A wharf, staith or staithe is a structure on the shore of a harbor or on the bank of a river or canal where ships may dock to load and unload cargo or passengers. Such a structure includes one or more berths, may include piers, warehouses, or other facilities necessary for handling the ships. Wharfs are considered to be a series of docks in which boats are stationed. A wharf comprises a fixed platform on pilings. Commercial ports may have warehouses that serve as interim storage: where it is sufficient a single wharf with a single berth constructed along the land adjacent to the water is used. A pier, raised over the water rather than within it, is used for cases where the weight or volume of cargos will be low. Smaller and more modern wharves are sometimes built on flotation devices to keep them at the same level as the ship during changing tides. In everyday parlance the term quay is common in the United Kingdom, Canada and many other Commonwealth countries, the Republic of Ireland, whereas the term wharf is more common in the United States.
In some contexts wharf and quay may be used to mean berth, or jetty. In old ports such as London many old wharves have been converted to residential or office use. Certain early railways in England referred to goods loading points as "wharves"; the term was carried over from marine usage. The person, resident in charge of the wharf was referred to as a "wharfinger". One explanation is that the word wharf comes from the Old English "warft" or the Old Dutch word "werf", which both evolved to mean "yard", an outdoor place where work is done, like a shipyard or a lumberyard. Werf or werva in Old Dutch referred to inhabited ground, not yet built on, or alternatively to a terp; this could explain the name Ministry Wharf located at Saunderton, just outside High Wycombe, nowhere near any body of water. In support of this explanation is the fact that many places in England with "wharf" in their names are in areas with a high Dutch influence, for example the Norfolk broads. In the northeast and east of England the term staith or staithe is used.
The two terms have had a geographical distinction: those to the north in the Kingdom of Northumbria used the Old English spelling staith, southern sites of the Danelaw took the Danish spelling staithe. Both referred to jetties or wharves. In time, the northern coalfields of Northumbria developed coal staiths for loading coal onto ships and these would adopt the staith spelling as a distinction from simple wharves: for example, Dunston Staiths in Gateshead and Brancaster Staithe in Norfolk. However, the term staith may be used to refer only to loading chutes or ramps used for bulk commodities like coal in loading ships and barges. Quay, on the other hand, has its origin in the Proto-Celtic language. Before it changed to its current form under influence of the modern French quai, its Middle English spelling was key, keye or caye; this in turn came from the Old Norman cai, both meaning "sand bank". The Old French term came from Gaulish caium tracing back to the Proto-Celtic *kagio- "to encompass, enclose".
Modern cognates include Welsh cae "fence, hedge" and Cornish ke "hedge", the Dutch kade. Bollard Canal basin Dock Safeguarded wharf The dictionary definition of wharf at Wiktionary The dictionary definition of quay at Wiktionary
Azov known as Azoff, is a town in Rostov Oblast, situated on the Don River just 16 kilometers from the Sea of Azov, which derives its name from the town. Population: 82,937 ; the mouth of the Don River has always been an important commercial center. At the start of the 3rd century BCE, the Greeks from the Bosporan Kingdom founded a colony here, which they called Tanais. Several centuries in the last third of 1st century BCE, the settlement was burned down by king Polemon I of Pontus; the introduction of Greek colonists restored its prosperity, but the Goths annihilated it in the 3rd century. The site of ancient Tanais, now occupied by the khutor of Nedvigovka, has been excavated since the mid-19th century. In the 5th century, the area was populated by Karadach's Akatziroi who came under the rule of Dengizich the Hun before Byzantium gave the land to the Hunugurs in the 460s to become known as Patria Onoguria under his brother Ernakh the Hun; the Kutrigur Hun inhabitants of Patria Onoguria became known as the Utigur Bulgars when it became part of the Western Turkic Kaghanate under Sandilch.
