Shanghai is one of the four municipalities under the direct administration of the central government of the People's Republic of China, the largest city in China by population, the second most populous city proper in the world, with a population of 24.18 million as of 2017. It is a transport hub, with the world's busiest container port. Located in the Yangtze River Delta, it sits on the south edge of the estuary of the Yangtze in the middle portion of the East China coast; the municipality borders the provinces of Jiangsu and Zhejiang to the north and west, is bounded to the east by the East China Sea. As a major administrative and trading city, Shanghai grew in importance in the 19th century due to trade and recognition of its favourable port location and economic potential; the city was one of five treaty ports forced open to foreign trade following the British victory over China in the First Opium War. The subsequent 1842 Treaty of Nanking and 1844 Treaty of Whampoa allowed the establishment of the Shanghai International Settlement and the French Concession.
The city flourished as a centre of commerce between China and other parts of the world, became the primary financial hub of the Asia-Pacific region in the 1930s. During the World War II, the city was the site of the major Battle of Shanghai. After the war, with the Communist Party takeover of the mainland in 1949, trade was limited to other socialist countries, the city's global influence declined. In the 1990s, the economic reforms introduced by Deng Xiaoping resulted in an intense re-development of the city, aiding the return of finance and foreign investment to the city, it has since re-emerged as a hub for international finance. Shanghai has been described as the "showpiece" of the booming economy of mainland China; the two Chinese characters in the city's name are 上 and 海, together meaning "Upon-the-Sea". The earliest occurrence of this name dates from the 11th-century Song dynasty, at which time there was a river confluence and a town with this name in the area. There are disputes as to how the name should be understood, but Chinese historians have concluded that during the Tang dynasty Shanghai was on the sea.
Shanghai is abbreviated 沪 in Chinese, a contraction of 沪渎, a 4th- or 5th-century Jin name for the mouth of Suzhou Creek when it was the main conduit into the ocean. This character appears on all motor vehicle license plates issued in the municipality today. Another alternative name for Shanghai is Shēn or Shēnchéng, from Lord Chunshen, a 3rd-century BC nobleman and prime minister of the state of Chu, whose fief included modern Shanghai. Sports teams and newspapers in Shanghai use Shen in their names, such as Shanghai Shenhua F. C. and Shen Bao. Huating was another early name for Shanghai. In AD 751, during the mid-Tang dynasty, Huating County was established by the Governor of Wu Commandery Zhao Juzhen at modern-day Songjiang, the first county-level administration within modern-day Shanghai. Today, Huating appears as the name of a four-star hotel in the city; the city has various nicknames in English, including "Pearl of the Orient" and "Paris of the East". During the Spring and Autumn period, the Shanghai area belonged to the Kingdom of Wu, conquered by the Kingdom of Yue, which in turn was conquered by the Kingdom of Chu.
During the Warring States period, Shanghai was part of the fief of Lord Chunshen of Chu, one of the Four Lords of the Warring States. He ordered the excavation of the Huangpu River, its former or poetic name, the Chunshen River, gave Shanghai its nickname of "Shēn". Fishermen living in the Shanghai area created a fish tool called the hù, which lent its name to the outlet of Suzhou Creek north of the Old City and became a common nickname and abbreviation for the city. During the Tang and Song dynasties, Qinglong Town in modern Qingpu District was a major trading port. Established in 746, it developed into what contemporary sources called a "giant town of the Southeast", with thirteen temples and seven pagodas; the famous Song scholar and artist Mi Fu served as its mayor. The port had a thriving trade with provinces along the Yangtze River and the Chinese coast, as well as foreign countries such as Japan and Silla. By the end of the Song dynasty, the center of trading had moved downstream of the Wusong River to Shanghai, upgraded in status from a village to a market town in 1074, in 1172 a second sea wall was built to stabilize the ocean coastline, supplementing an earlier dike.
