The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or civil parish. The term is used in Canada, Romania and the United States. County towns have a similar function in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, in Jamaica. In most of the United States, counties are the political subdivisions of a state; the city, town, or populated place that houses county government is known as the seat of its respective county. The county legislature, county courthouse, sheriff's department headquarters, hall of records and correctional facility are located in the county seat though some functions may be located or conducted in other parts of the county if it is geographically large. A county seat is but not always, an incorporated municipality; the exceptions include the county seats of counties that have no incorporated municipalities within their borders, such as Arlington County, Virginia. Ellicott City, the county seat of Howard County, is the largest unincorporated county seat in the United States, followed by Towson, the county seat of Baltimore County, Maryland.
Some county seats may not be incorporated in their own right, but are located within incorporated municipalities. For example, Cape May Court House, New Jersey, though unincorporated, is a section of Middle Township, an incorporated municipality. In some of the colonial states, county seats include or included "Court House" as part of their name. In the Canadian provinces of Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the term "shire town" is used in place of county seat. County seats in Taiwan are the administrative centers of the counties. There are 13 county seats in Taiwan, which are in the forms of county-administered city, urban township or rural township. Most counties have only one county seat. However, some counties in Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, New Hampshire, New York, Vermont have two or more county seats located on opposite sides of the county. An example is Harrison County, which lists both Biloxi and Gulfport as county seats; the practice of multiple county seat towns dates from the days.
There have been few efforts to eliminate the two-seat arrangement, since a county seat is a source of pride for the towns involved. There are 36 counties with multiple county seats in 11 states: Coffee County, Alabama St. Clair County, Alabama Arkansas County, Arkansas Carroll County, Arkansas Clay County, Arkansas Craighead County, Arkansas Franklin County, Arkansas Logan County, Arkansas Mississippi County, Arkansas Prairie County, Arkansas Sebastian County, Arkansas Yell County, Arkansas Columbia County, Georgia Lee County, Iowa Campbell County, Kentucky Kenton County, Kentucky Essex County, Massachusetts Middlesex County, Massachusetts Plymouth County, Massachusetts Bolivar County, Mississippi Carroll County, Mississippi Chickasaw County, Mississippi Harrison County, Mississippi Hinds County, Mississippi Jasper County, Mississippi Jones County, Mississippi Panola County, Mississippi Tallahatchie County, Mississippi Yalobusha County, Mississippi Jackson County, Missouri Hillsborough County, New Hampshire Seneca County, New York Bennington County, Vermont In New England, the town, not the county, is the primary division of local government.
Counties in this region have served as dividing lines for the states' judicial systems. Connecticut and Rhode Island have no county level of thus no county seats. In Vermont and Maine the county seats are designated shire towns. County government consists only of a Superior Court and Sheriff, both located in the respective shire town. Bennington County has two shire towns. In Massachusetts, most government functions which would otherwise be performed by county governments in other states are performed by town or city governments; as such, Massachusetts has dissolved many of its county governments, the state government now operates the registries of deeds and sheriff's offices in those counties. In Virginia, a county seat may be an independent city surrounded by, but not part of, the county of which it is the administrative center. Two counties in South Dakota have their county seat and government services centered in a neighboring county, their county-level services are provided by Fall River Tripp County, respectively.
In Louisiana, divided into parishes rather than counties, county seats are referred to as parish seats. Alaska is divided into boroughs rather than counties; the Unorganized Borough, which covers 49 % of Alaska's area, has equivalent. The state with the most counties is Texas, with 254, the state with the fewest counties is Delaware, with 3. County seat war Administrative center County town, administrative centres in Ireland and the UK Chef-lieu, administrative centres in Algeria, Luxembourg, France and Tunisia Municipality, equivalent to county in many c
2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol
North Carolina Highway 108
North Carolina Highway 108 is a 22-mile-long two lane highway in North Carolina. It connects U. S. Route passes through both Polk County and Rutherford County, it is a rural country road through eastern Polk County and western Rutherford County, moderately developed from Tryon through Columbus and in Rutherfordton. It is known as Lynn Road between Tryon and Columbus, Mills Street through Columbus, Tryon Road in Rutherford County. NC 108 begins at US 176 in Tryon and travels east through the unincorporated town of Lynn, where it crosses the Pacolet River. NC 108 has an interchange with Interstate 26 and US 74 in Columbus, another interchange with US 74 east of Columbus. NC 108 passes through the center of Columbus, the county seat of Polk County, the most developed portion of the route in Polk County. Three miles east of the second US 74 interchange, NC 108 intersects NC 9 at the unincorporated town of Mill Spring; the section from Tryon to Mill Spring follows the front range of the Blue Ridge Mountains.
