Richard Francis Burton
Sir Richard Francis Burton was a British explorer, translator, soldier, cartographer, spy, poet and diplomat. He was famed for his travels and explorations in Asia and the Americas, as well as his extraordinary knowledge of languages and cultures. According to one count, he spoke 29 European and African languages. Burton's best-known achievements include: a well-documented journey to Mecca in disguise, at a time when Europeans were forbidden access on pain of death, his works and letters extensively criticized colonial policies of the British Empire to the detriment of his career. Although he aborted his university studies, he became a prolific and erudite author and wrote numerous books and scholarly articles about subjects including human behaviour, falconry, sexual practices and ethnography. A characteristic feature of his books is the copious footnotes and appendices containing remarkable observations and information. William Henry Wilkins wrote: "So far as I can gather from all I have learned, the chief value of Burton’s version of The Scented Garden lay not so much in his translation of the text, though that of course was admirably done, as in the copious notes and explanations which he had gathered together for the purpose of annotating the book.
He had made this subject a study of years. For the notes of the book alone he had been collecting material for thirty years, though his actual translation of it only took him eighteen months."Burton was a captain in the army of the East India Company, serving in India. Following this, he was engaged by the Royal Geographical Society to explore the east coast of Africa and led an expedition guided by locals and was the first European known to have seen Lake Tanganyika. In life, he served as British consul in Fernando Pó, Santos and Trieste, he was a Fellow of the Royal Geographical Society and was awarded a knighthood in 1886. Burton was born in Torquay, Devon, at 21:30 on 19 March 1821, he was baptized on 2 September 1821 at Elstree Church in Hertfordshire. His father, Lt.-Colonel Joseph Netterville Burton, of the 36th Regiment, was an Irish-born British army officer of Anglo-Irish extraction who through his mother's family – the Campbells of Tuam – was a first cousin of Lt.-Colonel Henry Peard Driscoll and Mrs Richard Graves.
Richard's mother, Martha Baker, was the daughter and co-heiress of a wealthy English squire, Richard Baker, of Barham House, for whom he was named. Burton had two siblings, Maria Katherine Elizabeth Burton and Edward Joseph Netterville Burton, born in 1823 and 1824, respectively. Burton's family travelled during his childhood. In 1825, they moved to France. Burton's early education was provided by various tutors employed by his parents, he first began a formal education in 1829 at a preparatory school on Richmond Green in Richmond, run by Rev. Charles Delafosse. Over the next few years, his family travelled between England and Italy. Burton showed an early gift for languages and learned French, Italian and Latin, as well as several dialects. During his youth, he was rumored to have carried on an affair with a young Roma woman, learning the rudiments of her language, Romani; the peregrinations of his youth may have encouraged Burton to regard himself as an outsider for much of his life. As he put it, "Do what thy manhood bids thee do, from none but self expect applause".
Burton matriculated at Trinity College, Oxford, on 19 November 1840. Before getting a room at the college, he lived for a short time in the house of Dr. William Alexander Greenhill physician to the Radcliffe Infirmary. Here, he met John Henry Newman. Despite his intelligence and ability, Burton was antagonised by his peers. During his first term, he is said to have challenged another student to a duel after the latter mocked Burton's moustache. Burton continued to gratify his love of languages by studying Arabic. In April 1842, he attended a steeplechase in deliberate violation of college rules and subsequently dared to tell the college authorities that students should be allowed to attend such events. Hoping to be "rusticated" – that is, suspended with the possibility of reinstatement, the punishment received by some less provocative students who had visited the steeplechase – he was instead permanently expelled from Trinity College. In his own words, "fit for nothing but to be shot at for six pence a day", Burton enlisted in the army of the East India Company at the behest of his ex-college classmates who were members.
