1930 United States Census
The Fifteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau one month from April 1, 1930, determined the resident population of the United States to be 122,775,046, an increase of 13.7 percent over the 106,021,537 persons enumerated during the 1920 Census. The 1930 Census collected the following information: address name relationship to head of family home owned or rented if owned, value of home if rented, monthly rent whether owned a radio set whether on a farm sex race age marital status and, if married, age at first marriage school attendance literacy birthplace of person, their parents if foreign born: language spoken at home before coming to the U. S. year of immigration whether naturalized ability to speak English occupation and class of worker whether at work previous day veteran status if Indian: whether of full or mixed blood tribal affiliationFull documentation for the 1930 census, including census forms and enumerator instructions, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series.
The original census enumeration sheets were microfilmed by the Census Bureau in 1949. The microfilmed census is located on 2,667 rolls of microfilm, available from the National Archives and Records Administration. Several organizations host images of the microfilmed census online, digital indices. Microdata from the 1930 census are available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. 1930 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com 1931 U. S Census Report Contains 1930 Census results Historic US Census data 1930Census.com: 1930 United States Census for Genealogy & Family History Research 1930 Interactive US Census Find stories and more attached to names on the 1930 US census
Stones River National Battlefield
Stones River National Battlefield, a 570-acre park along the Stones River in Rutherford County, three miles northwest of Murfreesboro and twenty-eight miles southeast of Nashville, memorializes the Battle of Stones River. This key battle of the American Civil War occurred on December 31, 1862 and January 2, 1863, resulted in a strategic Union victory; the national battlefield was established through the efforts of both private individuals, the Stones River Battlefield and Park Association, the Nashville, Chattanooga and St. Louis Railway, a 1927 act of Congress authorizing a national military park under the jurisdiction of the War Department. During the early years of the twentieth century, the railroad emphasized the battlefield as a destination to increase passenger traffic, it acquired parts of the battlefield as points of historical interest. In 1906, the company erected a 31-foot obelisk to commemorate the January 2, 1863, position of massed Union artillery used to repel a Confederate assault on Union troops across the river.
The Stones River Battlefield and Park Association was chartered on April 28, 1896, after the establishment of Chickamauga and Chattanooga National Military Park increased interest in preserving significant Civil War battlefields. The association secured options on property connected with the battle 3,400 acres by June 1897. Association members erected wooden signs to interpret battlefield locations. In 1912, the Association lobbied to have Congress "establish an accurate system of markers," but the measure failed, in part because of the testimony of former congressman and Chickamauga and Chattanooga National Park Commissioner Charles H. Grosvenor, who believed the landmarks had been "entirely obliterated."Land acquisition began in 1928 and was completed in 1934. In 1992, the park accepted a donation from the City of Murfreesboro of an intact segment of Fortress Rosecrans, the largest enclosed earthwork built during the Civil War; the park preserves less than a fifth of the more than 3,000 acres.
On March 3, 1927, the site was established as Stones River National Military Park. It was transferred from the War Department to the U. S. Department of the Interior's National Park Service on August 10, 1933, redesignated as a national battlefield on April 22, 1960; as with all historic areas administered by the National Park Service, the battlefield was listed on the National Register of Historic Places. On April 10, 2009, the Good Friday tornado damaged the battlefield park. Since 1997 the Civil War Trust and its partners have acquired and preserved 26 acres of the battlefield in four acquisitions; this land was incorporated into the national battlefield. Within park boundaries is Stones River National Cemetery, 20.09 acres with 6,850 interments. Just outside the cemetery proper is the Hazen's Brigade Monument, the oldest surviving American Civil War monument standing in its original location; the 32nd Indiana Monument at Cave Hill National Cemetery in Louisville, Kentucky is a year older. An earlier monument was erected after the First Battle of Manassas in Virginia but is no longer extant.
Veterans from Army of the Cumberland erected the U. S. Regular Brigade Civil War Monument; the cemetery was established on March 1864, by the order of Major General George H. Thomas. Under the supervision of Chaplain William Earnshaw, the 111th Regiment United States Colored Troops disinterred bodies from the battlefields of Stones River, Franklin, Shelbyville and Cowan. Reburials began in 1865 and were completed by 1867. At the time, most of the Confederate dead were taken to their home towns or to the nearest southern community. Some, were buried in a mass grave south of town, they were reinterred in another mass grave, Confederate Circle in Evergreen Cemetery in Murfreesboro. In November 1867, the bodies of 1,360 Union soldiers were removed to Stones River from Rose Hill Cemetery in Columbia, where a national cemetery had earlier been planned; the cemetery was transferred from the War Department to the National Park Service on August 10, 1933. Stones River National Battlefield The Battle of Stones River: The Soldiers' Story, a National Park Service Teaching with Historic Places lesson plan Stones River National Cemetery McGavock Confederate Cemetery Civil War Trails Tornado Strikes Stones River National Battlefield Park – A photo article illustrating damage to the park from the 2009 tornado.
