The Nation is the oldest continuously published weekly magazine in the United States, the most read weekly journal of progressive political and cultural news and analysis. It was founded on July 1865, as a successor to William Lloyd Garrison's The Liberator, it is published by its namesake owner The Nation Company, L. P. at 33 Irving Place, New York City, associated with The Nation Institute. The Nation has news bureaus in Washington, D. C. London, South Africa, with departments covering architecture, corporations, environment, legal affairs, music and disarmament, the United Nations. Circulation peaked at 187,000 in 2006 but by 2010 had dropped to 145,000 in print, although digital subscriptions had risen to over 15,000; the Nation was established in July 1865 at 130 Nassau Street in Manhattan. Its founding publisher was Joseph H. Richards, the editor was Edwin Lawrence Godkin, an immigrant from Ireland who had worked as a correspondent of the London Daily News and The New York Times. Godkin sought to establish what one sympathetic commentator characterized as "an organ of opinion characterized in its utterance by breadth and deliberation, an organ which should identify itself with causes, which should give its support to parties as representative of these causes."In its "founding prospectus" the magazine wrote that the publication would have "seven main objects" with the first being "discussion of the topics of the day, above all, of legal and constitutional questions, with greater accuracy and moderation than are now to be found in the daily press."
The Nation pledged to "not be the organ of any party, sect or body" but rather to "make an earnest effort to bring to discussion of political and social questions a critical spirit, to wage war upon the vices of violence and misrepresentation by which so much of the political writing of the day is marred."In the first year of publication, one of the magazine's regular features was The South As It Is, dispatches from a tour of the war-torn region by John Richard Dennett, a recent Harvard graduate and a veteran of the Port Royal Experiment. Dennett interviewed Confederate veterans, freed slaves, agents of the Freedmen's Bureau, ordinary people he met by the side of the road; the articles, since collected as a book, have been praised by The New York Times as "examples of masterly journalism."Among the causes supported by the publication in its earliest days was civil service reform—moving the basis of government employment from a political patronage system to a professional bureaucracy based upon meritocracy.
The Nation was preoccupied with the reestablishment of a sound national currency in the years after the American Civil War, arguing that a stable currency was necessary to restore the economic stability of the nation. Related to this was the publication's advocacy of the elimination of protective tariffs in favor of lower prices of consumer goods associated with a free trade system. Wendell Phillips Garrison, son of William Lloyd Garrison, was Literary Editor from 1865 to 1906; the magazine would stay at Newspaper Row for 90 years. In 1881, newspaperman-turned-railroad-baron Henry Villard acquired The Nation and converted it into a weekly literary supplement for his daily newspaper the New York Evening Post; the offices of the magazine were moved to the Evening Post's headquarters at 210 Broadway. The New York Evening Post would morph into a tabloid, the New York Post, a left-leaning afternoon tabloid, under owner Dorothy Schiff from 1939 to 1976. Since it has been a conservative tabloid owned by Rupert Murdoch, while The Nation became known for its "far left" ideology.
In 1900, Henry Villard's son, Oswald Garrison Villard, inherited the magazine and the Evening Post, sold off the latter in 1918. Thereafter, he remade The Nation into a current affairs publication and gave it an anti-classical liberal orientation. Oswald Villard welcomed the New Deal and supported the nationalization of industries – thus reversing the meaning of "liberalism" as the founders of The Nation would have understood the term, from a belief in a smaller and more restricted government to a belief in a larger and less restricted government. Villard sold the magazine in 1935. Maurice Wertheim, the new owner, sold it in 1937 to Freda Kirchwey, who served as editor from 1933 to 1955; every editor of The Nation from Villard's time to the 1970s was looked at for "subversive" activities and ties. When Albert Jay Nock, not long afterward, published a column criticizing Samuel Gompers and trade unions for being complicit in the war machine of the First World War, The Nation was suspended from the U.
