is Admiral Sergei Avakyants, who has held the position since May 2012. In 1731, the Imperial Russian Navy created the Okhotsk Military Flotilla under its first commander, Grigoriy Skornyakov-Pisarev, to patrol and transport government goods to and from Kamchatka. In 1799, 3 frigates and 3 smaller ships were sent to Okhotsk under the command of Rear-Admiral I. Fomin to form a functioning military flotilla. In 1849, Petropavlovsk-na-Kamchatke became the Flotilla's principal base, which a year would be transferred to Nikolayevsk-on-Amur and to Vladivostok in 1871. In 1854, the men of the Flotilla distinguished themselves in the defense of Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy during the Crimean War. In 1856, the Okhotsk Military Flotilla changed its name to the "Siberian Military Flotilla". In 1860, the provisions of the Convention of Peking ceded parts of Outer Manchuria in northeastern China, including the modern day Primorsky Krai to the Russian Empire.
A large squadron under Rear Admiral A. A. Popov was sent from the Baltic Fleet to the Pacific Ocean. During the American Civil War ships of the squadron visited San Francisco while the Baltic Fleet visited New York City. Parts of the squadron, including the Finnish corvette Kalevala, returned to the Baltic in 1865. At the turn of the 19th century, the Flotilla was still small in numbers. Owing to a gradual deterioration in Russo-Japanese relations, the Imperial Russian government adopted a special shipbuilding program to meet the needs of the Russian Far East region, but its execution dragged on and in addition there were several clashes and defeats between Russian and Imperial Japanese Navy vessels. In response, the Naval headquarters in St. Petersburg ordered the Baltic Fleet to the Pacific to reinforce Russian naval forces the Pacific Squadron on the east coast of Asia and its naval base at Port Arthur. By the beginning of the Russo-Japanese War of 1904-1905, Imperial Russian naval forces in the Far East consisted of the 1st Pacific Squadron and a number of ships from the "Siberian Military Flotilla", based in Port Arthur.
Other ships of the "Siberian Military Flotilla" were stationed in Vladivostok. During the Russo-Japanese War, most of the Russian Navy in the Pacific was destroyed; the Russian Baltic Fleet under Admiral Zinovy Rozhestvensky, renamed the Second Pacific Squadron, was defeated at the Battle of Tsushima. During the Russian Revolution of 1905, the sailors of the Pacific Fleet were engaged in the revolutionary movement, participating in armed revolts in Vladivostok in January 1906 and October 1907. During the October Revolution of 1917, the sailors of the Siberian and Amur military flotillas fought for the establishment of Soviet authority in the Far East and against the White army and interventionists. During the Russian Civil War all of the ships of the Pacific Fleet were seized by the White army and the Japanese. After the departure of the interventionists in 1922, the Soviets created the Naval Forces of the Far East, under commander Ivan Kozhanov, as a part of the Vladivostok unit, the Amur Military Flotilla.
In 1926, these were disbanded: the Vladivostok unit was transferred to the command of the frontier troops in the Far East, the Amur flotilla became a flotilla of its own. Owing to Japanese aggression in Manchuria in 1931, the Central Committee and the Soviet government decided to create the Naval Forces in the Far East on 13 April 1932. In January 1935, they were renamed the Pacific Fleet, under commander M. Viktorov; the creation of the fleet entailed great difficulties. The first units were formed with small ships delivered by railroad. In 1932, the torpedo boat squadron and eight submarines were put into service. In 1934, the Pacific Fleet received 26 small submarines; the creation of the naval aviation and coastal artillery was underway. In 1937, they opened the Pacific Military School. By the beginning of World War II, the Pacific Fleet had two surface ship subdivisions, four submarine subdivisions, one torpedo boat subdivision, a few squadrons of ships and
The Indian Navy is the naval branch of the Indian Armed Forces. The President of India is the Supreme Commander of the Indian Navy; the Chief of Naval Staff, a four-star admiral, commands the navy. The Indian Navy traces its origins back to the East India Company's Marine, founded in 1612 to protect British merchant shipping in the region. In 1793, the East India Company established its rule over eastern part of the Indian subcontinent i.e. Bengal, but it was not until 1830 that the colonial navy was titled as His Majesty's Indian Navy; when India became a republic in 1950, the Royal Indian Navy as it had been named since 1934 was renamed to Indian Navy. The primary objective of the navy is to safeguard the nation's maritime borders, in conjunction with other Armed Forces of the union, act to deter or defeat any threats or aggression against the territory, people or maritime interests of India, both in war and peace. Through joint exercises, goodwill visits and humanitarian missions, including disaster relief, Indian Navy promotes bilateral relations between nations.
