Battle of Chudnov
The Battle of Chudnov took place from 14 October to 2 November 1660, between the forces of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, allied with the Crimean Tatars, the Tsardom of Russia, allied with the Cossaks. It ended with a decisive Polish victory, the truce of Chudnov; the entire Russian army, including its commander, was taken into jasyr slavery by the Tatars. The battle was the largest and most important Polish victory over the Russian forces until the battle of Warsaw in 1920. In July 1660, tsar Alexis I of Russia ordered Vasily Sheremetev to resume the sporadic Russo-Polish War, push the Poles west, taking Lwów and securing disputed Ukrainian territories for Russia. In September 1660, the commander of the Russian army, Sheremetev – acting on misleading information underestimating the numerical strength of the Polish army – decided to seek out and destroy the Polish forces with what he believed would be overwhelming strength. Sheremetev's major tactical error was to advance relying on outdated and sparse intelligence reports, without adequate scouting.
The Polish commanders — hetmans Potocki and Lubomirski — had much better intelligence, became aware of Sheremetev's error. Polish historian Łossowski notes that "while Shermetev's advanced blindly, Polish hetmans knew everything about his army and moves"; the Poles decided to engage Shermetev's forces before he in turn would be reinforced by his Cossack allies. A portion of the Cossacks (about 15,000 under Timofey Tsetsura were to stay with Sheremetev's corps, another part, according to Sheremetev's plan, were to intercept and defeat the 12,000-strong Tatars from the Crimean Khanate under nuradyn-sultan Safer Giray – but Khmelnytsky failed to do so, with most of the Tatar forces slipping past them around middle of August. Further, Cossack's leader, Yurii Khmelnytsky, was at odds with Sheremetev, was in no hurry to execute his orders or stick to his plan; the Tatars met Potocki's forces on 1 September, they in turn met with Lubomirski on 7 September, while Khmelnytsky were still far from Shermetev's army.
The combined Polish army numbered about 27,000. Sheremetev troops numbered 18,000; the Russian army was surprised near Lubar on 14 September. Shermetev's front guard was wiped out, Sheremetev — who until had failed to send a single scouting party and realized what was to be an easy victory was a death trap — decided to take defensive positions in a fortified camp. Numerical superiority of the Polish forces, lack of supplies and several minor defeats convinced him to break away on 26 September; the plan succeeded at first but Polish forces caught the Russian army during its crossing of the Iber River, captured or destroyed a significant portion of the remaining Russian artillery and supplies. The Polish forces caught up again with the Russians on 27 September, near Chudniv. At that point, the Russian and Cossack armies had lost about 1,000 troops, the Poles about 100. Sheremetev received a minor reinforcement by attaching Chudniv's garrison to his main army. Sheremetev decided to stop the Poles by repeating his previous tactics.
He burned the town on the side the Poles were approaching from, created a new camp on the other side of the river. The Poles took the other bank, including the local fort, which Sheremetev abandoned, which provided them with a useful stronghold and observation point; the Tatars drove the Russians foraging parties into their main camp, but for now no major encounters took place. The Poles were however able to surround the Russian camp, started engineering works designed to flood their camp; the Poles learned that a Cossack army under Khmelnytsky numbering over 20,000 was approaching the area. To prevent it from combining forces with the Russians, the Poles split an 8,000-strong force under Lubomirski, which stopped the Cossacks near Slobodyshche; the battle of Slobodyshche took place around 8 October. On 8 October, facing hunger and low morale, Sheremetev tried to break out of the camp but was defeated. Another attempt on 14 October more successful, proved to be futile and only succeeded in moving the camp to a non-flooded area.