S. mail. During the 1930s, The Nation showed enthusiastic support for the New Deal; the magazine's financial problems in early 1940s prompted Kirchwey to sell her individual ownership of the magazine in 1943, creating a nonprofit organization, Nation Associates, formed out of the money generated from a recruiting drive of sponsors. This organization was responsible for academic responsibilities, including conducting research and organizing conferences, a part of the early history of the magazine. Nation Associates became responsible for the operation and publication of the magazine on a nonprofit basis, with Kirchwey as both president of Nation Associates and editor of The Nation magazine. Before the attack on Pearl Harbor, The Nation called on the United States to enter World War II to resist fascism, after the US entered the war, the publication supported the American war effort, it supported the use of the atomic bomb on Hiroshima. During the late 1940s and again in the early 1950s, a merger was discussed
Washington Journal is an American television series on the C-SPAN network in the format of a political call-in and interview program. The program features elected officials, government administrators and journalists as guests, answering questions from the hosts and from members of the general public, who call into the studio or submit questions via e-mail and social media; the three-hour program airs every day of the year beginning at 7 a.m. Eastern Time, except when special events or coverage of Congress preempts all or part of the program; the audio of the program airs on WCSP-FM as a simulcast with the television broadcast. Washington Journal's antecedent is the C-SPAN daily call-in, a fixture of the network since October 7, 1980; the inaugural Washington Journal program aired on January 4, 1995, the program continues to be shown on C-SPAN in its original time slot. Saturday and Sunday editions were just two hours long. Simulcasts of Washington Journal on C-SPAN's radio station, WCSP-FM, began on October 9, 1997.
One hour of the Sunday edition of Washington Journal is simulcast on BBC Parliament in the United Kingdom, preceded by America This Week, an hour of recorded C-SPAN programming. At the beginning of each program, the host reads noteworthy articles and editorials from current newspapers and periodicals as viewers discuss a timely topic chosen by C-SPAN; the program features "open phones" segments when callers may discuss any topic of their choosing. In multiple segments following, the host interviews guests invited to discuss a specific political or legislative issue, takes calls from the public. Most guests appear in C-SPAN's Washington or New York City studios, while some guests are interviewed from remote locations; the program is noted for the participation of its viewers who may call in, submit questions and comments via e-mail or, since March 5, 2009, Twitter. As facilitators of conversation between the public and C-SPAN guests, Washington Journal hosts do not offer their own perspective on issues, leave more pointed questions to callers, though they will ask for clarifications from callers and guests.
Consistent with its emphasis on reflecting a wide variety of viewpoints, C-SPAN aims to take 60 calls in each program, 20,000 calls per year. In the early days of Washington Journal, callers were not screened by ideology; this was changed at the recommendation of University of Maryland professor John Splaine, hired by C-SPAN to ensure the network's objectivity, who noticed that C-SPAN received a disproportionate number of calls from conservative viewers. Washington Journal producers now set up separate phone lines by party affiliation and take alternate calls from each line. In some cases, a dedicated call-in line is made available for the international audience, or for a particular group of callers. For example, a program about college tuition may have a line for recent graduates. In the fall of 2006, Washington Journal recorded two shows in New Orleans and set up a call-in line for locals to tell their stories from Hurricane Katrina and its aftermath; the show is hosted from C-SPAN's Washington, D.
C. studio overlooking the Capitol Building and is hosted by a revolving set of hosts. In November 2009, C-SPAN named veteran television news producer Michele Remillard as executive producer of Washington Journal; the Washington Journal theme music is Concerto for Trumpet, no. 2 by Johann Melchior Molter, played at various points during each broadcast. The theme is used as introductory music, as an interlude during transitions, is played again as the program concludes. Video simulcast of the C-SPAN Radio studio has been shown during transitions at the top of an hour, with the radio host reading the day's news headlines; the program airs 365 days a year. Washington Journal uses no delay, so obscene or other objectionable language will be heard, though offending callers are cut off promptly. Callers are asked to wait 30 days between phoning in, though this rule is pointed out to be violated by the program's regular viewers occasionally. For several days following the September 11 attacks, Washington Journal began at 6 a.m. instead of 7 a.m.