As of 1 July 2017, 67,228 personnel are in service with the Navy. As of March 2018, the operational fleet consists of one aircraft carrier, one amphibious transport dock, eight landing ship tanks, 11 destroyers, 13 frigates, one nuclear-powered attack submarine, one ballistic missile submarine, 14 conventionally-powered attack submarines, 22 corvettes, one mine countermeasure vessel, four fleet tankers and various other auxiliary vessels; the maritime history of India dates back to 6,000 years with the birth of art of the navigation and navigating during the Indus Valley Civilisation. A Kutch mariner's log book from 19th century recorded that the first tidal dock India has been built at Lothal around 2300 BC during the Indus Valley Civilisation, near the present day harbour of Mangrol on the Gujarat coast; the Rig Veda, credits Varuna, the Hindu god of water and the celestial ocean, with knowledge of the ocean routes and describes the use of ships having hundred oars in the naval expeditions by Indians.
There are references to the side wings of a ship called Plava, which stabilizes the vessel during storms. Plava is considered to be the precursor of modern-day stabilizers; the first use of mariner's compass, called as Matsya Yantra, was recorded in 4 and 5 AD. Alexander the Great during his conquest over India, built a harbour at Patala, his army retreated to Mesopotamia on the ships built at Sindh. In the of his conquest, records show that the Emperor of Maurya Empire, Chandragupta Maurya, as a part of war office, established an Admiralty Division under the Superintendent of Ships. Many historians from ancient India recorded the Indian trade relations with many countries, with countries as far as Java and Sumatra. There were references to the trade routes of countries in the Pacific and Indian Ocean. India had trade relations with the Greeks and the Romans. At one instance Roman historian Gaius Plinius Secundus mentioned of Indian traders carrying away large masses of gold and silver from Rome, in payment for skins, precious stones, indigo, herbs and spices.
During 5–10 AD, the Kalinga and the Vijayanagara Empires conquered Western Java and Malaya. The Andaman and Nicobar Islands served as an important halt point for trade ships en route to these nations and as well as China. During 844 -- 848 AD. During 984–1042 AD, under the reign of Raja Raja Chola I, Rajendra Chola I and Kulothunga Chola I, the naval expedition by Chola dynasty captured lands of Burma, Sri Lanka, Malaya, repressing pirate activities by Sumatran warlords. During 14th and 15th centuries, Indian shipbuilding skills and their maritime ability was sophisticated enough to produce ships with a capacity to carry over hundred men. Ships had compartments included in their design, so that if one compartment was damaged, the ship would remain afloat; these features of were developed by Indians before Europeans were aware of the idea. However, by the end of thirteenth century Indian naval power had started to decline, had reached its low by the time the Portuguese entered India. Soon after they set foot in India, the Portuguese started to hunt down all Asian vessels not permitting their trade.
Amidst this, in 1529, a naval war at Bombay Harbour resulted in the surrender of Thane and Bandora. By 1534, the Portuguese took complete control over the Bombay Harbour; the Zamorin of Calicut challenged the Portuguese trade when Vasco da Gama refused to pay the customs levy as per the trade agreement. This resulted in two major naval wars, the first one—Battle of Cochin, was fought in 1504, the second engagement happened four years off Diu. Both these wars, exposed the weakness of Indian maritime power and helped the Portuguese to gain mastery over the Indian waters. In the seventeenth century Indian naval power observed remarkable revival; the alliance of the Moghuls and the Sidis of Janjira was marked as a major power on the west coast. On the southern front, the 1st Sovereign of the Maratha Empire, Shivaji Bhosale, started creating his own fleet, his fleet was commanded by notable admirals like Kanhoji Angre. The Maratha Navy under the leadership of Angre kept the English and Portuguese away from the Konkan coast.
However, the Marathas witnessed remarkable decline in their naval capabilities following the death of Angre in 1729. The origins of the Indian Navy date to 1612, when an English vessel under the command of Captain Best encountered the Portuguese. Although the Portuguese were defeated, this incident along with the trouble caused by the pirates to th
Russian destroyer Admiral Chabanenko
Admiral Chabanenko is an Udaloy II-class anti-submarine destroyer of the Russian Navy. The destroyer was laid down in 1989, during the Soviet period, was finished by Russia 10 years after the dissolution of the Soviet Union. In 1999 she deployed with the Northern Fleet; the Admiral Chabanenko is the sole vessel of the Project 1155.1 design, a modified version of the Project 1155 design called Udaloy class. The design is known as the Udaloy II class; the ship includes updated weapon systems like the SS-N-22 anti-ship missile and the "Zvezda" M-2 series sonar system. She is named after Admiral Andrei Chabanenko, commander of the Northern Fleet between 1952 and 1962. In 2008 the Admiral Chabanenko became the first Russian warship to sail through the Panama Canal since World War II, while participating in joint exercises with the Venezuelan Navy. In late 2009 she and the Black Sea Fleet's rescue tug Shakhter deployed off the Horn of Africa, as part of the anti-piracy measures off the Somalian coast.