It passes over the Broad River in Rutherford County. NC 108 ends at the intersection of South Main Charlotte Road in Rutherfordton. NC 108 has two roundabouts at the I-26/US 74 interchange; these were constructed between 2007 to improve the level of service at the interchange. Widening of NC 108 to four lanes with a median and limited turn lanes near I-26 in Columbus is included as part of North Carolina Department of Transportation State Transportation Improvement Program project I-4729; this project includes making the I-26/US 74 interchange a full interchange with access ramps from I-26 westbound to US 74 eastbound and US 74 westbound to I-26 eastbound. The partial interchange between the two freeways requires traffic to use NC 108 for access from I-26 west to US 74 east and US 74 west to I-26 east; the construction of the roundabouts was meant as a temporary fix to alleviate congestion at the interchange until funding for I-4729 became available. The project has since been separated into two projects: I-4729A and I-4729B.
I-4729A will reconfigure the interchange, while I-4729B will widen NC 108. Construction of I-4729A is scheduled to begin in September 2017; the project has been expedited due to the 2018 FEI World Equestrian Games being held at the nearby Tryon International Equestrian Center. The Comprehensive Transportation Plan Study Report for Polk County, completed in October 2008 by the Transportation Planning Branch of the NCDOT, recommends upgrading NC 108 in the future to a four-lane, divided facility from its western terminus at US 176 in Tryon to the US 74 interchange east of Columbus. A new project to widen NC 108 from I-26 to Tryon - R-5838 - has been added to the draft 2018-2027 STIP. Media related to North Carolina Highway 108 at Wikimedia Commons
North Carolina Highway 226
North Carolina Highway 226 is a primary state highway in the U. S. state of North Carolina. Traveling north–south through Western North Carolina, it connects the cities and towns of Grover, Marion, Spruce Pine and Bakersville, it a scenic byway in the South Mountains area and connects with the summer colony of Little Switzerland, via NC 226A. NC 226 begins at US 29, in Grover 211 feet from the South Carolina state line. Through downtown Grover, it goes northwesterly, through Patterson Springs, to Shelby. In concurrency with US 74, it stays south of the downtown area splits with US 74 continuing north to Metcalf, where it becomes the South Mountain Scenery scenic byway; the byway, which stretches 33 miles along NC 226 to Marion, is designated for its extensive views of the South Mountains. Traversing through this rural area of farmlands and forest, NC 226 goes the through Campcall and Polkville before leaving Cleveland County, uneventful through Rutherford County, crosses over US 64 before reaching the Dysartsville community in McDowell County.
Soon after crossing under I-40, NC 226 begins its concurrency with US 221 bypassing west of downtown Marion. At the US 70 intersection, travelers can follow highway signs to Mount Mitchell, the highest peak east of the Mississippi River. In Woodlawn, NC 226 splits from US 221. A one-mile from the intersection, in Turkey Cove, NC 226 breaks-off the first of two alternate routes; the routing NC 226 takes, along Cox Creek, is shorter and less curvy than the alternate route, but it has a steep grade which require trucks to stay slow when they descend. At Gillespie Gap, the alternate route rejoins NC 226; as it crosses under the Blue Ridge Parkway, it crosses the Eastern Continental Divide and the county line into Mitchell. North from the Gillespie Gap, NC 226 goes through the Grassy Creek community before entering Spruce Pine. After a short concurrency with US 19E, it continues northwesterly towards Bakersville, passing by and through the communities of Minpro, Penland and Ledger. Near Bakersville, the second alternate route breaks-off.