In the 7th century Khan Kubrat ruler of the Unogundurs established Old Great Bolgary there before his heir Batbayan surrendered it to the Khazars. In the 10th century, as the Khazar state disintegrated, the area passed under control of the Slavic princedom of Tmutarakan; the Kipchaks, seizing the area in 1067, renamed it Azaq, from which appellation the modern name is derived. The Golden Horde claimed most of the coast in the 13th and 14th centuries, but the Venetian and Genoese merchants were granted permission to settle on the site of modern-day Azov and founded there a colony which they called Tana. In autumn 2000, Thor Heyerdahl wanted to further investigate his idea that Scandinavians may have migrated from the south via waterways, he was on the trail of Odin, the Germanic and Nordic god of the mythologies of the early Norse Eddas and Sagas. According to Snorri Sturluson, the Icelandic author of an Edda and as least one Saga. who wrote in the 13th century, Odin was supposed to have migrated from the region of the Caucasus or the area just east of the Black Sea near the turn of the 1st century CE.
Heyerdahl was interested in Snorri's reference to the land of origin of the Æsir people. Heyerdahl wanted to test the veracity of Snorri's claims and as a result organized the Joint Archaeological Excavation in Azov in 2001, he had wanted to undertake a second excavation the following year, but it never happened due to his death in April 2002. In 1471, the Ottoman Empire built the strong fortress of Azak; the fort blocked the Don Cossacks from trading into the Black Sea. The Cossacks had attacked Azov in 1574, 1593, 1620, 1626. In April 1637, three thousand Don Cossacks and four thousand Zaporozhian Cossacks besieged Azov; the fort fell on June 21 and the Cossacks sent a request to the Tsar for re-enforcements and support. A commission recommended against this because of the danger of war with Turkey and poor state of the fortifications. In June 1641, Hussein Deli, Pasha of Silistria invested the fort with 70,000–80,000 men. In September, they had to withdraw because of provisioning shortfalls. A second Russian commission reported that the siege had left little of the walls.
In March 1642, Sultan Ibrahim issued Tsar Mikhail ordered the Cossacks to evacuate. The Turks reoccupied Azov in September 1642. In 1693, the garrison of the fortress was 3,656 of; the fortress, had yet to pass through many vicissitudes. During the Azov campaigns of 1696, Peter the Great, who desired naval access to the Black Sea, managed to recover the fortress. Azov was granted town status in 1708, but the disastrous Pruth River Campaign constrained him to hand it back to the Turks in 1711. A humorous description of the events is featured in Voltaire's Candide. During the Great Russo-Turkish War, it was taken by the army under Count Rumyantsev and ceded to Russia under the terms of Treaty of Kuchuk-Kainarji. For seven years Azov was a seat of its own governorate, but with the growth of neighboring Rostov-on-the-Don it declined in importance, it was occupied by the Germans between July 1942 and February 1943 during World War II. Within the framework of administrative divisions, Azov serves as the administrative center of Azovsky District though it is not a part of it.
As an administrative division, it is incorporated separately as Azov Urban Okrug—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts. As a municipal division, this administrative unit has urban okrug status. Sergey Bezdolny of the United Russia party was elected Mayor of Azov on April 3, 2005 and re-elected on October 11, 2009 by 72.9% of the voters. The current head of administration Vladimir Rashchupkin holds office from December 2015. Azov's climate is humid continental, featuring hot summers, cold winters, low precipitation. There are many monuments and museums In Azov. Powder cellar in the town of Azov was built in 1799, is the only example of the construction of the fortress of Catherine's time for all of southern Russia, so it is deserved is considered an architectural monument of military engineering art of the 18th century. Wooden cellar served a quarter century, in 1797 he was a dilapidated state was dismantled, in
The Prut is a 953 km long river in Eastern Europe. In part of its course it forms Romania's border with Ukraine; the Pruth was known in Scythian Porata, Hierasus or Gerasius. It originates in the Carpathian Mountains in Ukraine; the Prut flows southeast joining the Danube river near Giurgiulești, east of Galați. Between 1918 and 1939, the river was in Poland and in Greater Romania. Prior to World War I, it served as a border between the Russian Empire. After World War II, the river once again demarcated a border, this time between Romania and the Soviet Union. Nowadays, for a length of 695 km, it forms the border between Moldova, it has a hydrographic basin of 27,500 km2, of which 10,990 km2 are in Romania and 7,790 km2 in Moldova. The largest city along its banks is Ukraine; the Stânca-Costești Dam, operated jointly by Moldova and Romania, is built on the Pruth. There is a Hydro-Electric Station in Snyatyn. Ships travel from the river's mouth to the port city of Leova. Herodotus lists the Pruth, under the name of Porata or Pyretus, as being among the five rivers flowing through the Scythian country which swell the Danube.