In the meantime, Khmelnytsky decided to enter negotiations with the Poles. The Treaty of Cudnów was signed on 17 October, repeated the 1657 Treaty of Hadiach (although the creation of the Grand Duchy of Ru
Tsardom of Russia
The Tsardom of Russia, or the Tsardom of Muscovy, was the centralized Russian state from the assumption of the title of Tsar by Ivan IV in 1547 until the foundation of the Russian Empire by Peter the Great in 1721. From 1551 to 1700, Russia grew 35,000 km2 per year; the period includes the upheavals of the transition from the Rurik to the Romanov dynasties, many wars with the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and the Ottoman Empire as well as the Russian conquest of Siberia, leading up to the ground-changing reign of Peter the Great, who took power in 1689 and transformed the Tsardom into a major European power. During the Great Northern War, he implemented substantial reforms and proclaimed the Russian Empire after victory over Sweden in 1721. While the oldest endonyms of the Grand Duchy of Moscow used in its documents were Rus' and the Russian land, a new form of its name, Rusia or Russia and became common in the 15th century. In the 1480s Russian state scribes Ivan Cherny and Mikhail Medovartsev mention Russia under the name Росиа, Medovartsev mentions "the sceptre of Russian lordship".
In the following century Russia co-existed with the old name Rus' and appeared in an inscription on the western portal of the Transfiguration Cathedral of the Spaso-Preobrazhensky Monastery in Yaroslavl, on the icon case of the Theotokos of Vladimir, in the work by Maximus the Greek, the Russian Chronograph written by Dosifei Toporkov in 1516–22 and in other sources. In 1547, Ivan IV assumed the title of “Tsar and Grand Duke of all Rus'” and was crowned on 16 January, thereby turning the Grand Duchy of Moscow into Tsardom of Russia, or "the Great Russian Tsardom", as it was called in the coronation document, by Constantinople Patriarch Jeremiah II and in numerous official texts, but the state remained referred to as Moscovia throughout Europe, predominantly in its Catholic part, though this Latin term was never used in Russia; the two names "Russia" and "Moscovia" appear to have co-existed as interchangeable during the 16th and throughout the 17th century with different Western maps and sources using different names, so that the country was called "Russia, or Moscovia" or "Russia, popularly known as Moscovia".
In England of the 16th century, it was known both as Muscovy. Such notable Englishmen as Giles Fletcher, author of the book Of the Russe Common Wealth, Samuel Collins, author of The Present State of Russia, both of whom visited Russia, were familiar with the term Russia and used it in their works. So did numerous other authors, including John Milton, who wrote A brief history of Moscovia and of other less-known countries lying eastward of Russia, published posthumously, starting it with the words: "The Empire of Moscovia, or as others call it, Russia..."In the Russian Tsardom, the word Russia replaced the old name Rus' in official documents, though the names Rus' and Russian land were still common and synonymous to it, appeared in the form Great Russia, more typical of the 17th century, whereas the state was known as Great-Russian Tsardom. According to prominent historians like Alexander Zimin and Anna Khoroshkevich, the continuous use of the term Moscovia was a result of traditional habit and the need to distinguish between the Muscovite and the Lithuanian part of the Rus', as well as of the political interests of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, which competed with Moscow for the western regions of the Rus'.
Due to the propaganda of the Commonwealth, as well as of the Jesuits, the term Moscovia was used instead of Russia in many parts of Europe where prior to the reign of Peter the Great there was a lack of direct knowledge of the country. In Northern Europe and at the court of the Holy Roman Empire, the country was known under its own name, Russia or Rossia. Sigismund von Herberstein, ambassador of the Holy Roman Emperor in Russia, used both Russia and Moscovia in his work on the Russian tsardom and noted: "The majority believes that Russia is a changed name of Roxolania. Muscovites refute this, saying that their country was called Russia". Pointing to the difference between Latin and Russian names, French captain Jacques Margeret, who served in Russia and left a detailed description of L’Empire de Russie of the early 17th century, presented to King Henry IV, stated that foreigners make "a mistake when they call them Muscovites and not Russians; when they are asked what nation they are, they respond'Russac', which means'Russians', when they are asked what place they are from, the answer is Moscow, Vologda and other cities".