He hoped to fight in the first Afghan war. He was posted to the 18th Bombay Native Infantry based in Gujarat and under the command of General Charles James Napier. While in India, he became a proficient speaker of Hindustani, Punjabi, Sindhi and Marathi as well as Persian and Arabic, his studies of Hindu culture had progressed to such an extent that "my Hindu tea
University College, Oxford
University College, is a constituent college of the University of Oxford in England. It has a claim to being the oldest college of the university, having been founded in 1249 by William of Durham; as of 2018, the college had an estimated financial endowment of £132.7m. The college is associated with a number of influential people. Notable alumni include Clement Attlee, Harold Wilson, Bill Clinton, Neil Gorsuch, Stephen Hawking, C. S. Lewis, V. S. Naipaul and Percy Bysshe Shelley. A legend arose in the 14th century that the college was founded by King Alfred in 872; this explains why the college arms are those attributed to King Alfred, why the Visitor is always the reigning monarch, why the college celebrated its millennium in 1872. Most agree, he bequeathed money to support ten or twelve masters of arts studying divinity, a property which became known as Aula Universitatis was bought in 1253. This date still allows the claim that Univ is the oldest of the Oxford colleges, although this is contested by Balliol College and Merton College.
Univ was only open to fellows studying theology until the 16th century. The college acquired four properties on its current site south of the High Street in 1332 and 1336 and built a quadrangle in the 15th century; as it grew in size and wealth, its medieval buildings were replaced with the current Main Quadrangle in the 17th century. Although the foundation stone was placed on 17 April 1634, the disruption of the English Civil War meant it was not completed until sometime in 1676. Radcliffe Quad followed more by 1719, the library was built in 1861. Like many of Oxford's colleges, University College accepted its first mixed-sex cohort in 1979, having been an institution for men only; the main entrance to the college is on the High Street and its grounds are bounded by Merton Street and Magpie Lane. The college is divided by Logic Lane, owned by the college and runs through the centre; the western side of the college is occupied by the library, the hall, the chapel and the two quadrangles which house both student accommodation and college offices.
The eastern side of the college is devoted to student accommodation in rooms above the High Street shops, on Merton Street or in the separate Goodhart Building. This building is named after former master of the college Arthur Lehman Goodhart. A specially constructed building in the college, the Shelley Memorial, houses a statue by Edward Onslow Ford of the poet Percy Bysshe Shelley — a former member of the college, sent down for writing The Necessity of Atheism, along with his friend T. J. Hogg. Shelley is depicted lying dead on the Italian seashore; the college annexe on Staverton Road in North Oxford houses students after their second year. The college owns the University College Boathouse and a sports ground, located nearby on Abingdon Road; the Alternative Prospectus is produced by current students for prospective applicants. The publication was awarded a HELOA Innovation and Best Practice Award in 2011; the Univ Alternative Prospectus offers student written advice and guidance to potential Oxford applicants.
The award recognises the engagement of the college community, unique newspaper format, forward-thinking use of social media and the collaborative working between staff and students. University has the longest grace of any Oxford college, it is read before every Formal Hall, held Tuesday and Sunday at Univ. The reading is performed by a Scholar of the college and whoever is sitting at the head of High Table; the Scholar does not need to know it by heart, it is unusual for people to do so. Gratiarum actio in collegio magnae aulae universitatis quotidie ante mensam dicenda. SCHOLAR — Benedictus sit Deus in donis suis. RESPONSE — Et sanctus in omnibus operibus suis. SCHOLAR — Adiutorium nostrum in Nomine Domini. RESPONSE — Qui fecit coelum et terram. SCHOLAR — Sit Nomen Domini benedictum. RESPONSE — Ab hoc tempore usque in saecula. SCHOLAR — Domine Deus, Resurrectio et Vita credentium, Qui semper es laudandus tam in viventibus quam in defunctis, gratias Tibi agimus pro omnibus Fundatoribus caeterisque Benefactoribus nostris, quorum beneficiis hic ad pietatem et ad studia literarum alimur: Te rogantes ut nos, hisce Tuis donis ad Tuam gloriam recte utentes, una cum iis ad vitam immortalem perducamur.
