The Noctuidae known as owlet moths, cutworms or armyworms, are the most controversial family in the superfamily Noctuoidea because many of the clades are changing, along with the other families of the Noctuoidea. It was considered the largest family in Lepidoptera for a long time, but after regrouping Lymantriinae and Calpinae within the family Erebidae, the latter holds this title now. Noctuidae is the second largest family in Noctuoidea, with about 1,089 genera and 11,772 species. However, this classification is still contingent, as more changes continue to appear between Noctuidae and Erebidae. Adult: Most noctuid adults have drab wings, but some subfamilies such as Acronictinae and Agaristinae are colorful those from tropical regions, they are characterized by a structure in the metathorax called the nodular sclerite or epaulette, which separates the tympanum and the conjunctiva in the tympanal organ. It functions to keep parasites out of the tympanal cavity. Another characteristic in this group is trifine hindwing venation, by reduction or absence of the second medial vein.
Larva: Commonly green or brown. Most are pudgy and smooth with rounded short heads and few setae, but there are some exceptions in some subfamilies. Pupa: The pupae most range from shiny brown to dark brown; when they newly pupate they are bright after a few days start to get darker. Eggs: Vary in colors, but all have a spherical shape; the word Noctuidae is derived from the name of the type genus Noctua, the Latin name for the little owl, the patronymic suffix -idae used to form taxonomic family names in animals. The common name "owlet" means a small or young owl; the names "armyworms" and "cutworms" are based on the behavior of the larvae of this group, which can occur in destructive swarms and cut the stems of plants. This family can be found worldwide except in the Antarctic region. However, some species such as the Setaceous Hebrew character can be found in the Arctic Circle in the Yukon territory of western Canada, with an elevation 1,702 m above sea level, where the temperature fluctuates between 23/-25 °C.
Many species of dart moths have been recorded in elevations as high as 4,000 m above sea level. Among the places where the number of species has been counted are North America and Northern Mexico, with about 2,522 species. 1,576 species are found in Europe. Members of Noctuidae, like other butterflies and moths, perform an important role in plant pollination. However, some species have developed a stronger connection with their host plants. For example, the lychnis moth has a strange mutualistic relationship with pink plants or carnation plants, in that larvae feed on the plant, but at the same the adults pollinate the flowers. Herbivory: Caterpillars of most Noctuidae feed on plants. Predation and cannibalism: During the larval stage, some cutworms feed on other insects. One such species is the shivering pinion, whose larvae feed on other Lepidopteran larvae. Moreover, many noctuid larvae, such as those of the fall armyworm and of genera such as Heliothis and Helicoverpa, aggressively eat their siblings and other species of caterpillar.
Nectarivory and puddling: Like many Lepidoptera, many species of adult Noctuidae visit flowers for their nectar. They seek other liquid food resources such as plant juices, dung and mud, among others; as is common in members of the order Lepidoptera, courtship in many Noctuidae includes a set of movements in which the female evaluates the male's reproductive fitness. Most noctuid moths produce pheromones. Female pheromones that attract males occur and have long been studied, but the study of male pheromones has further to go. Noctuid moths begin the reproductive season from spring to fall, are multivoltine, such as the Eastern Panthea moth, which reproduces over the year; some species have just one brood of offspring. This group has a wide range of both physical defenses. Among the chemical defenses three types stand out. First, the pyrrolizidine alkaloid sequestration present in Arctiinae is found in a few species of noctuids, including the Spanish moth. Another chemical defense is formic acid production, thought to be present only in Notodontidae, but was found in caterpillars of Trachosea champa.
The last type of chemical defense is regurgitation of plant compounds used by many insects, but the Cabbage Palm Caterpillar produces a toxin called toluquinone that deters predators. On the other hand, the main physical defense in caterpillars and adults alike is mimicry. Most owlet moths have drab colors with a variety of patterns suitable to camouflage their bodies; the second physical defense consists in thousands of secondary setae. The subfamilies that present this mechanism are Acronictinae; the third is aposematism, represented by species of Cucullinae. All adults have another me
Cupha erymanthis, the rustic, is a species of brush-footed butterfly found in forested areas of tropical South Asia and Southeast Asia. The males and females are identical; the upperside of the rustic is ochraceous light brown. Its forewing displays some loop-like, dark cellular markings with a broad, somewhat curved, transverse yellow discal band from costa to vein 1; the band broadens posteriorly. The margins of the forewing are irregularly sinuous, with the inner defined broadly with black, produced outwards in interspaces 3 and 4. Below this, the margin is squarely indented inwards in interspace 2 and outwardly convex in interspace 1. There is a curved series of three black spots; the largest is in interspaces 1, 2 and 3. The apical area beyond the band is black, with a conspicuous yellow subapical spot in interspace 5, a paler ill-defined similar spot above it in interspace 6. In the posterior, the black area is produced narrowly to the tornus and encircles a yellow spot near the apex of interspace 2.