The closest analogue of the Latin term Moscovia in Russia was “Tsardom of Moscow”, or “Moscow Tsardom”, used along with the name "Russia", sometimes in one sentence, as in the name of the 17th century Russian work On the Great and Glorious Russian Moscow State. By the 16th century, the Russian ruler had emerged as a Tsar. By assuming that title, the sovereign of Moscow tried to emphasize that he was a major ruler or emperor on par with the Byzantine emperor or the Mongol khan. Indeed, after Ivan III's marriage to Sophia Palaiologina, the niece of Constantine XI Palaiologos, the Moscow court adopted Byzantine terms, rituals and emblems such as the double-
Vasily Borisovich Sheremetev
Vasily Borisovich Sheremetev was a Russian military commander. Boyar since 1653, voivode of Smolensk of Kiev. One of Russian commanders during the Russo-Polish War. Taken prisoner by the Tatars for more than 20 years, he died in Russia
The Crimean Khanate was a Turkic state of the Ottoman Empire from 1441 to 1783, the longest-lived of the Turkic khanates that succeeded the empire of the Golden Horde of Mongol origin. Established by Hacı I Giray in 1441, the Crimean khans were the patrilineal descendants of Toqa Temür, thirteenth son of Jochi and grandson of Genghis Khan through marriage. Though, according to a well-know Russian historian, Doctor of Historical Sciences, professor of the Russian Academy of Sciences Zaitsev Ilya Vladimirovich, the Crimean Khanate was an independent state during all its history; the khanate was located in present-day Russia, Ukraine and Moldova. Ottoman forces under Gedik Ahmet Pasha conquered all of the Crimean peninsula and joined it to the khanate in 1475. In 1774, it was released as a sovereign political entity, following the Russo-Turkish Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca, formally annexed by the Russian Empire in 1783, becoming the Taurida Governorate. English-speaking writers during the 18th and early 19th centuries called the territory of the Crimean Khanate and of the Lesser Nogai Horde Little Tartary.
The name "Little Tartary" distinguished the area from Tartary – those areas of central and northern Asia inhabited by Turkic peoples or Tatars. The Khanate included the Crimean peninsula and the adjacent steppes corresponding to the parts of South Ukraine between the Dnieper and the Donets rivers; the territory controlled by the Crimean Khanate shifted throughout its existence due to the constant incursions by the Cossacks, who had lived along the Don since the disintegration of the Golden Horde in the 15th century. The London-based cartographer Herman Moll in a map of c. 1729 shows "Little Tartary" as including the Crimean peninsula and the steppe between Dnieper and Mius River as far north as the Dnieper bend and the upper Tor River. The Crimean Khanate originated in the early 15th century when certain clans of the Golden Horde Empire ceased their nomadic life in the Desht-i Kipchak and decided to make Crimea their yurt. At that time, the Golden Horde of the Mongol empire had governed the Crimean peninsula as an ulus since 1239, with its capital at Qirim.
The local separatists invited a Genghisid contender for the Golden Horde throne, Hacı Giray, to become their khan. Hacı Giray traveled from exile in Lithuania, he warred for independence against the Horde in the end achieving success. But Hacı Giray had to fight off internal rivals before he could ascend the throne of the khanate in 1449, after which he moved its capital to Qırq Yer; the khanate included the Crimean Peninsula as well as the adjacent steppe. The sons of Hacı I Giray contended against each other to succeed him; the Ottomans installed one of the sons, Meñli I Giray, on the throne. Menli I Giray, took the imperial title "Sovereign of Two Continents and Khan of Khans of Two Seas." In 1475 the Ottoman forces, under the command of Gedik Ahmet Pasha, conquered the Greek Principality of Theodoro and the Genoese colonies at Cembalo and Caffa. Thenceforth the khanate was a protectorate of the Ottoman Empire; the Ottoman sultan enjoyed veto power over the selection of new Crimean khans. The Empire annexed the Crimean coast but recognized the legitimacy of the khanate rule of the steppes, as the khans were descendants of Genghis Khan.