In Bakersville, NC 226 connects with NC 261. West of Bakersville, NC 226 connects with NC 197, in Red Hill goes north to Honeycutt. Following along Big Rock Creek to Buladean, it goes northwesterly alongside Spring Creek before ascending Iron Mountain. At Iron Mountain Gap, NC 226 crosses the Appalachian Trail as it enters Tennessee and continues as SR 107 towards Erwin. Established in 1961 as a renumbering of NC 26. In 1966, NC 226 was removed from downtown Shelby, rerouted from Earl Street onto US 74 Bypass to Polkville Road. In 1994, NC 226 was moved with US 221 onto a new bypass west of Marion. In 2000, NC 226 was realigned onto new road west of downtown Spruce Pine; the first NC 26 was established as an original state highway in 1921. It traversed from the South Carolina stat line, near Pineville, north along Park Road into downtown Charlotte. Leaving the downtown area via Statesville Avenue, it continued north through Huntersville, Mooresville, Elkin and Twin Oaks, before reaching the Virginia state line.
In both border states, the highway continued with the number 26. In 1927, US 21 was assigned except for a few miles south of Pineville. In 1933, US 521 was assigned to the remaining piece of NC 26. In 1934, the first NC 26 was decommissioned replaced by both US 21 and US 521; the second NC 26 was reestablished in late 1934, replacing NC 19 from US 221 in Woodlawn, north through Little Switzerland, Spruce Pine, Red Hill, finally west to US 19W/US 23 in Sioux. In 1940, NC 26 was rerouted north from Red Hill to the Tennessee state line. In 1940, NC 26 was extended south, overlapping with US 221 to Marion. Around 1947, NC 26 was moved onto new road bypassing Little Switzerland. In 1956, NC 26 was moved onto new road near Dysartville, removing a concurrency with US 64 and establishing one of the earliest grade-separated intersections in the state. In 1961, NC 26 was renumbered to NC 226, because of the coming establishment of Interstate 26. Media related to North Carolina Highway 226 at Wikimedia Commons NCRoads.com: N.
Special routes of U.S. Route 221
Several special routes of U. S. Route 221 exist. In order from south to north they are as follows. U. S. Route 221 Truck directs truck drivers, that are passing through, to follow US 19 going northwest of Perry crosses back to US 221 via County Road 359A. U. S. Route 221 Truck is a truck route that directs truck drivers away from the local streets of Hazlehurst, including the one-way pair section of US 221 and Georgia State Route 135, it begins on East Jefferson Street from US 221/SR 135. It is concurrent with SR 135 Connector; when SR 135 Conn. ends at US 23/SR 19, US 221 Truck/SR 135 Truck turn left onto the US 23/SR 19 concurrency known as Larry Contos Boulevard, turns left onto US 341/SR 27 terminating at northbound US 221. The highway is concurrent with SR 135 Truck. U. S. Route 221 Truck directs truck drivers away from the local streets of Laurens, South Carolina, along SC 127 and part of U. S. Route 76. U. S. Route 221 Alternate was established in 1941 when mainline US 221 was realigned further west along a straight route between Chesnee and Rutherfordton.
Starting in Chesnee, the alternate route follows the original route going east to Cowpens National Battlefield before going north into North Carolina. At Forest City, it goes west to Spindale finally in Rutherfordton, where it reconnects with main US 221. In 1971, US 221A alignment was adjusted in Cliffside. In South Carolina it has an alternate plate above the shield, while in North Carolina an "A" is affixed in the shield. U. S. Route 221 Business, established in 1991, is a 5-mile business loop through downtown Marion, via Main Street, it follows the old US 221 alignment before it was rerouted onto Marion Bypass, located west of the city. It shares a partial overlap with US 70 north of the city center area. U. S. Route 221 Truck provides an alternate route for truck drivers between Linville and Boone, via NC 105, it avoids an 18-mile drive of endless curves and constant elevation changes along a stretch of US 221 between Linville and Blowing Rock, dubbed the Little Parkway Scenic Byway. In Boone, the truck route overlaps with US 421 Truck.