Per Jesum Christum Dominum nostrum. Amen. SCHOLAR — Deus det vivis gratiam, defunctis requiem: Ecclesiae, Regnoque nostro, pacem et concordiam: et nobis peccatoribus vitam aeternam. Amen; the Grace that must be said every day before dinner in University College. SCHOLAR — Blessed be God in his gifts. RESPONSE — And holy in all his works. SCHOLAR — Our help is in the name of the Lord. RESPONSE — Who has made heaven and earth. SCHOLAR — May the name of the Lord be blessed. RESPONSE — From this time and for evermore. SCHOLAR — Lord God, the Resurrection and Life of those who believe, You are always to be praised as much among the living as among the departed. We give You thanks for all our founders and our other benefactors, by whose benefactions we are nourished here for piety and for the study of letters, and we ask you that we, rightly using these Your gifts to Your glory, may be brought with them to immortal life. Through Jesus Christ our Lord, Amen. SCHOLAR — May God give grace to the living, rest to the departed.
Amen.. Many influential politicians are associ
Balliol College, Oxford
Balliol College is one of the constituent colleges of the University of Oxford in England. One of Oxford's oldest colleges, it was founded around 1263 by John I de Balliol, a rich landowner from Barnard Castle in County Durham, who provided the foundation and endowment for the college; when de Balliol died in 1269 his widow, Dervorguilla, a woman whose wealth far exceeded that of her husband, continued his work in setting up the college, providing a further endowment, writing the statutes. She is considered a co‑founder of the college. Among the college's alumni are three former prime ministers, Harald V of Norway, five Nobel laureates, numerous literary and philosophical figures, including Adam Smith, Gerard Manley Hopkins, Aldous Huxley. John Wycliffe, who translated the Bible into English, was Master of the college in the 1360s. In 2018 Balliol had an endowment of £139.3m. Balliol College was founded in about 1263 by John I de Balliol under the guidance of Walter of Kirkham, the Bishop of Durham.
According to legend, the founder had abducted the bishop as part of a land dispute and as a penance he was publicly beaten by the bishop and had to support a group of scholars at Oxford. After de Balliol's death in 1268, his widow, Dervorguilla of Galloway, made arrangements to ensure the permanence of the college in that she provided capital and in 1282 formulated the college statutes, documents that survive to this day. Along with University and Merton, Balliol can claim to be the oldest Oxford college. Balliol’s claim is that a house of scholars was established by the founder in Oxford in around 1263, before Merton in 1274 and University in around 1280. Under a statute of 1881, New Inn Hall, one of the remaining medieval halls, was merged into Balliol College in 1887. Balliol acquired New Inn Hall's admissions and other records for 1831–1887 as well as the library of New Inn Hall, which contained 18th-century law books; the New Inn Hall site was sold and is now part of St Peter's College, Oxford.
In 1880, seven mischievous Balliol undergraduates published The Masque of B-ll--l, a broadsheet of forty quatrains making light of their superiors – the Master and selected Fellows and Commoners – and themselves. The outraged authorities suppressed the collection, only a few copies survived, three of which found their way into the College Library over the years, one into the Bodleian Library. Verses of this form are now known as Balliol rhymes; the best known of these rhymes is the one on Benjamin Jowett. This has been quoted and reprinted in every book about Jowett and about Balliol since. First come I. My name is J-W-TT. There's no knowledge but I know it. I am Master of this College; this and 18 others are attributed to Henry Charles Beeching. The other quatrains are much less well known. William Tuckwell included 18 of these quatrains in his Reminiscences in 1900, but they all came out only in 1939, thanks to Walter George Hiscock, an Oxford librarian, who issued them then and in a second edition in 1955.