In 1475, the Ottomans imprisoned Meñli I Giray for three years for resisting the invasion. After returning from captivity in Constantinople, he accepted the suzerainty of the Ottoman Empire. Ottoman sultans treated the khans more as allies than subjects; the khans continued to have a foreign policy independent from the Ottomans in the steppes of Little Tartary. The khans continued to mint coins and use their names in Friday prayers, two important signs of sovereignty, they did not pay tribute to the Ottoman Empire. On, Crimea lost power in this relationship as the result of a crisis in 1523, during the reign of Meñli's successor, Mehmed I Giray, he died that year and beginning with his successor, from 1524 on, Crimean khans were appointed by the Sultan. The alliance of the Crimean Tatars and the Ottomans was comparable to the Polish-Lithuanian Union in its importance and durability; the Crimean cavalry became indispensable for the Ottomans' campaigns against Poland and Persia. In 1502, Meñli I Giray defeated the last khan of the Great Horde, which put an end to the Horde's claims on Crimea.
The Khanate chose as its capital Salaçıq near the Qırq Yer fortress. The capital was moved a short distance to Bahçeseray, founded in 1532 by Sahib I Giray. Both Salaçıq and the Qırq Yer fortress today are part of the expanded city of Bahçeseray; the Crimeans mounted raids into the Danubian principalities, Poland-Lithuania, Muscovy to enslave people whom they could capture. These campaigns by Crimean forces were either sefers declared military operations led by the khans themselves, or çapuls
John II Casimir Vasa
John II Casimir was King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania during the era of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, Duke of Opole in Upper Silesia, titular King of Sweden 1648–1660. In Poland, he is known and referred as Jan Kazimierz, his parents were Sigismund III Constance of Austria. His older brother, predecessor on the throne, was Władysław IV Vasa. In 1638 he embarked at Genoa for Spain to negotiate a league with Philip IV against France, but suffering shipwreck on the coast of Provence, he was seized and by order of Cardinal Richelieu imprisoned at Vincennes, where he remained two years, was only released on promise of his brother the king of Poland never to wage war against France, he travelled through various countries of western Europe, entered the order of Jesuits in Rome, was made cardinal by Innocent X, after his return to Poland he again became a layman, having succeeded his brother in 1648, married his widow, Queen Marie Louise Gonzaga. His reign commenced amid the confusion and disasters caused by the great revolt of the Cossacks under Chmielnicki, who had advanced into the heart of Poland.
The power of the king had been stripped of all its prerogatives by the growing influence of the nobles. Russia and Sweden, which had long been active enemies of Poland, availed themselves of its distracted condition, renewed their attacks. George II Rakoczy of Transylvania invaded the Polish territory, while diet after diet was dissolved by abuses of the liberum veto. Charles X Gustav of Sweden triumphantly marched through the country, occupied Kraków while John Casimir fled to Silesia. Before Częstochowa, the Swedes met with an unexpected check, a confederation of the nobles against all enemies of the country having been formed, Stefan Czarniecki won a series of victories over the Swedes, Transylvanians and Russians; the wars with the Swedes and Russians were terminated by treaties involving considerable cessions of provinces on the Baltic and the Dnieper on the part of Poland, which lost its sway over the Cossacks, who put themselves under the protection of the czar. During these long disturbances John Casimir, though feeble and of a peaceful disposition proved his patriotism and bravery.