Takes a start from a spring on the slopes of Hoverla, flows into the Danube near the village of Giurgiulesti. Prigirlovaya part of the basin is marshy; the length of 967 km, the area of the basin - 27,5 thousand km². Average water consumption at the city of Leova is 69.2 m³ / s. The slope of the river varies from 100 m / km to 0.05 m / km. In the upper reaches it has a mountainous character, with a steep right bank, sometimes the cross-sectional profile of the channel has the form of a ridge. Near the city of Yaremche is the waterfall of Probiy. Spring floods, summer rain floods, high winter runoff. Sliced from January to February until the beginning of March. In the second volume of the Ottoman-Bulgarian chronicles of Iman "Jagfar Tarihi" the Prut River is referred to as Burat, and in the Byzantine treatise of Constantine Porphyrogennetos "On the management of the empire" it is mentioned as the Brut river or as Burat. The Prut river basin on the hydrograph map of Ukraine The upper current in Ukraine is lower - on the border of Moldova with Romania.
The origins are located on the Carpathian massif near Mount Hoverli. The river flows to the north, after it returns to the northeast, closer to Kolomyia, to the south-east. Having reached the border between Moldova and Romania, it returns more to the south-east, to the south. Falls into the Danube 3 km west of the city of Reni; the rod is navigable from the city of Leovo. On the Prut is a reservoir of Kostešti-Stikka and HPP. Sniatyn HPP is the only hydroelectric power plant on the Prut within Ukraine. Cities: Yaremche, Snyatin, Novoselytsia, Ungheni; the following towns are situated along the river Prut, from source to mouth: Deliatyn, Kolomyia, Chernivtsi, Darabani, Ungheni, Leova and Cahul The following rivers are tributaries to the river Prut: Left: Turka, Sovytsia, Rynhach, Larga, Lopatnic, Racovăț, Camenca, Delia, Nârnova, Lăpușna, Sărata, Larga Right: Pistynka, Cheremosh, Herța, Cornești, Isnovăț, Rădăuți, Volovăț, Badu, Bașeu, Berza Veche, Râioasa, Soloneț, Jijia, Cozmești, Bohotin, Moșna, Pruteț, Horincea, Stoeneasa, Chineja During the Russo-Turkish War of 1710–1711, on 19 July 1711 Russian forces divided among Peter the Great's army on the west bank and Boris Sheremetev's army on the east bank of the Pruth and allied with Dimitrie Cantemir, the ruler of Moldova, met with the Ottoman army led by Grand Vizier Baltaci Mehmed Pasha.
The Turks and Crimean Tatars attacked first against Sheremetev, who retreated to the other side to join Peter the Great. Afterwards the Russian army set up a defensive camp between Stănilești and the river, completely surrounded by the Ottoman army. Negotiations started on 21 July 1711 and the Treaty of the Prut was signed on 23 July 1711. After this treaty, Dimitrie Cantemir had to go in exile at Moscow; this treaty means the end of local dynasties of kings and inauguration of Greek rulers from the Fanar Qunarter of Istanbul (Phanariotes. A bit more than a century in 1821, the Greek Nationalist leader Alexander Ypsilantis crossed the Prut river at Sculeni, with the intention of touching off a rebellion in the Danubian Principalities. Though the Wallachian uprising failed - due to irreconcilable differences between Ypsilantis and his Wallachian ally Tudor Vladimirescu - it did touch off the Greek War of Independence, leading to the Kingdom of Greece gaining independence ten years later. In the Principalities it led to the end of the aforementioned Greek Phanariote rule, indirectly to increasing self-government and to the independence of Romania several decades later.
In Greek history, Ypsilantis' crossing of the Prut is an important historical event, commemorated in a famous painting displayed at Athens. Sydir Vorobkevych: Within that Prut Valley. Within that Prut Valley a c
The Russian Empire known as Imperial Russia or Russia, was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917. The third largest empire in world history, at its greatest extent stretching over three continents, Europe and North America, the Russian Empire was surpassed in landmass only by the British and Mongol empires; the rise of the Russian Empire coincided with the decline of neighboring rival powers: the Golden Horde, the Swedish Empire, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and the Ottoman Empire. It played a major role in 1812–1814 in defeating Napoleon's ambitions to control Europe and expanded to the west and south; the House of Romanov ruled the Russian Empire from 1721 until 1762, its matrilineal branch of patrilineal German descent the House of Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov ruled from 1762. At the beginning of the 19th century, the Russian Empire extended from the Arctic Ocean in the north to the Black Sea in the south, from the Baltic Sea on the west to the Pacific Ocean, into Alaska and Northern California in America on the east.