For many years, there has been a traditional and fierce rivalry shown between the students of Balliol and those of its immediate neighbour to the east, Trinity College. It has manifested itself on the river; the rivalry reflects that which exists between Trinity College and Balliol's sister college, St John's College, Cambridge. In college folklore, the rivalry goes back to the late 17th century, when Ralph Bathurst, President of Trinity, was observed throwing stones at Balliol's windows. In fact, in its modern form, the rivalry appears to date from the late 1890s, when the chant or song known as a "Gordouli" began to be sung from the Balliol side; the traditional words run: Gordouli Face like a ham,Bobby Johnson says so And he should know. The shouting of chants over the wall is still known as "a Gordouli", the tradition continues as the students gather to sing following boat club dinners and other events; the traditional Gordouli is said to have been sung by Balliol and Trinity men in the trenches of Mesopotamia in the First World War.
Balliol became known for its radicalism and political activism in the 20th century, saw an abortive coup in the 1960s in which students took over the college and declared it "the People's Republic of Balliol". The contrast between the radical tendencies of many Balliol students and the traditional conservatism and social exclusivity of Trinity gave the rivalry an extra edge; the fact that Balliol had admitted a number of Indian and Asiatic students gave many of the taunts from the Trinity side a distinctly racist tone: Balliol students, for example, were sometime referred to as "Basutos". In Five Red Herrings, a Lord Peter Wimsey novel by Somerville alumna Dorothy L. Sayers, Lord Peter is asked whether he remembers a certain contemporary from Trinity. "'I never knew any Trinity men,' said Wimsey.'The Jews have no dealings with the Samaritans.'" Sayers alludes to the rivalry in Murder Must Advertise: Mr Ingleby, a Trinity man, comments, "If there is one thing more repulsive than another it is Balliolity."One of the wittier raids from Balliol, in 1962 or 1963, involved the turfing of the whole of Trinity JCR.
The last incident suspected to relate to the feud was the vandalisation of Trinity's SCR pond, which led to the death of all but one of the fish. For
Harvard College is the undergraduate liberal arts college of Harvard University. Founded in 1636 in Cambridge, Massachusetts, it is the oldest institution of higher learning in the United States and one of the most prestigious in the world; the school came into existence in 1636 by vote of the Great and General Court of the Massachusetts Bay Colony—though without a single building, instructor, or student. In 1638, the college became home for North America's first known printing press, carried by the ship John of London. Three years the college was renamed in honor of deceased Charlestown minister John Harvard who had bequeathed to the school his entire library and half of his monetary estate. Harvard's first instructor was schoolmaster Nathaniel Eaton; the school's first students were graduated in 1642. In 1665, Caleb Cheeshahteaumuck "from the Wampanoag … did graduate from Harvard, the first Indian to do so in the colonial period."The colleges of England's Oxford and Cambridge Universities are communities within the larger university, each an association of scholars sharing room and board.
Harvard's founders may have envisioned it as the first in a series of sibling colleges on the English model which would constitute a university—though no further colleges materialized in colonial times. The Indian College was active from 1640 to no than 1693, but it was a minor addition not operated in federation with Harvard according to the English model. Harvard began granting higher degrees in the late eighteenth century, it was styled Harvard University as Harvard College was thought of as the university's undergraduate division in particular. Today Harvard College is responsible for undergraduate admissions, housing, student life, athletics – all undergraduate matters except instruction, the purview of Harvard University's Faculty of Arts and Sciences; the body known as The President and Fellows of Harvard College retains its traditional name despite having governance of the entire University. Radcliffe College paid Harvard faculty to repeat their lectures for women students. Since the 1970s, Harvard has been responsible for undergraduate governance matters for women.