From the Yuan dynasty in 1292 until Shanghai became a municipality in 1927, central Shanghai was administered as a county under Songjiang Prefecture, whose seat was at the present-day Songjiang District. Two important events helped promote Shanghai's development in the Ming dynasty. A city wall was built for the first time in 1554 to protect the town from raids by Japanese pirates, it measured 10 metres high and 5 kilometres in circumference. During the Wanli reign, Shanghai received an important psychological boost from the erection of a City God Temple in 1602; this honour was reserved for prefectural capitals and not given to a mere county seat such as Shang
Bank of Communications Building
The Bank of Communications Building is located at No. 14 on the Bund, Shanghai. The building was designed combined with Chinese elements, it is an eight-story concrete-frame structure, framed by black marble around the doors. The building is now occupied by the offices of the Shanghai Federation of Trade Unions; the first European buildings on the site were constructed in 1880, after several German banks joined with a local Chinese businessman to form the Deutsch-Asiatische Bank. The bank constructed four smaller buildings on the current site. During World War I, both China and Japan declared war on Germany, the bank lost its holdings in China. In 1919 the China Bank of Communications took over the holdings of the Deutsch-Asiatische Bank, including its properties in Shanghai; the Bank of Communications had been founded in 1908. It opened a branch in Shanghai the same year, grew throughout the 1920s and 1930s, it made plans to construct a new headquarters on the current site, but these plans were disrupted in 1937 after the Japanese occupied Shanghai during the Second Sino-Japanese War.
After the Japanese surrendered in 1945 the bank returned, completed its construction of the current building in 1948. It was the last building to be completed on the Bund before the Communists took control of Shanghai in 1949. Shea, Marilyn. "The Bund - Picture Guide to Historic Buildings". The University of Maine. 2007. Retrieved September 22, 2012
Shanghai Club Building
The Shanghai Club Building is a six-storey Baroque Revival building in Shanghai located at No.2, The Bund. Once home to one of the premier men's clubs in Shanghai, the building was used for various clubs and hotels after 1949, it is part of the Waldorf Astoria Shanghai on the Bund. The current building was opened in January 1910; the total building footprint is 1,811 square metres. The building's main facade uses the middle section featuring six Ionic columns; the roof section of the facade has two symmetrical Baroque-style cupolas, with intricate carved details. The architect was H. Tarrant. Interior design was by Japanese architect Shimoda Kikutaro; the most famous feature of the interior is the 34-metre black-and-white marble bar, called "the long bar". The Shanghai Club was the principal men's club for British residents of Shanghai, founded in 1861; the club was named "The Correspondent's Club". In 1864, a club building was erected on a three-storey red-brick building. United States President Ulysses S. Grant was hosted there when he visited Shanghai in 1879.
In 1905, the Club decided to rebuild its club building. In 1909, the old building was torn down and replaced with a new, six-storey building, with a reinforced concrete structure in a Baroque Revival design; the new building opened in January 1910. In its heyday in the 1920s and 1930s, the Club was the most exclusive club in Shanghai; the second-floor was famous for the "Long Bar." This was L-shaped bar that measured 110.7 feet by 39 feet. It was famous for being the world's longest bar at one time. Noël Coward said, that he could see the curvature of the earth. There were forty guest rooms on the second and third floors. Membership was restricted to white males of a certain class; the famous 34-metre Long Bar on the second floor was subject to a strict hierarchy: the prime Bund-facing end of the L-shaped mahogany bar was the territory of the tai-pans and bank managers, with the social scale falling as one moved down the length of the bar. A massive Italianate Grand Hall was located on the first floor, with ceilings over 12 feet high, supported by enormous Ionic columns.