With 125.6 million subjects registered by the 1897 census, it had the third-largest population in the world at the time, after Qing China and India. Like all empires, it included a large disparity in terms of economics and religion. There were numerous dissident elements. Economically, the empire had a predominantly agricultural base, with low productivity on large estates worked by serfs, Russian peasants; the economy industrialized with the help of foreign investments in railways and factories. The land was ruled by a nobility from the 10th through the 17th centuries, subsequently by an emperor. Tsar Ivan III laid the groundwork for the empire that emerged, he tripled the territory of his state, ended the dominance of the Golden Horde, renovated the Moscow Kremlin, laid the foundations of the Russian state. Emperor Peter the Great fought numerous wars and expanded an huge empire into a major European power, he moved the capital from Moscow to the new model city of St. Petersburg, led a cultural revolution that replaced some of the traditionalist and medieval social and political mores with a modern, Europe-oriented, rationalist system.
Empress Catherine the Great presided over a golden age. Emperor Alexander II promoted numerous reforms, most the emancipation of all 23 million serfs in 1861, his policy in Eastern Europe involved protecting the Orthodox Christians under the rule of the Ottoman Empire. That connection by 1914 led to Russia's entry into the First World War on the side of France, the United Kingdom, Serbia, against the German and Ottoman empires; the Russian Empire functioned as an absolute monarchy on principles of Orthodoxy and Nationality until the Revolution of 1905 and became a de jure constitutional monarchy. The empire collapsed during the February Revolution of 1917 as a result of massive failures in its participation in the First World War. Though the Empire was only proclaimed by Tsar Peter I following the Treaty of Nystad, some historians would argue that it was born either when Ivan III of Russia conquered Veliky Novgorod in 1478, or when Ivan the Terrible conquered the Khanate of Kazan in 1552. According to another point of view, the term Tsardom, used after the coronation of Ivan IV in 1547, was a contemporary Russian word for empire.
Much of Russia's expansion occurred in the 17th century, culminating in the first Russian colonization of the Pacific in the mid-17th century, the Russo-Polish War that incorporated left-bank Ukraine, the Russian conquest of Siberia. Poland was divided in the 1790 -- 1815 era, with much of the population going to Russia. Most of the 19th-century growth came from adding territory in Asia, south of Siberia. Peter I the Great played a major role in introducing Russia to the European state system. While the vast land had a population of 14 million, grain yields trailed behind those of agriculture in the West, compelling nearly the entire population to farm. Only a small percentage lived in towns; the class of kholops, close in status to slavery, remained a major institution in Russia until 1723, when Peter converted household kholops into house serfs, thus including them in poll taxation. Russian agricultural kholops were formally converted into serfs earlier in 1679. Peter's first military efforts were directed against the Ottoman Turks.
His attention turned to the North. Peter still lacked a secure northern seaport, except at Archangel on the White Sea, where the harbor was frozen for nine months a year. Access to the Baltic was blocked by Sweden. Peter's ambitions for a "window to the sea" led him to make a secret alliance in 1699 with Saxony, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and Denmark against Sweden, resulting in the Great Northern War; the war ended in 1721. Peter acquired four provinces situated east of the Gulf of Finland; the coveted access to the sea was now secured. There he built Russia's new capital, Saint Petersburg, to replace Moscow, which had long been Russia's cultural center. In 1722, he tur
The Ottoman Empire known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire or Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries. It was founded at the end of the 13th century in northwestern Anatolia in the town of Söğüt by the Oghuz Turkish tribal leader Osman I. After 1354, the Ottomans crossed into Europe, with the conquest of the Balkans, the Ottoman beylik was transformed into a transcontinental empire; the Ottomans ended the Byzantine Empire with the 1453 conquest of Constantinople by Mehmed the Conqueror. During the 16th and 17th centuries, at the height of its power under the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent, the Ottoman Empire was a multinational, multilingual empire controlling most of Southeast Europe, parts of Central Europe, Western Asia, parts of Eastern Europe and the Caucasus, North Africa and the Horn of Africa. At the beginning of the 17th century, the empire contained numerous vassal states; some of these were absorbed into the Ottoman Empire, while others were granted various types of autonomy during the course of centuries.