Following Hurricane Katrina, Washington Journal featured discussions on the issue of New Orleans' recovery. On August 21 and 22, 2006, a remote broadcast was set up in the city to interview key players, including U. S. senators David Vitter and Mary Landrieu, local homeowners. Among C-SPAN's anonymous callers, recording artist and entertainer Cher made waves by calling into the show on October 27, 2003. Although intending to call anonymously, host Peter Slen guessed her identity, which she reluctantly admitted, she called again on May 28, 2006, waited on hold for her call to be taken. Cher subsequently appeared on the program on June 14, 2006, to speak about Operation Helmet, a nonprofit organization providing helmet upgrades for U. S. soldiers. Steve Scully, political editor and senior producer Greta Wodele Brawner Pedro Echevarria John McArdle Peter Slen Paul Orgel Jesse J. Holland Brian Lamb, C-SPAN Chairman and CEO Official website First Washington Journal program, January 4, 1995
To the Contrary
To The Contrary with Bonnie Erbé is PBS’s all-women news-analysis program. The show airs weekly in 91-percent of TV markets on PBS stations in the United States, in Canada, internationally on Voice of America TV, it was created by host Bonnie Erbé and is produced by Persephone Productions in Washington, D. C.. Cari Weiss Stein is executive producer of To the Contrary. Luis Mazariegos has been the producer since 2013. Ariel Edem is the show's associate producer. For the first six years of broadcast the show was filmed at the Maryland Public Television studios in Owings Mills, Maryland. Launched on April 1, 1992, each week the show features four female panelists from various backgrounds including politicians, journalists and professional commentators; these women, with host and moderator Bonnie Erbé, discuss various issues in the news affecting women, children and communities of color. It is a half-hour program; the show tries to focus on how the news affects people, not politics. PBS homepage for the series To the Contrary on IMDb
Cable-Satellite Public Affairs Network is an American cable and satellite television network, created in 1979 by the cable television industry as a nonprofit public service. It televises many proceedings of the United States federal government, as well as other public affairs programming; the C-SPAN network includes the television channels C-SPAN, C-SPAN2, C-SPAN3, the radio station WCSP-FM, a group of websites which provide streaming media and archives of C-SPAN programs. C-SPAN's television channels are available to 100 million cable and satellite households within the United States, while WCSP-FM is broadcast on FM radio in Washington, D. C. and is available throughout the U. S. on SiriusXM via Internet streaming, globally through apps for iOS, BlackBerry, Android devices. The network televises U. S. political events live and "gavel-to-gavel" coverage of the U. S. Congress, as well as occasional proceedings of the Canadian and British Parliaments and other major events worldwide, its coverage of political and policy events is unmoderated, providing the audience with unfiltered information about politics and government.
Non-political coverage includes historical programming, programs dedicated to non-fiction books, interview programs with noteworthy individuals associated with public policy. C-SPAN is a private, non-profit organization funded by its cable and satellite affiliates, it does not have advertisements on any of its networks, radio stations, or websites, nor does it solicit donations or pledges; the network operates independently, neither the cable industry nor Congress has control of its programming content. Brian Lamb, C-SPAN's chairman and former chief executive officer, first conceived the concept of C-SPAN in 1975 while working as the Washington, D. C. bureau chief of the cable industry trade magazine Cablevision. It was a time of rapid growth in the number of cable television channels available in the United States, Lamb envisioned a cable-industry financed nonprofit network for televising sessions of the U. S. Congress and other public affairs event and policy discussions. Lamb shared his idea with several cable executives.
Among them were Bob Rosencrans, who provided $25,000 of initial funding in 1979, John D. Evans, who provided the wiring and access to the headend needed for the distribution of the C-SPAN signal. C-SPAN was launched on March 19, 1979, in time for the first televised session made available by the House of Representatives, beginning with a speech by then-Tennessee representative Al Gore. Upon its debut, only 3.5 million homes were wired for C-SPAN, the network had just three employees. The second C-SPAN channel, C-SPAN2, followed on June 2, 1986 when the U. S. Senate permitted itself to be televised. C-SPAN3, the most recent expansion channel, began full-time operations on January 22, 2001, shows other public policy and government-related live events on weekdays along with weekend historical programming. C-SPAN3 is the successor of a digital channel called C-SPAN Extra, launched in the Washington D. C. area in 1997, televised live and recorded political events from 9:00 a.m. to 6:00 p.m. Eastern Time Monday through Friday.