About 2,000 students are admitted each year, representing between five and ten percent of those applying. Few transfers are accepted. Midway through the second year, most undergraduates join one of fifty standard fields of concentration. Joint concentrations and special concentrations are possible. Most Harvard College concentrations lead to the Artium Baccalaureus completed in four years, though students leaving high school with substantial college-level coursework may finish in three. A smaller number receive the Scientiarum Baccalaureus. There are special degree programs, such as a five-year program leading to both a Harvard undergraduate degree and a Master of Arts from the New England Conservatory of Music. Undergraduates must fulfill the general education requirement of coursework in eight designated fields: Aesthetic and Interpretive Understanding Culture and Belief Empirical and Mathematical Reasoning Ethical Reasoning Science of Living Systems Science of the Physical Universe Societies of the World United States in the WorldEach student's exposure to a range of intellectual areas, while pursuing a chosen concentration in depth, fulfills the injunction of Harvard past-president Abbott Lawrence Lowell that liberal education should produce "men who know a little of everything and something well."In 2012, dozens of students were disciplined for cheating on a take-home exam in one course.
The university instituted an honor code beginning in the fall of 2015. The total annual cost of attendance, including tuition and room and board, for 2018–2019 was $67,580. Under financial aid guidelines adopted in 2012, families with incomes below $65,000 no longer pay anything for their children to attend, including room and board. Families with incomes between $65,000 to $150,000 pay no more than 10 percent of their annual income. In 2009, Harvard offered grants totaling $414 million across all eleven divisions. Grants total 88 percent of Harvard's aid for undergraduate students, with aid provided by loans and work-study. Nearly all undergraduates live on campus, for the first year in dormitories in or near Harvard Yard and in the upperclass houses—administrative subdivisions of the college as well as living quarters, providing a sense of community in what might otherwise be a incohesive and administratively daunting university environment; each house is presided over by a senior-faculty dean, while its Allston Burr Resident Dean—usually a junior faculty member—supervises undergraduates' day-to-day academic and disciplinary well-being.
The faculty dean and resident dean are assisted by other members of the Senior Common Room—select graduate students and university officials brought into voluntary association with each house. Many tutors reside in the house, as do the faculty resident dean. Terms like tutor, Senior Common Room, Junior Common Room reflect
William Randolph Hearst
William Randolph Hearst Sr. was an American businessman, newspaper publisher, politician known for developing the nation's largest newspaper chain and media company, Hearst Communications. His flamboyant methods of yellow journalism influenced the nation's popular media by emphasizing sensationalism and human interest stories. Hearst entered the publishing business in 1887 with Mitchell Trubitt after being given control of The San Francisco Examiner by his wealthy father. Moving to New York City, Hearst acquired the New York Journal and fought a bitter circulation war with Joseph Pulitzer's New York World. Hearst sold papers by printing giant headlines over lurid stories featuring crime, corruption and innuendo. Acquiring more newspapers, Hearst created a chain that numbered nearly 30 papers in major American cities at its peak, he expanded to magazines, creating the largest newspaper and magazine business in the world. Hearst controlled the editorial positions and coverage of political news in all his papers and magazines, thereby published his personal views.
He sensationalized Spanish atrocities in Cuba while calling for war in 1898 against Spain. He was twice elected as a Democrat to the U. S. House of Representatives, he ran unsuccessfully for President of the United States in 1904, Mayor of New York City in 1905 and 1909, for Governor of New York in 1906. During his political career, he espoused views associated with the left wing of the Progressive Movement, claiming to speak on behalf of the working class. After 1918 and the end of the Great War, Hearst began adopting more conservative views, started promoting an isolationist foreign policy to avoid any more entanglement in what he regarded as corrupt European affairs, he was at once a militant nationalist, a fierce anti-communist after the Russian Revolution, suspicious of the League of Nations and of the British, French and Russians. He was a leading supporter of Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1932–34, but broke with FDR and became his most prominent enemy on the right. Hearst's empire reached a peak circulation of 20 million readers a day in the mid-1930s.