The intrigues of his wife in favor of the duke of Enghien, son of the prince of Condé, as successor to the throne, having brought about a rebellion under Hetman Jerzy Sebastian Lubomirski, a bloody though short civil war, the king resolved upon abdication, resigned his crown at the diet of Warsaw on 16 September 1668. In the following year he retired to France, where he was hospitably treated by Louis XIV, his wife had died without issue before his abdication. John Casimir's reign was one of the most disastrous in the history of Poland, whose dismemberment by the houses of Moscow and Habsburg, as it took place 100 years after his death, he predicted in a memorable speech to the diet of 1661, he was the last monarch on the Polish throne from the House of Vasa. Official titles in Latin: Ioannes Casimirus, Dei Gratia rex Poloniae, magnus dux Lithuaniae, Prussiae, Samogitiae, Smolenscie, Czernichoviaeque. English translation: John Casimir, by God's grace King of Poland, Grand Duke of Lithuania, Prussia, Samogitia, Smolensk, Severia and, Chernihiv.
John Casimir was born in Kraków on 22 March 1609. His father, Sigismund III, the grandson of Gustav I of Sweden, had in 1592 succeeded his own father to the Swedish throne, only to be deposed in 1599 by his uncle, Charles IX of Sweden; this led to a long-standing feud wherein the Polish kings of the House of Vasa claimed the Swedish throne, resulting in the Polish–Swedish War of 1600–1629. Poland and Sweden were on opposite sides in the Thirty Years' War, although in that conflict Poland for the most part avoided taking part in any major military actions and campaigns, instead supporting the Austrian Habsburg and Catholic fraction, his mother, Queen Constance, was the daughter of Charles II of Austria and Maria Anna of Bavaria and the younger sister of Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor. John Casimir for most of his life remained in the shadow of his older half-brother, Władysław IV Vasa, he had few friends among the Polish nobility. Unfriendly, dividing his time between lavish partying and religious contemplation, disliking politics, he did not have a strong power base nor influence at the Polish court instead supporting unfavorable Habsburg policies.
He did, display talent as a military commander, showing his abilities in the Smolensk War against Muscovy. Between 1632 and 1635, Władysław IV sought to enhance his brother's influence by negotiating a marriage for John Casimir to Christina of Sweden to an Italian princess, but to no avail. In 1637 John Casimir undertook a diplomatic mission to Vienna, which he abandoned to join the army of the Holy Roman Empire and fight against the French. After his regiment was defeated in battle, he spent a year living lavishly at the Viennese court where his strong anti-Cossack interests and political views were shaped under the direct influence of the Austrian Emperor. In 1636 he returned to the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and fell in love with Baroness Guldentern, but his desire to marry her was thwarted by King Władysław. In return, Władysław attempted to make him the sovereign of the Duchy of Courland, but this was vetoed by the Commonwealth parliamen
Prince Aleksey Nikitich Trubetskoy was the last voivode of the Trubetskoy family and a diplomat, active in negotiations with Poland and Sweden in 1647 and with the ambassadors of Bohdan Khmelnytsky in 1654. He was the godfather of Peter I of Russia. Under Tsar Michael's rule Aleksey Trubetskoy was in disfavour with the powerful Patriarch Filaret and was appointed to govern distant towns of Tobolsk and Astrakhan, but the situation changed after Michael's death in 1645 and Alexis I's succession to the throne, when Trubetskoy's close friend Boris Morozov became a head of government. In 1646, Trubetskoy was appointed a commander of the Tsar's personal Guard regiment. In 1654, Prince Aleksey Trubetskoy on the side of Alexis I of Russia led the southern flank of the Russian army from Bryansk to the Grand Duchy of Lithuania; the territory between the Dniepr and Berezyna rivers was overrun with Aleksey Trubetskoy taking Mścisław and Rosławl. He defeated both Lithuanian Hetmans Janusz Radziwiłł and Korwin Gosiewski in the Battle of Shepeleviche.