U. S. Route 221 Business, established in November, 1981, is a 4.4-mile business loop through West Jefferson and Jefferson. Sharing partial overlaps with NC 194 and NC 88, it follows the original US 221 alignment before it was rerouted onto new bypass route east of the towns in September, 1981. U. S. Route 221 Business, established in 1999, this 2.9 miles route follows the old mainline US 221 through the town of Bedford. Media related to U. S. Route 221 at Wikimedia Commons
Henderson County, North Carolina
Henderson County is a county located in the U. S. state of North Carolina. As of the 2010 census, the population was 106,740, its county seat is Hendersonville. Henderson County is part of NC Metropolitan Statistical Area; the county was formed in 1838 from the southern part of Buncombe County. It was named for Leonard Henderson, Chief Justice of the North Carolina Supreme Court from 1829 to 1833. There is no evidence Henderson passed through the area. In 1855 parts of Henderson County and Rutherford County were combined to form Polk County, in 1861 parts of Henderson County and Jackson County were combined to form Transylvania County. Henderson County, which in 1861 encompassed present-day Transylvania County as well, contributed 1,296 soldiers to the Confederate States Army out of its 10,000 population, as well as 130 Union troops.. Henderson County government was centered around Hendersonville in the 1905 county courthouse on Main Street, until this structure was replaced by the new Courthouse on Grove Street in Hendersonville.
The first rail line reached Hendersonville in 1879, ushering in a new era of access to the outside world. However, parts of the county had long been known as retreats, including the "Little Charleston" of Flat Rock in which South Carolina's Low Country planter families had maintained second homes since the early 19th century. A major land boom ensued in the 1920s, culminating in the crash of 1929, which deflated prices and left structures such as the Fleetwood Hotel atop Jumpoff Mountain incomplete. Population growth in the county has been rapid since the 1960s as a result of an influx from other states, with many new housing developments changing the face of rural areas of the county. Other notable historic sites in Henderson County include: the Woodfield Inn, Connemara—final home of Carl Sandburg -- and the St. John in the Wilderness Episcopal Church. Today, Flat Rock is the site of the main campus of Blue Ridge Community College. Henderson County is located in the Blue Ridge Mountains of southwestern North Carolina, on the border with South Carolina.
The Eastern Continental Divide, which lies along the crest of the Blue Ridge, passes through the county. The northwestern slope of the Divide is known as the Blue Ridge Plateau and the southeastern slope as the Blue Ridge Escarpment; these two physiographic features have unique characteristics that account for wide variations in the county’s climate. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 375 square miles, of which 373 square miles is land and 2.2 square miles is water. The county's largest body of water is Lake Summit, a reservoir impounded by the Duke Power Company for hydroelectric generation; the county's major streams are the French Broad River, Mills River, Green River, Little River, Mud Creek, Clear Creek, Cane Creek, Hungry River, the headwaters of the Broad River. The lowest point in the county is to be found along the Broad River at 1,394’ feet at the boundary between Henderson and Rutherford Counties in North Carolina; the high point is located on Little Pisgah Mountain at 5,278 feet along the Henderson-Haywood County boundary in North Carolina.
According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 375 square miles, of which 373 square miles is land and 2.2 square miles is water. The county's largest body of water is Lake Summit, a reservoir impounded by the Duke Power Company for hydroelectric generation. Due to its geographic setting along the Eastern Continental Divide and its extreme topographic variation, Henderson County presents a wide variation in temperature and precipitation conditions; the highest elevations occur along the northwest and northern boundaries of the county and within the Blue Ridge Escarpment, a rugged area of peaks and narrow valleys that rise from the Piedmont to the continental divide and the Blue Ridge Plateau. The lowest elevations occur within the valleys of the escarpment and in the broader valleys of the Blue Ridge Plateau; the mean annual temperature of the county is 55.1°F, with a range from 50.3 to 57.9°F depending on the elevation, with higher temperatures occurring at lower elevations and lower temperatures in the higher mountains.
The month of July is the hottest in the county, with a mean temperature of 72.6°F and a mean range of 66.6 to 75.8°F. The coolest month is January with a mean temperature of 36.9°F and a mean range of 33.3 to 39.5°F. Precipitation is correlated to elevation, with higher precipitation occurring at higher elevations and lower precipitation in the valleys; the mean annual precipitation of Henderson County is 56.2 inches, with a mean range of 45.04 to 78.03 inches. March has the highest mean precipitation of 5.1 inches, with a mean range of 3.9 to 6.7 inches. The lowest precipitation occurs in October, with a mean value of 3.9 inches and a mean range of 2.8 to 5.8 inches. Henderson County's topographic and climatic diversity make it ideal for a great variety of commercial crops and agricultural products. Parts of the county between the Pisgah National Forest on the northwest and the boundary with Polk County on the southeast are referred to l