The hall ended in a curving marble staircase, where twin elevators whisked members to the upper floors. Here, there were all the requisites of a proper gentleman’s club: a smoking room and a library – reported to hold more volumes than the Shanghai Public Library – a billiards room, a dining room and guest rooms on the top two floors for resident members. On the outbreak of war in the Pacific in 1941, the Shanghai Club was closed and occupied by the Japanese occupation force until the end of the war. In 1949, the building was expropriated by the new Communist government of Shanghai, it was converted into the International Seamen Club, catering to foreign sailors. In 1971, it became the Dongfeng Hotel, it was notable from 1990 to 1996 for hosting the first KFC restaurant in Shanghai. From 1996 the building sat derelict, until it was leased by the Hilton group in 2009 and converted to become the Waldorf Astoria Shanghai on the Bund, a luxury hotel; the new hotel opened in 2011. Canidrome The Bund Oriental Architecture ce Historic Architecture of "The Bund - Shanghai"
North China Daily News Building
The North China Daily News Building is a historical Neo-Renaissance-style office building on the Bund in Shanghai, China located at No.17, The Bund. It houses the offices of the American International Assurance, is thus called the AIA Building. At the time of its opening in 1924, it was the tallest building in Shanghai; the North China Daily News was the first English-language newspaper to be published in Shanghai, in 1850. Because the newspaper's founder saw Shanghai as a growing commercial center and founded the paper to support Shanghai's growth, much of its original content was related to shipping news; the paper expanded as Shanghai grew, moved to the Bund in 1901. In 1921 the paper began construction of this building as its new headquarters, completed construction in 1924; the building was designed by architects Lester, Johnson & Morriss, co-founded by Gordon Morriss, the brother of the newspaper's owner at the time, Henry E. Morriss. From 1927 the building housed the offices of American Asiatic Underwriters, an insurance agency founded by Cornelius Vander Starr and the forerunner of the American International Group.
The Japanese Empire confiscated the building during its occupation of Shanghai during the World War II. During that time the building was home to a Japanese newspaper. After World War II the North China Daily News returned to the building, the paper continued to operate until 1951, shortly after the founding of the People's Republic of China; the building was confiscated and used by the Chinese government as a branch for various government offices at various times. In 1996 the building was restored, in 1998 it became the Shanghai branch of AIA Group Limited. AIA was a subsidiary of American International Group, a successor company of the American Asiatic Underwriters, who occupied part of the building in the early twentieth century; the North China Daily News Building is a reinforced concrete structure with Baroque towers, Neoclassical pillars, Renaissance relief sculpture. The first seven floors are faced with the lowest two floors of which are rough hewn; the building incorporated the statues of two goddesses, which flanked the marble entrance, but these statues were destroyed during the Cultural Revolution.
The building contains 9,043 square metres of office space and lies on a 1,043 square metres plot of land. Shea, Marilyn. "The Bund - Picture Guide to Historic Buildings". The University of Maine. 2007. Retrieved 22 September 2012. North China Daily News Building page including historical and contemporary photographs at Chinese-Architecture.info Historic Architecture of "The Bund - Shanghai"
Russo-Chinese Bank was a foreign bank representing Russian interest in China during the period between Qing Dynasty and Republic of China. December 5, 1895: The bank was created in the Russian Embassy in Paris, from Russian and French capital, it lent money to China and issued Chinese government bond to finance China for its indemnity to Japan after First Sino-Japanese War. February, 1896: It opened a Shanghai branch. August 28, 1896: China joined the bank as a partner for the construction of China Eastern Railway; the bank was renamed to Sino-Russian Righteousness Victory Bank. 1902: It became the second largest bank in China. 1904-1906: A branch bank was established February 1904 in San Francisco, the only one in the United States, destroyed by the April 1906 earthquake. 1910: It was merged with Banque du Nord to form Russo-Asiatic Bank. September 26, 1926: It was closed down after losing 5 million pounds in foreign currency speculation in Paris financial market. Russo-Chinese Bank Building, Shanghai
The Bund or Waitan is a waterfront area in central Shanghai. The area centers on a section of Zhongshan Road within the former Shanghai International Settlement, which runs along the western bank of the Huangpu River in the eastern part of Huangpu District; the area along the river faces the modern skyscrapers of Lujiazui in the Pudong District. The Bund refers to the buildings and wharves on this section of the road, as well as some adjacent areas, it is one of the most famous tourist destinations in Shanghai. Building heights are restricted in the area; the word bund means an embanked quay. The word comes from the Persian word band, through Hindustani, meaning an levee or dam. Mumbai's Apollo Bunder and city names like; the various "bunds" in east Asia, may therefore be named after the bunds/levees in Baghdad along the Tigris, given by the immigrating Baghdadi Jews, like the prominent Baghdadi Sassoon family who settled their businesses in Shanghai, other port cities in east Asia in the 19th century, built up their harbors.