With Constantinople as its capital and control of lands around the Mediterranean basin, the Ottoman Empire was at the centre of interactions between the Eastern and Western worlds for six centuries. While the empire was once thought to have entered a period of decline following the death of Suleiman the Magnificent, this view is no longer supported by the majority of academic historians; the empire continued to maintain a flexible and strong economy and military throughout the 17th and much of the 18th century. However, during a long period of peace from 1740 to 1768, the Ottoman military system fell behind that of their European rivals, the Habsburg and Russian empires; the Ottomans suffered severe military defeats in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, which prompted them to initiate a comprehensive process of reform and modernisation known as the Tanzimat. Thus, over the course of the 19th century, the Ottoman state became vastly more powerful and organised, despite suffering further territorial losses in the Balkans, where a number of new states emerged.
The empire allied with Germany in the early 20th century, hoping to escape from the diplomatic isolation which had contributed to its recent territorial losses, thus joined World War I on the side of the Central Powers. While the Empire was able to hold its own during the conflict, it was struggling with internal dissent with the Arab Revolt in its Arabian holdings. During this time, atrocities were committed by the Young Turk government against the Armenians and Pontic Greeks; the Empire's defeat and the occupation of part of its territory by the Allied Powers in the aftermath of World War I resulted in its partitioning and the loss of its Middle Eastern territories, which were divided between the United Kingdom and France. The successful Turkish War of Independence against the occupying Allies led to the emergence of the Republic of Turkey in the Anatolian heartland and the abolition of the Ottoman monarchy; the word Ottoman is a historical anglicisation of the name of Osman I, the founder of the Empire and of the ruling House of Osman.
Osman's name in turn was the Turkish form of the Arabic name ʿUthmān. In Ottoman Turkish, the empire was referred to as Devlet-i ʿAlīye-yi ʿOsmānīye, or alternatively ʿOsmānlı Devleti. In Modern Turkish, it is known as Osmanlı Devleti; the Turkish word for "Ottoman" referred to the tribal followers of Osman in the fourteenth century, subsequently came to be used to refer to the empire's military-administrative elite. In contrast, the term "Turk" was used to refer to the Anatolian peasant and tribal population, was seen as a disparaging term when applied to urban, educated individuals. In the early modern period, an educated urban-dwelling Turkish-speaker, not a member of the military-administrative class would refer to himself neither as an Osmanlı nor as a Türk, but rather as a Rūmī, or "Roman", meaning an inhabitant of the territory of the former Byzantine Empire in the Balkans and Anatolia; the term Rūmī was used to refer to Turkish-speakers by the other Muslim peoples of the empire and beyond.
In Western Europe, the two names "Ottoman Empire" and "Turkey" were used interchangeably, with "Turkey" being favoured both in formal and informal situations. This dichotomy was ended in 1920–23, when the newly established Ankara-based Turkish government chose Turkey as the sole official name. Most scholarly historians avoid the terms "Turkey", "Turks", "Turkish" when referring to the Ottomans, due to the empire's multinational character; as the Seljuk Sultanate of Rum declined in the 13th century, Anatolia was divided into a patchwork of independent Turkish principalities known as the Anatolian Beyliks. One of these beyliks, in the region of Bithynia on the frontier of the Byzantine Empire, was led by the Turkish tribal leader Osman I, a figure of obscure origins from whom the name Ottoman is derived. Osman's early followers consisted both of Turkish tribal groups and Byzantine renegades, many but not all converts to Islam. Osman extended the control of his principality by conquering Byzantine towns along the Sakarya River.