U. S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Stones River National Battlefield U. S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Stones River National Battlefield Stones River National Cemetery at Find a Grave
1890 United States Census
The Eleventh United States Census was taken beginning June 2, 1890. It determined the resident population of the United States to be 62,979,766—an increase of 25.5 percent over the 50,189,209 persons enumerated during the 1880 census. The data was tabulated by machine for the first time; the data reported that the distribution of the population had resulted in the disappearance of the American frontier. Most of the 1890 census materials were destroyed in a 1921 fire and fragments of the US census population schedule exist only for the states of Alabama, Illinois, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, South Dakota, Texas, the District of Columbia; this was the first census in which a majority of states recorded populations of over one million, as well as the first in which multiple cities – New York as of 1880, Philadelphia – recorded populations of over one million. The census saw Chicago rank as the nation's second-most populous city, a position it would hold until 1990, in which Los Angeles would supplant it.
The 1890 census collected the following information: The 1890 census was the first to be compiled using methods invented by Herman Hollerith and was overseen by Superintendents Robert P. Porter and Carroll D. Wright. Data was entered on a machine readable medium, punched cards, tabulated by machine; the net effect of the many changes from the 1880 census: the larger population, the number of data items to be collected, the Census Bureau headcount, the volume of scheduled publications, the use of Hollerith's electromechanical tabulators, was to reduce the time required to process the census from eight years for the 1880 census to six years for the 1890 census. The total population of 62,947,714, the family, or rough, was announced after only six weeks of processing; the public reaction to this tabulation was disbelief, as it was believed that the "right answer" was at least 75,000,000. The United States census of 1890 showed a total of 248,253 Native Americans living in the United States, down from 400,764 Native Americans identified in the census of 1850.
The 1890 census announced that the frontier region of the United States no longer existed, that the Census Bureau would no longer track the westward migration of the U. S. population. Up to and including the 1880 census, the country had a frontier of settlement. By 1890, isolated bodies of settlement had broken into the unsettled area to the extent that there was hardly a frontier line; this prompted Frederick Jackson Turner to develop his Frontier Thesis. The original data for the 1890 Census is no longer available. All the population schedules were damaged in a fire in the basement of the Commerce Building in Washington, D. C. in 1921. Some 25 % of the materials were presumed another 50 % damaged by smoke and water; the damage to the records led to an outcry for a permanent National Archives. In December 1932, following standard federal record-keeping procedures, the Chief Clerk of the Bureau of the Census sent the Librarian of Congress a list of papers to be destroyed, including the original 1890 census schedules.
The Librarian was asked by the Bureau to identify any records which should be retained for historical purposes, but the Librarian did not accept the census records. Congress authorized destruction of that list of records on February 21, 1933, the surviving original 1890 census records were destroyed by government order by 1934 or 1935; the other censuses for which some information has been lost are the 1810 enumerations. Few sets of microdata from the 1890 census survive, but aggregate data for small areas, together with compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. Mayo-Smith, Richmond, "The Eleventh Census of the United States". In: The Economic Journal, Vol. 1, p. 43 - 58 1891 U. S Census Report Contains 1890 Census results Historical US Census data from the U. S. Census Bureau website Hollerith 1890 Census Tabulator by Columbia University "The Fate of the 1890 Population Census" from the National Archives website
Tennessee's 4th congressional district
The 4th Congressional District of Tennessee is a congressional district in southern Tennessee. It has been represented by Republican Scott DesJarlais since January 2011; the district lies in the southern part of Middle Tennessee, but stretches into East Tennessee. It is composed of the following counties: Bedford, Franklin, Lincoln, Marshall, Moore, Rutherford and Warren, it contains significant portions of Bradley and Van Buren counties. Most of the district is rural; the area is hilly, has many well-known geographical features related to its location on the Cumberland Plateau. The most famous of these is Fall Creek Falls in Van Buren County; this part of Tennessee has several well-recognized distilleries such as Duck River, George Dickel, Southern Pride, most famously the Jack Daniel's Distillery in Lynchburg. The region encompasses many of Tennessee's higher education facilities, such as Middle Tennessee State University, Sewanee: The University of the South, Bryan College, Lee University. According to the 2010 census, the five largest cities are Murfreesboro, Smyrna, LaVergne, Shelbyville.