He was a bad manager of finances and so in debt during the Great Depression that most of his assets had to be liquidated in the late 1930s. Hearst managed to keep his magazines, his life story was the main inspiration for Charles Foster Kane, the lead character in Orson Welles's film Citizen Kane. His Hearst Castle, constructed on a hill overlooking the Pacific Ocean near San Simeon, has been preserved as a State Historical Monument and is designated as a National Historic Landmark. William R. Hearst was born in San Francisco to George Hearst, a millionaire mining engineer, owner of gold and other mines through his corporation, his much younger wife Phoebe Apperson Hearst, from a small town in Missouri; the elder Hearst entered politics, served as a US Senator, first appointed for a brief period in 1886 elected that year. He served from 1887 to his death in 1891, his paternal great-grandfather was John Hearst of Ulster Protestant origin. John Hearst, with his wife and six children, migrated to America from Ballybay, County Monaghan, Ireland, as part of the Cahans Exodus in 1766, settled in South Carolina.
Their immigration to South Carolina was spurred in part by the colonial government's policy that encouraged the immigration of Irish Protestants, many of Scots origin. The names "John Hearse" and "John Hearse Jr." appear on the council records of October 26, 1766, being credited with meriting 400 and 100 acres of land on the Long Canes, based upon 100 acres to heads of household and 50 acres for each dependent of a Protestant immigrant. The "Hearse" spelling of the family name never was used afterward by the family members themselves, or any family of any size. A separate theory purports that one branch of a "Hurst" family of Virginia moved to South Carolina at about the same time and changed the spelling of its surname of over a century to that of the immigrant Hearsts. Hearst's mother, née Phoebe Elizabeth Apperson, was of Scots-Irish ancestry, she was appointed as the first woman regent of University of California, donated funds to establish libraries at several universities, funded many anthropological expeditions, founded the Phoebe A. Hearst Museum of Anthropology.
Hearst attended prep school at St. Paul's School in New Hampshire, he enrolled in the Harvard College class of 1885. While there he was a member of Delta Kappa Epsilon, the A. D. Club, the Hasty Pudding Theatricals, of the Lampoon before being expelled, his antics had ranged from sponsoring massive beer parties in Harvard Square to sending pudding pots used as chamber pots to his professors. Searching for an occupation, in 1887 Hearst took over management of his father's newspaper, the San Francisco Examiner, which his father had acquired in 1880 as repayment for a gambling debt. Giving his paper a grand motto, "Monarch of the Dailies," William R. Hearst acquired the best equipment and the most talented writers of the time, including Ambrose Bierce, Mark Twain, Jack London, political cartoonist Homer Davenport. A self-proclaimed populist, Hearst reported accounts of municipal and financial corruption attacking companies in which his own family held an interest. Within a few years, his paper dominated the San Francisco market.
Early in his career at the San Francisco Examiner, Hearst envisioned running a large newspaper chain, "always knew that his dream of a nation-spanning, multi-paper
James Russell Lowell
James Russell Lowell was an American Romantic poet, critic and diplomat. He is associated with the Fireside Poets, a group of New England writers who were among the first American poets that rivaled the popularity of British poets; these writers used conventional forms and meters in their poetry, making them suitable for families entertaining at their fireside. Lowell graduated from Harvard College in 1838, despite his reputation as a troublemaker, went on to earn a law degree from Harvard Law School, he published his first collection of poetry in 1841 and married Maria White in 1844. The couple had several children, they soon became involved in the movement to abolish slavery, with Lowell using poetry to express his anti-slavery views and taking a job in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, as the editor of an abolitionist newspaper. After moving back to Cambridge, Lowell was one of the founders of a journal called The Pioneer, which lasted only three issues, he gained notoriety in 1848 with the publication of A Fable for Critics, a book-length poem satirizing contemporary critics and poets.