C-SPAN Radio began operations on October 9, 1997, covering similar events as the television networks and simulcasting their programming. The station broadcasts on WCSP in Washington, D. C. is available on XM Satellite Radio channel 120 and is streamed live at c-span.org. It was available on Sirius Satellite Radio from 2002 to 2006. Lamb semi-retired in March 2012, coinciding with the channel's 33rd anniversary, gave executive control of the network to his two lieutenants, Rob Kennedy and Susan Swain. On January 12, 2017, the online feed for C-SPAN1 was interrupted and replaced by a feed from the Russian television network RT America for 10 minutes. C-SPAN announced that they were troubleshooting the incident and were "operating under the assumption that it was an internal routing issue." C-SPAN celebrated its 10th anniversary in 1989 with a three-hour retrospective, featuring Lamb recalling the development of the network. The 15th anniversary was commemorated in an unconventional manner as the network facilitated a series of re-enactments of the seven historic Lincoln-Douglas debates of 1858, which were televised from August to October 1994, have been rebroadcast from time to time since.
Five years the series American presidents: Life Portraits, which won a Peabody Award, served as a year-long observation of C-SPAN's 20th anniversary. In 2004, C-SPAN celebrated its 25th anniversary, by which time the flagship network was viewed in 86 million homes, C-SPAN2 was in 70 million homes and C-SPAN3 was in eight million homes. On the anniversary date, C-SPAN repeated the first televised hour of floor debate in the House of Representatives from 1979 and, throughout the month, 25th anniversary features included "then and now" segments with journalists who had appeared on C-SPAN during its early years. Included in the 25th anniversary was an essay contest for viewers to write in about how C-SPAN has influenced their life regarding community service. For example, one essay contest winner wrote about how C-SPAN's non-fiction book programming serves as a resource in his charitable mission to record non-fiction audio books for people who are blind. To commemorate 25 years of taking viewer telephone calls, in 2005, C-SPAN had a 25-hour "call-in marathon", from 8:00 pm.
Eastern Time on Friday, October 7, concluding at 9:00 pm. Eastern Time on Saturday, October 8; the network had a viewer essay contest, the winner of, invited to co-host an hour of the broadcast from C-SPAN's Capitol
The Progressive is an American magazine and website of politics and progressivism with a pronounced liberal perspective. Founded in 1909 by Senator Robert "Fighting Bob" La Follette, it was called La Follette's Weekly and simply La Follette's. In 1929, it had its name changed to The Progressive, its headquarters is in Wisconsin. The magazine is known for its strong pacifism, it devotes much coverage to combating war and corporate power. It supports civil rights and civil liberties, women's rights, LGBT rights, immigrant rights, labor rights, human rights, criminal justice reform, democratic reform, its current editor is Bill Lueders. Previous editors included Fighting Bob La Follette, his son Robert Jr. William Evjue, Morris Rubin, Erwin Knoll, Matthew Rothschild, Ruth Conniff. On the first page of its first issue, La Follette wrote this introduction to the magazine: In the course of every attempt to establish or develop free government, a struggle between Special Privilege and Equal Rights is inevitable.
Our great industrial organizations in control of politics and natural resources. They make platforms, dictate legislation, they rule through the men elected to represent them. The battle is just on, it is young yet. It will be the longest and hardest fought for Democracy. In other lands, the people have lost. Here we shall win, it is a glorious privilege to live in this time, have a free hand in this fight for government by the people. Some of the campaigns La Follette's Weekly waged include the fight to stay out of World War I, opposition to the Palmer Raids in the early 1920s and calling for action against unemployment during the Depression. La Follette's wife Belle edited the publication's women's section, wrote articles for the publication condemning racial segregation. During the 1940s, The Progressive adopted an anti-Stalinist view of the Soviet Union. During the early 1940s the magazine argued. Following the Attack on Pearl Harbor, The Progressive declared its support for the American war effort.