The hindwing features a transverse sinuous and slender black line. This line is followed by a slender and somewhat lunular line; the outer subbasal transverse line broadens at the costa, is outwardly margined by pale spots in the interspaces. These are anteriorly white and well defined, posteriorly obscure or absent; the underside of the wing is much paler. The discal band on the forewing is pale, the black lunules on the apical area are replaced by pale brownish ochre. There hindwings. Markings on the forewing include a discal, slender, chestnut-brown lunular line, bent inwards above vein 5, bordered outwardly by a series of dark spots; the large black spot in interspace 1 is the same as that on the upperside. There are outer transverse subterminal series of small dentate spots. On the hindwing are indistinct cellular markings; the outer subbasal dark transverse line is similar to that on the upperside, but is more defined and sinuous. There is a transverse discal series of uneven lunules, paler than the ground colour, followed by a series of dark spots.
There is a postdiscal obscure pale lunular band, a subterminal series of dentate dark spots obscure or obsolescent. The antennae, head and abdomen are ochraceous brown. Beneath, the palpi and abdomen are a pale ochraceous white; the caterpillar is brown, with a lateral series of darker brown markings. The head has two slender branched spines. Succeeding segments on either side feature a lateral series of semitransparent similar brown spines; the pupa is green, studded with four small pink tubercles. Cupha erymanthis erymanthis - China, Hong Kong, Taiwan Cupha erymanthis placida Moore, - Sri Lanka Cupha erymanthis maja, Fruhstorfer – south India Cupha erymanthis lotis, Sulzer – northeast India, Malaya, Indochina Cupha erymanthis andamanica, Moore – Andamans Cupha erymanthis nicobarica, Felder – Nicobar Is; the rustic caterpillars feed on Flacourtiaceae species, for example Flacourtia montana, F. ramontchii, F. rukam, Xylosma racemosa and Scolopia species. They eat plants such as Glochidion eriocarpum and Lepisanthes rubiginosum.
Adult butterflies visit carrion to drink the fluids. They seem to favour carcasses lying in exposed, sunny areas over those which are in the shade
Rustic capitals is an ancient Roman calligraphic script. Because the term is negatively connotated supposing an opposition to the more'civilized' form of the Roman square capitals, Bernhard Bischoff prefers to call the script canonized capitals; the script was used between the 1st century and the 9th century, most between the 4th and 6th centuries. After the 5th century, rustic capitals began to fall out of use, but they continued to be used as a display script in titles and headings, along with uncial as the script of the main text. Rustic capitals are similar to Roman square capitals, but are less rigid, influenced more by pen and ink writing on papyrus or parchment than the writing used for inscriptions; the letters are thinner and more compressed, use many more curved lines than do square capitals, have descenders extending below the baseline. The scripts written in rustic capitals utilize punctus marks to denote word separation, contrary to the common practice of scriptura continua. About fifty manuscripts with rustic capitals survive, including four copies of works by Virgil, one copy of a work by Terence, one of a work by Prudentius.