The same year, he published The Biglow Papers. He went on to publish several other poetry collections and essay collections throughout his literary career. Maria died in 1853, Lowell accepted a professorship of languages at Harvard in 1854, he traveled to Europe before assuming his teaching duties in 1856, married Frances Dunlap shortly thereafter in 1857. That year, Lowell became editor of The Atlantic Monthly, it was not until 20 years that he received his first political appointment, the ambassadorship to the Kingdom of Spain. He was appointed ambassador to the Court of St. James's, he spent his last years in Cambridge in the same estate where he was born, died there in 1891. Lowell believed that the poet played an important role as a critic of society, he used poetry for reform in abolitionism. However, his commitment to the anti-slavery cause wavered over the years, as did his opinion on African-Americans, he attempted to emulate the true Yankee accent in the dialogue of his characters in The Biglow Papers.
This depiction of the dialect, as well as his many satires, was an inspiration to writers such as Mark Twain and H. L. Mencken. James Russell Lowell was born February 22, 1819, he was a member of the eighth generation of the Lowell family, the descendants of Percival Lowle who settled in Newbury, Massachusetts, in 1639. His parents were the Reverend Charles Russell Lowell Sr. a minister at a Unitarian church in Boston who had studied theology at Edinburgh, Harriett Brackett Spence Lowell. By the time that James Russell Lowell was born, the family owned a large estate in Cambridge called Elmwood, he was the youngest of six children. Lowell's mother built in him an appreciation for literature at an early age in poetry and tales from her native Orkney, he attended school under Sophia Dana, who married George Ripley. Lowell attended Harvard College beginning at age 15 in 1834, though he was not a good student and got into trouble. In his sophomore year, he was absent from required chapel attendance 14 times and from classes 56 times.
In his last year there, he wrote, "During Freshman year, I did nothing, during Sophomore year I did nothing, during Junior year I did nothing, during Senior year I have thus far done nothing in the way of college studies." In his senior year, he became one of the editors of Harvardiana literary magazine, to which he contributed prose and poetry that he admitted was of low quality. As he said "I was as great an ass as brayed & thought it singing." During his undergraduate years, Lowell was a member of Hasty Pudding and served both as Secretary and Poet. Lowell was elected the poet of the class of 1838 and, as was tradition, was asked to recite an original poem on Class Day, the day before Commencement on July 17, 1838, he was suspended and not allowed to participate. Instead, his poem was made available thanks to subscriptions paid by his classmates, he had composed the poem in Concord, where he had been exiled by the Harvard faculty to the care of the Rev. Barzallai Frost because of his neglect of his studies.
During his stay in Concord, he became friends with Ralph Waldo Emerson and got to know the other Transcendentalists. His Class Day poem satirized the social movements of the day. Lowell did not know what vocation to choose after graduating, he vacillated among business, the ministry and law, he enrolled at Harvard Law School in 1840 and was admitted to the bar two years later. While studying law, however, he contributed poems and prose articles to various magazines. During this time, he was admittedly depressed and had suicidal thoughts, he once confided to a friend that he held a cocked pistol to his forehead and considered killing himself at the age of 20. In late 1839, Lowell met Maria White through her brother William, a classmate at Harvard, the two became engaged in the autumn of 1840. Maria's father Abijah White, a wealthy merchant from Watertown, insisted that their wedding be postponed until Lowell had gainful employment, they were married on December 26, 1844, shortly after the groom published Conversations on the Old Poets, a collection of his published essays.
A friend described their relati
Concord is a town in Middlesex County, Massachusetts, in the United States. At the 2010 census, the town population was 17,668; the United States Census Bureau considers Concord part of Greater Boston. The town center is near where the confluence of the Sudbury and Assabet rivers forms the Concord River; the area that became the town of Concord was known as Musketaquid, an Algonquian word for "grassy plain." Concord was established in 1635 by a handful of British settlers. As dissension between colonists in North America and the British crown intensified, 700 troops were sent to confiscate militia ordnance stored at Concord on April 19, 1775; the ensuing conflict, the Battle of Lexington and Concord, was the incident that triggered the American Revolutionary War. A rich literary community developed in Concord during the mid-19th century, centered around Ralph Waldo Emerson. Emerson's circle included Louisa May Alcott and Henry David Thoreau. Major works written in Concord during this period include Alcott's novel Little Women, Emerson's essay Self-Reliance, Thoreau's Walden and Civil Disobedience.