Both vessels sailed to Norfolk Naval Base to participate in FRUKUS 2011, a series of joint exercises between the Russian, British and US navies, held between 23 and 30 June 2011. In December 2013 Admiral Chabanenko docked at the 35th ship repair plant in Murmansk to undergo the overhaul of her engines; the repairs were expanded in August 2017 into a more thorough overhaul and refit of the ship, expected to be completed in December 2019
Sharri Markson is an Australian journalist. She is National Political Editor for The Daily Telegraph. Markson was raised in Sydney, her father is Max Markson. She worked for The Sunday Telegraph, where she was twice named News Limited's Young Journalist of the Year, she joined the Seven Network in 2011, was part of a team of journalists who won a Walkley award for TV news reporting. Markson was Australian editor of Cleo for one year in 2013. While editor, she made the decision to no longer mention sex on the magazine's cover. Markson became media editor of The Australian newspaper in February 2014. There she was "noted for her aggressive pursuit of stories involving the ABC and Fairfax Media." She shifted to a senior writing role in 2015, in September 2016 was appointed National Political Editor for The Daily Telegraph. Markson has at times engaged in undercover journalism. While working for The Sun in London she posed as a PR executive requiring an escort in order to report on high-end male prostitutes.
In 2005, she visited a hospital ward "looking upset, with a bunch of flowers" in order to interview John Tulloch, a survivor of the 7/7 London bombings. In 2014, Markson went undercover at Sydney universities, she alleged. Markson was the first journalist to disclose Barnaby Joyce's "love child", which led to his resignation as Australia's deputy prime minister. In June 2018, she attended the AIJAC sponsored Rambam Fellowship Program in Israel, along with other journalists and politicians. According to The Australian Jewish News, "she found Israel to be an eye-opening experience as a journalist, but discovered a deep emotional awakening inside her as an Australian Jew while visiting the Western Wall for the first time". Markson's work has attracted controversy. In November 2015, she was detained by Israeli security officials for breaching protocol during a visit to the Ziv Medical Centre in Safed. In February 2016, Shaoquett Moselmane, a Labor member of the New South Wales Legislative Council sued Markson for defamation after she accused him of making racist comments.
Markson began hosting a self-titled weekly program on Sky News Live from 9 October 2018. The debut episode of Sharri was watched by less than 20,000 viewers Nationally making it one of the least-viewed program debuts in Australian media history. Sharri Markson on Twitter
The MV Butiraoi was a 17.5-metre wooden catamaran that operated as a ferry in Kiribati. On 18 January 2018, it left the island of Nonouti carrying 88 passengers. Bound for Betio, the ferry was planned to make the 240-kilometre voyage in two days. According to survivors the overloaded ferry sank; the ferry was reported missing on the 19th. On 26 January, Kiribati notified authorities in Fiji and New Zealand who, along with multiple fishing vessels, searched the areas surrounding the ferry's planned path. Australia and the US joined in the aerial search in the days. Two days a Royal New Zealand Air Force Orion patrol plane spotted a wooden dinghy containing seven passengers of the Butiraoi who were rescued by a nearby fishing vessel; the aerial search was called off on 1 February, with some fishing vessels continuing the search. No further passengers were found; the ship's owner, Kirennang Tokiteba, in an interview with Michael Morrah, blamed the captain for running the ship aground a few days prior to the sinking, damaging the ship's propeller shaft.
A survey done to assess the damage to the ship had found several problems with the ship, stated that the ship was not to carry passengers. Tokiteba told Morrah that the captain defied those orders, boarding 88 people, including 5 crew members, despite the fact that during normal operations, the ship's maximum capacity was 69 passengers; the ship was carrying 35-tonne of coconuts, well in excess of cargo limits. The Kiribati maritime director was placed in charge of completing the official report expected for late February to early March. However, on 14 March 2018, the Kiribati government asked for help from New Zealand, who sent over three investigators from the New Zealand Transport Accident Investigation Commission. Following the sinking, the Kiribati government faced considerable criticism for purposefully obstructing foreign journalists who came to report on the incident. A team from the Australian Broadcasting Corporation was told by the Kiribati government they were not welcome and Newshub journalist Michael Morrah had his passport confiscated upon his arrival in the country.