The script was used for de luxe copies of pagan authors. Roman cursive'Manual of Latin Palaeography'
Hoplodrina blanda is a moth of the family Noctuidae. It is found in the Palearctic ecozone; the wingspan is 31–35 mm. The length of the forewings is 13–16 mm. Forewing fawn-tinged grey, with a fuscous suffusion, with the ground colour sometimes paler, more luteous ochreous in examples from W. Turkestan. Occurs throughout Northern and Central Europe and in Central Asia; these Asiatic examples — from Issyk-Kul. Described from a series of more than a dozen males but only one female, from the above-mentioned localities. Similar to and confused with Hoplodrina octogenaria and Hoplodrina ambigua. Certain identification requires dissection of the genitalia; the moth flies in one generation from late May to early September.. Larva dotted with dark; the larvae feed on herbaceous plants such as Plantago and Rumex. ^ The flight season refers to Belgium and the Netherlands. This may vary in other parts of the range; the Rustic at UKmoths Funet Taxonomy Fauna Europaea Lepiforum.de Includes photo of slide-mounted genitalia Vlindernet.nl
In general, a rural area or countryside is a geographic area, located outside towns and cities. The Health Resources and Services Administration of the U. S. Department of Health and Human Services defines the word rural as encompassing "...all population and territory not included within an urban area. Whatever is not urban is considered rural."Typical rural areas have a low population density and small settlements. Agricultural areas are rural, as are other types of areas such as forest. Different countries have varying definitions of rural for administrative purposes. In Canada, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development defines a "predominantly rural region" as having more than 50% of the population living in rural communities where a "rural community" has a population density less than 150 people per square kilometre. In Canada, the census division has been used to represent "regions" and census consolidated sub-divisions have been used to represent "communities". Intermediate regions have 15 to 49 percent of their population living in a rural community.
Predominantly urban regions have less than 15 percent of their population living in a rural community. Predominantly rural regions are classified as rural metro-adjacent, rural non-metro-adjacent and rural northern, following Ehrensaft and Beeman. Rural metro-adjacent regions are predominantly rural census divisions which are adjacent to metropolitan centres while rural non-metro-adjacent regions are those predominantly rural census divisions which are not adjacent to metropolitan centres. Rural northern regions are predominantly rural census divisions that are found either or above the following lines of parallel in each province: Newfoundland and Labrador, 50th; as well, rural northern regions encompass all of Northwest Territories and Nunavut. Statistics Canada defines rural for their population counts; this definition has changed over time. It has referred to the population living outside settlements of 1,000 or fewer inhabitants; the current definition states that census rural is the population outside settlements with fewer than 1,000 inhabitants and a population density below 400 people per square kilometre.
84% of the United States' inhabitants live in suburban and urban areas, but cities occupy only 10 percent of the country. Rural areas occupy the remaining 90 percent; the U. S. Census Bureau, the USDA's Economic Research Service, the Office of Management and Budget have come together to help define rural areas. United States Census Bureau: The Census Bureau definitions, which are based on population density, defines rural areas as all territory outside Census Bureau-defined urbanized areas and urban clusters. An urbanized area consists of a central surrounding areas whose population is greater than 50,000, they may not contain individual cities with 50,000 or more. Thus, rural areas comprise open country and settlements with fewer than 2,500 residents. USDA The USDA's Office of Rural Development may define rural by various population thresholds; the 2002 farm bill defined rural and rural area as any area other than a city or town that has a population of greater than 50,000 inhabitants, the urbanized areas contiguous and adjacent to such a city or town.
The rural-urban continuum codes, urban influence code, rural county typology codes developed by USDA’s Economic Research Service allow researchers to break out the standard metropolitan and non-metropolitan areas into smaller residential groups. For example, a metropolitan county is one that contains an urbanized area, or one that has a twenty-five percent commuter rate to an urbanized area regardless of population. OMB: Under the Core Based Statistical Areas used by the OMB, a metropolitan county, or Metropolitan Statistical Area, consists of central counties with one or more urbanized areas and outlying counties that are economically tied to the core counties as measured by worker commuting data. Non-metro counties are outside the boundaries of metro areas and are further subdivided into Micropolitan Statistical Areas centered on urban clusters of 10,000–50,000 residents, all remaining non-core counties. In 2014, the USDA updated their rural / non-rural area definitions based on the 2010 Census counts.