In this era, the now-ubiquitous Concord grape was developed in Concord by Ephraim Wales Bull. In the 20th century, Concord developed into an affluent Boston suburb and tourist destination, drawing visitors to the Old North Bridge, Orchard House and Walden Pond; the town retains its literary culture and is home to notable authors, including Doris Kearns Goodwin, Alan Lightman and Gregory Maguire. Concord is notable for its progressive and environmentalist politics, becoming in 2012 the first community in the United States to ban single-serving PET bottles; the area which became the town of Concord was known as "Musketaquid", situated at the confluence of the Sudbury and Assabet rivers. The name was an Algonquian word for "grassy plain", fitting the area's low-lying marshes and kettle holes. Native Americans had cultivated corn crops there; the area was depopulated by the smallpox plague that swept across the Americas after Europeans arrived. In 1635, a group of settlers from Britain led by Rev. Peter Bulkeley and Major Simon Willard negotiated a land purchase with the remnants of the local tribe.
Bulkeley was an influential religious leader who "carried a good number of planters with him into the woods". They exchanged wampum, knives and other useful items for the six-square-mile purchase from Old Jethro, which formed the basis of the new town, called "Concord" in appreciation of the peaceful acquisition; the Battle of Lexington and Concord was the first conflict in the American Revolutionary War. On April 19, 1775, a force of British Army regulars marched from Boston to Concord to capture a cache of arms, stored in the town. Forewarned by Samuel Prescott, the colonists mustered in opposition. Following an early-morning skirmish at Lexington, where the first shots of the battle were fired, the British expedition under the command of Lt. Col. Francis Smith advanced to Concord. There, colonists from Concord and surrounding towns repulsed a British detachment at the Old North Bridge and forced the British troops to retreat. Subsequently, militia arriving from across the region harried the British troops on their return to Boston, culminating in the Siege of Boston and the outbreak of the war.
The colonists publicized the battle as an example of British brutality and aggression: one colonial broadside decried the "Bloody Butchery of the British Troops." But a century the conflict was remembered proudly by Americans, taking on a patriotic mythic status in works like the "Concord Hymn" and "Paul Revere's Ride." In 1894, the Lexington Historical Society petitioned the Massachusetts State Legislature to proclaim April 19 "Lexington Day." Concord countered with "Concord Day." Governor Greenhalge opted for a compromise: Patriots' Day. In April 1975, Concord hosted a bicentennial celebration of the battle, featuring an address at the Old North Bridge by President Gerald Ford. Concord has a remarkably rich literary history centered in the 19th century around Ralph Waldo Emerson, who moved there in 1835 and became its most prominent citizen. A successful lecturer and philosopher, Emerson had deep roots in the town: his father Rev. William Emerson grew up in Concord before becoming an eminent Boston minister, his grandfather, William Emerson Sr. witnessed the battle at the North Bridge from his house, became a chaplain in the Continental Army.
Emerson was at the center of a group of like-minded Transcendentalists living in Concord. Among them were the author Nathaniel Hawthorne and the philosopher Amos Bronson Alcott, the father of Louisa May Alcott. A native Concordian, Henry David Thoreau was another notable member of Emerson's circle; this substantial collection of literary talent in one small town led Henry James to dub Concord "the biggest little place in America." Among the products of this intellectually stimulating environment were Emerson's many essays, including Self-Reliance, Louisa May Alcott's novel Little Women, Hawthorne's story collection Mosses from an Old Manse. Thoreau famously lived in a small cabin near Walden Pond. After being imprisoned in the Concord jail for refusing to pay taxes in political protest against slavery and the Mexi