It is not well understood how the early Ottomans came to dominate their
Voronezh is a city and the administrative center of Voronezh Oblast, straddling the Voronezh River and located 12 kilometers from where it flows into the Don. The city sits on the Southeastern Railway, which connects European Russia with the Urals and Siberia, the Caucasus and Ukraine, the M4 highway, its population in 2016 was estimated to be 1,032,895. The first chronicle references to the word "Voronezh" are dated 1177, when the Ryazan prince Yaropolk, having lost the battle, fled "to Voronozh" and there was moving "from hail into hail." Modern data of archeology and history interpret Voronezh as a geographical region, which included the Voronezh river and a number of settlements. In the lower reaches of the river, an unique Slavic town-planning complex of the 8th – early 11th century was discovered, which covered the territory of the present city of Voronezh and its environs. By the 12th – 13th centuries, most of the old “hails” were desolate, but new settlements appeared upstream, closer to Ryazan.
For many years, the hypothesis of the Soviet historian Vladimir Zagorovsky dominated: he produced the toponym "Voronezh" from the hypothetical Slavic personal name Voroneg. This man gave the name of a small town in the Chernigov Principality. In the XI or XII centuries, the settlers were able to "transfer" this name to the Don region, where they named the second city Voronezh, the river got its name from the city. However, now many researchers criticize the hypothesis, since in reality neither the name of Voroneg nor the second city was revealed, the names of Russian cities repeated the names of the rivers, but not vice versa; the linguistic comparative analysis of the name "Voronezh" was carried out by the Khovansky Foundation in 2009. There is an indication of the place names of many countries in Eurasia, which may be not only similar in sound, but united by common Indo-European languages: Varanasi, Verona, etc. A comprehensive scientific analysis was conducted in 2015–2016 by the historian Pavel Popov.
His conclusion: "Voronezh" is a probable Slavic macrotoponym associated with outstanding signs of nature, has a root voron- in the meaning of "black, dark" and the suffix -ezh. It was not “transferred” and in the 8th - 9th centuries it marked a vast territory covered with black forests - from the mouth of the Voronezh river to the Voronozhsky annalistic forests in the middle and upper reaches of the river, in the west to the Don; the historian believes that the main "city" of the early town-planning complex could repeat the name of the region – Voronezh. Now the hillfort is located in the administrative part of the modern city, in the Voronezh upland oak forest; this is one of Europe's largest ancient Slavic hillforts, the area of which – more than 9 hectares – 13 times the area of the main settlement in Kiev before the baptism of Rus. Folk etymology claims the name comes from combining the Russian words for raven and hedgehog into Воронеж. According to this explanation two Slavic tribes named after the animals used this combination to name the river which in turn provided the name for a settlement.
There is not believed to be any scientific support for this explanation. In the 16th century, the Middle Don basin, including the Voronezh river, was conquered by Muscovy from the Nogai Horde, the current city of Voronezh was established in 1585 by Feodor I as a fort protecting the Muravsky Trail trade route against the raids of the Nogai and Crimean Tatars; the city was named after the river. In the 17th century, Voronezh evolved into a sizable town. Weronecz is shown on the Worona river in Resania in Joan Blaeu's map of 1645. Peter the Great built a dockyard in Voronezh where the Azov Flotilla was constructed for the Azov campaigns in 1695 and 1696; this fleet, the first built in Russia, included the first Russian ship of the line, Goto Predestinatsia. The Orthodox diocese of Voronezh was instituted in 1682 and its first bishop, Mitrofan of Voronezh, was proclaimed the town's patron saint. Owing to the Voronezh Admiralty Wharf, for a short time, Voronezh became the largest city of South Russia and the economic center of a large and fertile region.
In 1711, it was made the seat of the Azov Governorate, which morphed into the Voronezh Governorate. In the 19th century, Voronezh was a center of the Central Black Earth Region. Manufacturing industry as well as bread, cattle and the hair trade developed in the town. A railway connected Voronezh with Moscow in 1868 and Rostov-on-Don in 1871. During World War II, Voronezh was the scene of fierce fighting between Russian and combined Axis troops; the Germans used it as a staging area for their attack on Stalingrad, made it a key crossing point on the Don River. In June 1941, two BM-13 artillery installations were built at the Voronezh excavator factory. In July, the construction of Katyushas was rationalized so that their manufacture became easier and the time of volley repetition was shortened from five minutes to fifteen seconds. More than 300 BM-13 units manufactured in Voronezh were used in a counterattack near Moscow in December 1941. In October 22, 1941, the advance of the German troops prompted the establishment of a defense committee in the city.