National Center for Education Statistics revised its definition of rural schools in 2006 after working with the Census Bureau to create a new locale classification system to capitalize on improved geocoding technology. Rural health definitions can be different for establishing under-served areas or health care accessibility in rural areas of the United States. According to the handbook, Definitions of Rural: A Handbook for Health Policy Makers and Researchers, "Residents of metropolitan counties are thought to have easy access to the concentrated health services of the county's central areas. However, some metropolitan counties are so large that t
The Noctuinae are a subfamily of the family Noctuidae. The larvae of many species stems of various grasses; some are generalist feeders. Noctuid systematics is in a state of flux; the validity of the tribe Xestiini is doubtful for example. This subfamily provisionally contains these genera: Bugguide.net. Subfamily Noctuinae - Cutworm or Dart Moths
Renaissance architecture is the European architecture of the period between the early 14th and early 16th centuries in different regions, demonstrating a conscious revival and development of certain elements of ancient Greek and Roman thought and material culture. Stylistically, Renaissance architecture followed Gothic architecture and was succeeded by Baroque architecture. Developed first in Florence, with Filippo Brunelleschi as one of its innovators, the Renaissance style spread to other Italian cities; the style was carried to France, England and other parts of Europe at different dates and with varying degrees of impact. Renaissance style places emphasis on symmetry, proportion and the regularity of parts, as they are demonstrated in the architecture of classical antiquity and in particular ancient Roman architecture, of which many examples remained. Orderly arrangements of columns and lintels, as well as the use of semicircular arches, hemispherical domes and aedicula replaced the more complex proportional systems and irregular profiles of medieval buildings.
The word "Renaissance" derived from the term "la rinascita", which means rebirth, first appeared in Giorgio Vasari's Vite de' più eccellenti architetti, pittori, et scultori Italiani The Lives of the Artists, 1550–60. Although the term Renaissance was used first by the French historian Jules Michelet, it was given its more lasting definition from the Swiss historian Jacob Burckhardt, whose book, Die Kultur der Renaissance in Italien 1860, The Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy, 1860, English translation, by SGC Middlemore, in 2 vols. London, 1878) was influential in the development of the modern interpretation of the Italian Renaissance; the folio of measured drawings Édifices de Rome moderne. Erwin Panofsky and Renascences in Western Art, The Renaissance style was recognized by contemporaries in the term "all'antica", or "in the ancient manner". Italy of the 15th century, the city of Florence in particular, was home to the Renaissance, it is in Florence that the new architectural style had its beginning, not evolving in the way that Gothic grew out of Romanesque, but consciously brought to being by particular architects who sought to revive the order of a past "Golden Age".
The scholarly approach to the architecture of the ancient coincided with the general revival of learning. A number of factors were influential in bringing this about. Italian architects had always preferred forms that were defined and structural members that expressed their purpose. Many Tuscan Romanesque buildings demonstrate these characteristics, as seen in the Florence Baptistery and Pisa Cathedral. Italy had never adopted the Gothic style of architecture. Apart from the Cathedral of Milan, few Italian churches show the emphasis on vertical, the clustered shafts, ornate tracery and complex ribbed vaulting that characterise Gothic in other parts of Europe; the presence in Rome, of ancient architectural remains showing the ordered Classical style provided an inspiration to artists at a time when philosophy was turning towards the Classical. In the 15th century, Florence and Naples extended their power through much of the area that surrounded them, making the movement of artists possible; this enabled Florence to have significant artistic influence in Milan, through Milan, France.
In 1377, the return of the Pope from the Avignon Papacy and the re-establishment of the Papal court in Rome, brought wealth and importance to that city, as well as a renewal in the importance of the Pope in Italy, further strengthened by the Council of Constance in 1417. Successive Popes Julius II, 1503–13, sought to extend the Pope’s temporal power throughout Italy. In the early Renaissance, Venice controlled sea trade over goods from the East; the large towns of Northern Italy were prosperous through trade with the rest of Europe, Genoa providing a seaport for the goods of France and Spain. Trade brought wool from England to Florence, ideally located on the river for the production of fine cloth, the industry on which its wealth was founded. By dominating Pisa, Florence gained a seaport, maintained dominance of Genoa. In this commercial climate, one family in particular turned their attention from trade to the lucrative business of money-lending; the Medici became the chief bankers to the princes of Europe, becoming princes themselves as they did so, by reason of both wealth and influence.
Along the trade routes, thus offered some protection by commercial interest, moved not only goods but artists and philosophers. The return of the Pope Gregory XI from Avignon in September 1377 and the resultant new emphasis on Rome as the center of Christian spirituality, brought about a boom in the building of churches in Rome such as had not taken place for nearly a thousand years; this commenced in the mid 15th century and gained momentum in the 16th century, reaching its peak in the Baroque period. The construction of the Sistine Chapel with its uniquely important decorations and the entire rebuilding of St Peter's, one of Christendom's most significant churches, were part of this process. In wealthy republican Florence, the impetus for church-building was more civic than spiritual; the unfinished state of the enormous cathedral dedicated to the Blessed Virgin Mary did no honour to the city und