In 1654, the former Principality of Trubetsk was conquered by Aleksey Trubetskoy, Prince of Trubetsk himself, as a result of the Russo-Polish War. In 1656, the second Russian army under the command of Trubetskoy advanced in the north of Swedish Livonia and captured Tartu. In 1659, a Russian army led by Aleksey Trubetskoy and Ukrainian cossacks under the command of Ivan Bezpaly crossed into the Ukraine and were defeated in a surprise attack by a large Polish-Tatar-Cossack army led by Mehmed IV Giray and Ivan Vyhovsky in the Battle of Konotop; the same year, he negotiated the Second Treaty of Pereiaslav with Yurii Khmelnytsky. Trubetskoy was married to Ekaterina Pushkina, a sister of Boyar Boris Pushkin, a prominent statesman; the mother of Aleksey was Eudokia Trubetskaya and his father was Nikita Trubetskoy. He had Fyodor Trubetskoy, he had no children and died in 1680, having accepted a monastic vow. Thus the Principality of Trubetsk returned to the possession of the Tsar. Trubetskoy Battle of Konotop Владимир Волков, кандидат исторических наук.
В воинстве счастлив и недругам страшен // Родина № 11, 2006
Juliusz Fortunat Kossak was a Polish historical painter and master illustrator who specialized in battle scenes, military portraits and horses. He was the progenitor of an artistic family that spanned four generations, father of painter Wojciech Kossak and grandfather of painter Jerzy Kossak. Juliusz Kossak grew up in Lwów during the military partitions of Poland, he obtained a degree in law at the Lwów University encouraged by his mother. At the same time he studied painting with Piotr Michałowski. Beginning in 1844 Kossak worked on commissions for the local aristocracy in Małopolska and Wolyn, he married Zofia Gałczyńska in 1855 and together they left for Paris where they spent five years. His sons were born there, the twin brothers: Wojciech and Tadeusz and the younger Stefan in 1858; the family came to Warsaw in 1860 where Kossak obtained a position as the head illustrator and engraver for Tygodnik Illustrowany magazine. They moved in 1868 settled in Kraków blessed with five children already.
Kossak bought a small estate there, known as Kossakówka, famed for artistic and literary salon frequented by Adam Asnyk, Henryk Sienkiewicz, Stanisław Witkiewicz, Józef Chełmoński and many others. Juliusz Kossak worked there till the end of his life. In 1880 he was awarded the Cross of Order of Merit by Emperor Franz Joseph of Austria–Hungary for his lifetime achievements as an artist. Kossak exhibited his work on Polish soil and abroad since 1854, his preferred medium was both in smaller and larger formats. He was the precursor of a Polish school of battle-scene painting, with his main subject matter revolving around what was of great concern to Poles opposing the military occupation of their country, he was the author of over a dozen panoramic paintings depicting Polish cavalry in battle and on military actions against foreign invaders. Kossak produced a series of portraits in oil for Polish noble families including Fredro, Tyszkiewicz and Morstin clan, his rustic and pastoral scenes included horse fairs, country weddings, winter hunting excursions, mythological scenes and horse stables.
He produces a series of illustrations of Polish epic literature such as Pan Tadeusz by Adam Mickiewicz, novels of Henryk Sienkiewicz, works by Wincenty Pol, Jan Chryzostom Pasek and others. He designed various honorary medals for Kraków foundries. Maciej Masłowski: Juliusz Kossak, Warsaw 1984, ed. „Auriga” - Wydawnictwa Artystyczne i Filmowe ISBN 83-221-0294-1. Wojciech Kossak, son of Juliusz Kossak Jerzy Kossak, Juliusz Kossak's grandson, Wojciech Kossak's son, father of painter and poet Gloria Kossak Zofia Kossak-Szczucka, Juliusz Kossak's granddaughter and daughter of Wojciech Kossak's twin brother Tadeusz Kossak Maria Pawlikowska-Jasnorzewska, Juliusz Kossak's granddaughter, daughter of Wojciech Kossak Magdalena Samozwaniec, Juliusz Kossak's granddaughter and daughter of Wojciech Kossak Gloria Kossak and poet, Juliusz Kossak's great-granddaughter, daughter of Jerzy Kossak "Kossak family", including second-, third- and fourth-generation painters List of Poles