Morrah's team, after recording interviews with survivors, was interrogated by immigration officials and forced to delete the footage of the interview. 2009 Kiribati ferry accident A similar accident taking place 9 years before that involved an I-Kiribati ferry
Black Sea Fleet
The Black Sea Fleet is the fleet of the Russian Navy in the Black Sea, the Sea of Azov and the Mediterranean Sea. The fleet is considered to have been founded by Prince Potemkin on May 13, 1783. In 1918, the fleet was inherited by the Russian SFSR the Soviet Union in 1922, where it became part of the Soviet Navy. Following the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, the Black Sea Fleet and most of its vessels were inherited by the Russian Federation; the Black Sea Fleet's official primary headquarters and facilities are located in the city of Sevastopol. The remainder of the fleet's facilities are based in various locations on the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov, including Krasnodar Krai, Rostov Oblast and Crimea; the current commander is Vice Admiral Aleksandr Moiseev, who has held the position since June 2018. The Black Sea Fleet is considered to have been founded by Prince Potemkin on May 13, 1783, together with its principal base, the city of Sevastopol. Commanded by such legendary admirals as Dmitriy Senyavin and Pavel Nakhimov, it is a fleet of enormous historical and political importance for Russia.
In 1790, Russian naval forces under the command of Admiral Fyodor Ushakov defeated the Turkish fleet at the Battle of Kerch Strait. From 1841 onward, the fleet was confined to the Black Sea by the London Straits Convention; as a result of the Crimean War, one provision of the Treaty of Paris was that the Black Sea was to be a demilitarized zone like the Island of Åland in the Baltic Sea, although Russia subsequently renounced the treaty and reconstituted its naval strength and fortifications in the Black Sea. The crew of the battleship Potemkin revolted in 1905 soon after the Navy's defeat in the Russo-Japanese War. Lenin wrote that the Potemkin uprising had had a huge importance in terms of being the first attempt at creating the nucleus of a revolutionary army. During World War I, there were a number of encounters between the Russian and Ottoman navies in the Black Sea; the Ottomans had the advantage due to their having under their command the German battlecruiser SMS Goeben, but after the two modern Russian dreadnoughts Imperatritsa Mariya and Imperatritsa Ekaterina Velikaya had been built in Mykolaiv, the Russians took command of the sea until the Russian government collapsed in November 1917.
German submarines of the Constantinople Flotilla and Turkish light forces would continue to raid and harass Russian shipping until the war's end. During the Russian Civil War, the vast majority of the Black Sea Fleet was scuttled by Bolsheviks in Novorossiysk. In 1919 out of the remnants of the Russian Imperial Fleet was established the Red Fleet of Ukraine which existed few months before a major advance of the Armed Forces of South Russia which occupied all the South and East Ukraine. Most of the ships became part of the "Russian Squadron" of Wrangl's armed forces and after the evacuation sailed to Tunisia. Out of those ships, some were passed to the French Navy and some were salvaged. Upon the defeat of the Armed Forces of South Russia, the Ukrainian National Army and the Polish Armed Forces in Ukraine the Soviet government signed a military union with the Russian SFSR transferring all the command to the Commander-in-chief of Russia. Few ships that did stay in Black Sea were salvaged in the 1920s, while a large scale new construction programme began in the 1930s.
Over 500 new ships were built during that period as well as massive expansion of coastal infrastructure took place. The Fleet was commanded by Vice Admiral F. S. Oktyabrskiy on the outbreak of war with Germany in June 1941; the Fleet gave a credible account of itself as it fought alongside the Red Army during the Siege of Odessa and the Battle of Sevastopol. In 1952, Turkey decided to join NATO, placing the Bosporus Strait in the Western sphere of influence. Together with the advent of long-range nuclear weapons, this decreased the strategic value of any naval activity in the Black Sea. In the post-war period, along with the Northern Fleet, the Black Sea Fleet provided ships for the 5th Operational Squadron in the Mediterranean, which confronted the United States Navy during the Arab-Israeli wars, notably during the Yom Kippur War in 1973. In 1988 Coastal Troops and Naval Aviation units of the Black Sea Fleet included: Danube Flotilla: 116th River Ship Brigade 112th Reconnaissance Ship Brigade 37th Rescue Ship Brigade Marine and Coastal Defense Forces Department 810th Marine Brigade 362nd independent Coastal Missile Regiment 138th independent Coastal Missile Regiment 417th independent Coastal Missile Regiment 51st independent Coastal Missile Regiment Naval Air Forces Department of the Black Sea Fleet 2nd Guards Maritime Missile Aviation Division (three regiments of maritime attack Tu-22M2s5th Maritime Missile Aviation Regiment - disbanded 15.11.94.
124th Maritime Missile Aviation Regiment - disbanded 1993. 943rd Maritime Missile Aviation Regiment - disbanded 1996. 30th independent Maritime Reconnaissance Aviation Regiment 318th independent Anti-Submarine Aviation Regiment 78th independent Shipborne Anti-Submarine Helicopter Regiment 8