However, The Progressive condemned the dropping of the atom bomb on Hiroshima, in contrast to both The Nation and The New Republic's support for the bombing. The Progressive reprinted an essay from The Christian Science Monitor by Richard Lee Strout arguing that by using the bombs, "The United States has incurred a terrible responsibility to history which now can never be withdrawn". In 1947, The Progressive's editors announced. However, after readers raised $40,000 to save the magazine, The Progressive returned as a monthly magazine issued as a non-profit venture. In the 1950s, The Progressive dedicated itself to combating McCarthyism, although the magazine agreed that the U. S. government had the right to blacklist members of the Communist Party. The Progressive issued a special issue criticizing McCarthy, McCarthy: A Documented Record in 1954. S. Senate, it became the magazine's best-selling issue; the Progressive criticized U. S. nuclear policy and clandestine CIA activity in this period. In the 1960s, it was a platform for the American Civil Rights Movement, publishing the writing of Martin Luther King, Jr. five times, publishing James Baldwin's open letter "My Dungeon Shook - Letter to my Nephew on the One Hundredth Anniversary of Emancipation", the first section of The Fire Next Time.
The Progressive devoted much of its articles to denouncing U. S. involvement in Indochina.1984 saw The Progressive publish "Behind the Death Squads" by Allan Nairn, a critique of U. S. policy in El Salvador. The Progressive opposed the Persian Gulf War, accusing the George H. W. Bush Administration of rejecting any options for peaceful negotiation of the crisis. While condemning Saddam Hussein's government for its abuse of human rights, it accused the Bush administration of hypocrisy for not taking action against other governments which abused human rights; the magazine argued against the second Iraq War. In 1979, The Progressive gained national attention for its article by Howard Morland, "The H-bomb Secret: How we got it and why we're telling it", which the U. S. government suppressed for six months. The magazine prevailed in a landmark First Amendment case of prior restraint, United States v. Progressive, Inc.. Located a few blocks from the Wisconsin State Capitol, The Progressive covered the protests that began in February 2011 in response to Governor Scott Walker's Wisconsin budget repair bill.
Madison Magazine named The Progressive's political editor Ruth Conniff as one of its Editors' Choice in 2011 for her "frontline dispatches from inside and outside the State Capitol and the courtroom across the street". For its 100th year in print, the magazine published a book featuring "some of the best writing in The Progressive from 1909 to 2009" titled Democracy in Print, published by the University of Wisconsin Press. Although circulation had fallen to the level of 27,000 subscribers in 1999, by April 2004, following the Iraq War, circulation reached a record 65,000. By 2010, circulation had settled near 47,000. Throughout the years, The Progressive has published articles by Jane Addams, James Baldwin, Louis Brandeis, Noam Chomsky, Clarence Darrow, John Kenneth Galbraith, Charles V. Hamilton, Nat Hentoff, Seymour Hersh, Molly Ivins, June Jordan, Helen Keller, Martin Luther King, Jr. Sidney Lens, Jack London, Milton Mayer, A. J. Muste, George Orwell, Marcus Raskin, Bertrand Russell, Edward Said, Carl Sandburg, Upton
Madison is the capital of the U. S. state of Wisconsin and the seat of Dane County. As of July 1, 2017, Madison's estimated population of 255,214 made it the second-largest city in Wisconsin by population, after Milwaukee, the 82nd-largest in the United States; the city forms the core of the Madison Metropolitan Area which includes Dane County and neighboring Iowa and Columbia counties for a population of 654,230. Located on an isthmus between Lake Mendota and Lake Monona, the city is home to the University of Wisconsin–Madison, the Wisconsin State Capitol, Henry Vilas Zoo, an extensive network of parks and bike trails. Known for its progressive culture and Democratic politics, Madison has been a location for political activity and demonstrations. Madison is a growing technology economy and the region is home to the headquarters of Epic Systems, American Family Insurance, American Girl, Sub-Zero, Lands' End, a regional office for Google, the University Research Park, as well as many biotech and heath systems startups.