In these Chinese port cities, the English term came to mean the embanked quay along the shore. In English, "Bund" is pronounced to rhyme with "fund". There are numerous sites in India and Japan that are called "bunds". However, "The Bund", without qualification to location refers to this stretch of embanked riverfront in Shanghai; the Chinese name for the Bund is unrelated in meaning: it means the "outer bank", referring to the Huangpu River, because this part of the riverfront was located farther downstream than the "inner bank" area adjacent to the old walled city of Shanghai. The Shanghai Bund has dozens of historical buildings, lining the Huangpu River, that once housed numerous banks and trading houses from the United Kingdom, the United States, Russia, Japan, the Netherlands, Belgium, as well as the consulates of Russia and Britain, a newspaper, the Shanghai Club and the Masonic Club; the Bund lies north of the walled city of Shanghai. It was a British settlement. Magnificent commercial buildings in the Beaux Arts style sprang up in the years around the turn of the 20th century as the Bund developed into a major financial center of east Asia.
Directly to the south, just northeast of the old walled city, the former French Bund was of comparable size to the Bund but functioned more as a working harbourside. By the 1940s, the Bund housed the headquarters of many, if not most, of the major financial institutions operating in China, including the "big four" national banks in the Republic of China era. However, with the Communist victory in the Chinese civil war, many of the financial institutions were moved out in the 1950s, the hotels and clubs closed or converted to other uses; the statues of colonial figures and foreign worthies which had dotted the riverside were removed. In the late 1970s and early 1980s, with the thawing of economic policy in the People's Republic of China, buildings on the Bund were returned to their former uses. Government institutions were moved out in favour of financial institutions, while hotels resumed trading as such. During this period, a series of floods caused by typhoons motivated the municipal government to construct a tall levee along the riverfront, with the result that the embankment now stands some 10 metres higher than street level.
The Bunds revitalization began in 1986 with a new promenade by the Dutch Architect Paulus Snoeren and has changed the streetscape of the Bund. In the 1990s, Zhongshan Road, the road on which the Bund is centred, was widened to ten lanes; as a result, most of the parkland which had existed along the road disappeared. In this period, the ferry wharves connecting the Bund and Pudong, which had served the area's original purpose, were removed. A number of pleasure cruises still operate from some nearby wharves. In the 1990s, the Shanghai government attempted to promote an extended concept of the Bund to boost tourism, land value in nearby areas, as well as to reconcile the promotion of "colonial relics" with the Socialist ideology. In its expanded form, the term "Bund" was used to refer to areas south of the Yan'an Road, a stretch of riverfront north of the Suzhou River; such use of the term, remains rare outside of tourism literature. From 2008, a major reconfiguration of traffic flow along the Bund was carried out.
The first stage of the plan involved the southern end of the Bund, saw the demolition of a section of the Yan'an Road elevated expressway, including removal of the large elevated expressway exit structure that dominated the confluence of Yan'an Road and the Bund. A second phase involved the year-long restoration of the century-old Waibaidu Bridge at the northern end of the Bund. In a third stage, the former 10-lane Bund roadway was reconstructed in two levels, with six lanes carried in a new tunnel; the vacated road space was used to widen the landscaped promenade along the waterfront. The new concrete bridge, built in 1991 to relieve traffic on Waibaidu Bridge was rendered obsolete by the new double-levelled roadway, demolished; the Bund was reopened to the public on Sunday 28 March 2010 after restoration for the 2010 Expo. A stampede occurred on December 31, 2014, at 11:36 p
The Waibaidu Bridge, called the Garden Bridge in English, is the first all-steel bridge, the only surviving example of a camelback truss bridge, in China. The fourth Western-designed bridge built at its location since 1856, in the downstream of the estuary of the Suzhou Creek, near its confluence with the Huangpu River, adjacent to the Bund in central Shanghai, connecting the Huangpu and Hongkou districts, the present bridge was opened on 20 January 1908. With its rich history and unique design the Waibaidu Bridge is one of the symbols of Shanghai, its modern and industrial image may be regarded as the city's landmark bridge. On 15 February 1994 the Shanghai Municipal Government declared the bridge an example of Heritage Architecture, one of the outstanding structures in Shanghai. In an ever-changing metropolis, the Waibaidu Bridge still remains a popular attraction, one of the few constants in the city skyline. There is considerable debate about the exact meaning of Waibaidu, the name given to the wooden bridge erected by the Shanghai Municipal Council in 1873.