A 2018 report ranked Madison 14th among the top fifteen cities worldwide for venture capital deals per capita. Before Europeans, humans inhabited the area around Madison for about 12,000 years. In 1800, the Madison area was Ho-Chunk Country; the Native Americans called this place Taychopera, meaning "land of the four lakes". Effigy mounds, constructed for ceremonial and burial purposes over 1,000 years earlier, dotted the rich prairies around the lakes. Madison's European origins begin in 1829, when former federal judge James Duane Doty purchased over a thousand acres of swamp and forest land on the isthmus between Lakes Mendota and Monona, with the intention of building a city in the Four Lakes region, he purchased 1,261 acres for $1,500. When the Wisconsin Territory was created in 1836 the territorial legislature convened in Belmont, Wisconsin. One of the legislature's tasks was to select a permanent location for the territory's capital. Doty lobbied aggressively for Madison as the new capital, offering buffalo robes to the freezing legislators and promising choice Madison lots at discount prices to undecided voters.
He had James Slaughter plat two cities in the area, Madison and "The City of Four Lakes", near present-day Middleton. Doty named his city Madison for James Madison, the fourth President of the U. S. who had died on June 28, 1836, he named the streets for the other 39 signers of the U. S. Constitution. Although the city existed only on paper, the territorial legislature voted on November 28, 1836 in favor of Madison as its capital because of its location halfway between the new and growing cities around Milwaukee in the east and the long established strategic post of Prairie du Chien in the west, between the populated lead mining regions in the southwest and Wisconsin's oldest city, Green Bay, in the northeast; the cornerstone for the Wisconsin capitol was laid in 1837, the legislature first met there in 1838. On October 9, 1839, Kintzing Prichett registered the plat of Madison at the registrar's office of the then-territorial Dane County. Madison was incorporated as a village in 1846, with a population of 626.
When Wisconsin became a state in 1848, Madison remained the capital, the following year it became the site of the University of Wisconsin. The Milwaukee & Mississippi Railroad connected to Madison in 1854. Madison incorporated as a city in 1856, with a population of 6,863, leaving the unincorporated remainder as a separate Town of Madison; the original capitol was replaced in 1863 and the second capitol burned in 1904. The current capitol was built between 1906 and 1917. During the Civil War, Madison served as a center of the Union Army in Wisconsin; the intersection of Milwaukee, East Washington and North Streets is known as Union Corners, because a tavern there was the last stop for Union soldiers before heading to fight the Confederates. Camp Randall, on the west side of Madison, was built and used as a training camp, a military hospital, a prison camp for captured Confederate soldiers. After the war ended, the Camp Randall site was absorbed into the University of Wisconsin and Camp Randall Stadium was built there in 1917.
In 2004 the last vestige of active military training on the site was removed when the stadium renovation replaced a firing range used for ROTC training. In the 1960s and 1970s, the Madison counterculture was centered in the neighborhood of Mifflin and Bassett streets, referred to as "Miffland"; the area contained many three-story apartments where students and counterculture youth lived, painted murals, operated the co-operative grocery store, the Mifflin Street Co-op. Residents of the neighborhood came into conflict with authorities during the administration of Republican mayor Bill Dyke. Dyke was viewed by students as a direct antagonist in efforts to protest the Vietnam War because of his efforts to suppress local protests; the annual Mifflin Street Block Party became a focal point for protest, although by the late 1970s it had become a mainstream community party. During the late 1960s and early 1970s, thousands of students and other citizens took part in anti-Vietnam War marches and demonstrations, with more violent incidents drawing national attention to the city and UW campus.
These include: the 1967 student protest with 74 injured.
Cable News Network is an American news-based pay television channel owned by WarnerMedia News & Sports, a division of AT&T's WarnerMedia. CNN was founded in 1980 by American media proprietor Ted Turner as a 24-hour cable news channel. Upon its launch, CNN was the first television channel to provide 24-hour news coverage, was the first all-news television channel in the United States. While the news channel has numerous affiliates, CNN broadcasts from the Time Warner Center in New York City, studios in Washington, D. C. and Los Angeles. Its headquarters at the CNN Center in Atlanta is only used for weekend programming. CNN is sometimes referred to as CNN/U. S. to distinguish the American channel from CNN International. As of August 2010, CNN is available in over 100 million U. S. households. Broadcast coverage of the U. S. channel extends to over 890,000 American hotel rooms, as well as carriage on subscription providers throughout Canada. As of July 2015, CNN is available to about 96,374,000 pay-television households in the United States.
Globally, CNN programming airs through CNN International, which can be seen by viewers in over 212 countries and territories. The Cable News Network was launched at 5:00 p.m. Eastern Time on June 1, 1980. After an introduction by Ted Turner, the husband and wife team of David Walker and Lois Hart anchored the channel's first newscast. Burt Reinhardt, the executive vice president of CNN at its launch, hired most of the channel's first 200 employees, including the network's first news anchor, Bernard Shaw. Since its debut, CNN has expanded its reach to a number of cable and satellite television providers, several websites, specialized closed-circuit channels; the company has 42 bureaus, more than 900 affiliated local stations, several regional and foreign-language networks around the world. The channel's success made a bona-fide mogul of founder Ted Turner and set the stage for conglomerate Time Warner's eventual acquisition of the Turner Broadcasting System in 1996. A companion channel, CNN2, was launched on January 1, 1982 and featured a continuous 24-hour cycle of 30-minute news broadcasts.
The channel, which became known as CNN Headline News and is now known as HLN focused on live news coverage supplemented by personality-based programs during the evening and primetime hours. The first Persian Gulf War in 1991 was a watershed event for CNN that catapulted the channel past the "Big Three" American networks for the first time in its history due to an unprecedented, historical scoop: CNN was the only news outlet with the ability to communicate from inside Iraq during the initial hours of the Coalition bombing campaign, with live reports from the al-Rashid Hotel in Baghdad by reporters Bernard Shaw, John Holliman and Peter Arnett; the moment when bombing began was announced on CNN by Shaw on January 16, 1991, as follows: This is Bernie Shaw. Something is happening outside.... Peter Arnett, join me here. Let's describe to our viewers what we're seeing... The skies over Baghdad have been illuminated.... We're seeing bright flashes going off all over the sky. Unable to broadcast live pictures from Baghdad, CNN's coverage of the initial hours of the Gulf War had the dramatic feel of a radio broadcast – and was compared to legendary CBS news anchor Edward R. Murrow's gripping live radio reports of the German bombing of London during World War II.
Despite the lack of live pictures, CNN's coverage was carried by television stations and networks around the world, resulting in CNN being watched by over a billion viewers worldwide. The Gulf War experience brought CNN some much sought-after legitimacy and made household names of obscure reporters. In 2000, media scholar and director of the Center for the Study of Popular Television at Syracuse University, Robert Thompson, stated that having turned 20, CNN was now the "old guard." Shaw, known for his live-from-Bagdhad reporting during the Gulf War, became CNN's chief anchor until his retirement in 2001. Others include then-Pentagon correspondent Wolf Blitzer and international correspondent Christiane Amanpour. Amanpour's presence in Iraq was caricatured by actress Nora Dunn as ruthless reporter Adriana Cruz in the 1999 film Three Kings. Time Warner-owned sister network HBO produced a television movie, Live from Baghdad, about CNN's coverage of the first Gulf War. Coverage of the first Gulf War and other crises of the early 1990s led officials at the Pentagon to coin the term "the CNN effect" to describe the perceived impact of real time, 24-hour news coverage on the decision-making processes of the American government.
CNN was the first cable news channel. Anchor Carol Lin was on the air to deliver the first public report of the event, she broke into a commercial at 8:49 a.m. Eastern Time that morning and said:This just in. You are looking at a disturbing live shot there; that is the World Trade Center, we have unconfirmed reports this morning that a plane has crashed into one of the towers of the World Trade Center. CNN Center right now is just beginning to work on this story calling our sources and trying to figure out what happened, but something devastating happening this morning there on the south end of the island of Manhattan; that is once again, a picture of one of the towers of the World Trade Center. Sean Murtagh, CNN vice president of finance and administration, was the first network employe