According to one source, "The upper stream of any river was called li 裡. Xue Liyong, indicates in his book on the history of the Bund: In several cases, the Chinese used the terms li 裡 and wai 外 to indicate the greater or lesser degree of proximity of a location. There was an intermediate degree with the use of zhong 中 for places located between these two extremes. There remains several place names in Shanghai; the Chinese name of the Garden Bridge – waibaidu qiao 外白渡橋 – is such a case. The name makes sense only in relation with another bridge called libaidu qiao 裡白渡橋, located further inside the Soochow Creek, whereas the Garden Bridge was located at the mouth of the creek where it merges into the Huangpu river. Another source indicates that in Shanghainese, waibaidu means passing through the bridge without paying; because there was no longer any toll collected to cross the bridge, it began to be called Waibaidu, but "whereas the old name meant'foreigners/outer ferry crossing bridge' the character bai was changed to a homophonic that altered the meaning to'outer free crossing bridge'".
Before bridges were built over the Suzhou Creek, citizens had to use one of three ferry crossings: one near Zhapu Road, one at Jiangxi Road, one near the mouth of the Suzhou River. These crossings were the only way to ford the river, until the construction of a sluice gate built in the Ming dynasty known as "Old Sluice", where the current Fujian Road bridge is located. During the Qing dynasty, another sluice bridge was constructed during the reign of the Yongzheng Emperor, near the location of today's Datong Road bridge. With Shanghai becoming an international trade port through the Treaty of Nanjing in 1842, foreign powers being granted concessions in the city, traffic between both sides of Suzhou River soared in the 1850s, increasing the need for a bridge close to the mouth of the river. In October 1856, a British businessman named Charles Wills, of the firm of Jardine and American Edward R. Cunningham, the "brilliant though somewhat impetuous" managing director of Russell & Co. Vice-Consul for the United States and consul of the Consul of Sweden and Norway in Shanghai, with the finances provided by a consortium of twenty investors, called the Soochow Creek Bridge Company, the first company in China focusing on bridge construction, constructed the first foreign bridge across the Suzhou Creek, at the location of the outermost ferry crossing to ease traffic between the British Settlement to the south, the American Settlement to the north of Suzhou River.
Built to replace a Chinese bridge that had collapsed in 1855, "that the Chinese were unable to reconstruct", this new bridge, which soon became known as Wills' Bridge, was made of wood, "had a total length of 137.16 metres and width of 7.01 metres". It had a "draw" on the Hongkou side to allow larger boats to exit Suzou Creek. According to Francis Pott, it was "not a sightly structure." Wills brought capital into China and invested in infrastructure that benefited Chinese and foreigner alike. He invested $12,000 dollars in the 450-foot span, charged a crossing fee. According to Henriot, "The investment made was to be repaid by a fee charged on all vehicles and passers-by at a rate of 5 taels per year for a horse-cart and one tael for a pedestrian". "The bridge was open to anyone who could pay the small toll, a'thing hateful to the Shanghai public.'" Both Chinese and foreigners paid this toll, but as with many goods and services in Shanghai, foreigners paid on credit – thus the impression on the part of many Chinese that foreigners passed free."
In 1863, when the British and American Settlements merged, the rate was doubled, causing serious protests by the Chinese population. The local population regarded Wills' toll policy as yet another of many restrictions for Chinese people by foreign powers, they responded with protest and boycotted the bridge, Cantonese merchants opened new ferry services across Soochow Creek." Zhan Re, from Guangdong, established a free ferry near today's Shanxi Road intersection. One letter to the editor of the Shenbao newspaper in 1872, expressed outrage that the Chinese had to pay a toll to cross Wills' bridge while foreigners were exempted. Another suggests that the owner of the bridge is "one conversant with profit". According to Barbara Mittler, "This turned out to be untrue, however: the Munici