Throughout the 20th century, the 4th district took many different forms. Though, in most cases, it encompassed most of the rural area between Knoxville, it has been the state's largest district in terms of area, one of the largest east of the Mississippi River, because of low population density and the district's rural character. For thirty years, this area of Tennessee was represented in Congress by Joe L. Evins. Evins' successor in Congress was future vice president Al Gore, Jr. who represented the 4th from 1977 to 1983. The district's current configuration dates from he 1980 census, when Tennessee gained a new congressional seat. Parts of what were in the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 6th districts were combined to form a new 4th district. Most of Gore's territory became the 6th district; the new district took pieces of traditional Republican East Tennessee and traditionally Democratic Middle Tennessee. It was so large. In 1982, Democrat Jim Cooper, son of former governor Prentice Cooper defeated Cissy Baker, daughter of Senate Majority Leader Howard Baker.
Cooper went on to represent the district for the rest of the early 90s. On paper, this district was not safe for either party, given its volatile demographics. Much of the eastern portion of the district, for instance, had not been represented by a Democrat since before the Civil War. However, Cooper was reelected five times without serious difficulty. Cooper gave up his seat to run for Senate in 1994, he was succeeded by Republican Van Hilleary in the massive Republican wave of that year. Hilleary was reelected three times without much difficulty, handily winning a second term as Bill Clinton carried the district due to Gore's presence as his running mate. In 2002, Hilleary made a failed attempt to become Governor of Tennessee, was replaced by state senator Lincoln Davis. Davis held the seat for eight years. In 2010, Davis was challenged by South Pittsburg doctor Scott DesJarlais, who rode to victory on the Tea Party wave of 2010 despite Davis raising more money; this marked the first time that an incumbent had been defeated in the district since the reformation of the district in 1980.
Following the DesJarlais victory and the 2010 census, the 4th was made more compact. The district lost its northern portion, including its territory near the Knoxville. On the other hand, the 4th gained significant additions with Rutherford County and northern Bradley County. Tennessee's congressional districts List of United States congressional districts Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present Political Graveyard database of Tennessee congressmen Congress.com: Tennessee Congressional districts Google map of Tennessee's 4th district at GovTrack.us National Atlas maps of all congressional districts U. S. Census data searchable by congressional district Opensecrets.org Fundraising data from FEC reports 2006 results by county from CBSNews.com
2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol
Marshall County, Tennessee
Marshall County is a county located in the U. S. state of Tennessee. As of the 2010 census, the population was 30,617, its county seat is Lewisburg. Marshall County comprises the Lewisburg Micropolitan Statistical Area, included in the Nashville-Davidson-Murfreseboro Combined Statistical Area, it is in one of the three Grand Divisions of the state. The Tennessee Walking Horse Breeders' and Exhibitors' Association is based here. In addition, the fainting goat is another animal breed developed here. To celebrate this unique breed, the county holds an annual festival known as "Goats and More," drawing visitors from around the world. Marshall County was created in 1836 from parts of Giles, Bedford and Maury counties. Marshall County was to be named Cannon County. Due to a clerical error at the time of formation in 1836 the names of Marshall and Cannon Counties, both formed in 1836, were accidentally swapped and never corrected, it was named after the American jurist, John Marshall, Chief Justice of the U.
S. Supreme Court; the economy was based on agriculture in the antebellum years and well into the twentieth century. Planters had depended on the labor of enslaved African Americans to work the commodity crops of tobacco and hemp, as well as care for thoroughbred horses and other quality livestock; the breed known as the Tennessee Walking Horse was developed here. After the war and whites struggled to adjust to emancipation and a free labor market. Freedmen founded Needmore as a community in Marshall County after the Civil War where they could live as neighbors and be free of white supervision. Whites committed violence against freedmen to maintain dominance after the war. In the period after Reconstruction and into the early 20th century, whites in Marshall County committed eight lynchings of African Americans; this was the fifth-highest total of any county in the state, but three other counties, including two nearby had eight lynchings each. Among these lynchings were the murders of John Milligan and John L.
Hunter in the Needmore settlement near the county seat of Lewisburg in August 1903. Governor James B. Frazier offered a reward for information, as Whitecaps were blamed for the deaths, the state was trying to eliminate this secret, vigilante group. In the early 20th century, numerous African Americans left the county during the period of the Great Migration to northern and midwestern industrial cities for work. Three Tennessee governors— Henry Horton, Jim Nance McCord, Buford Ellington— were each living in Marshall County at the time of their election as governor. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 376 square miles, of which 375 square miles is land and 0.7 square miles is water. The Duck River drains much of the county. Rutherford County Bedford County Lincoln County Giles County Maury County Williamson County Henry Horton State Park Wilson School Road Forest and Cedar Glades State Natural Area As of the census of 2000, there were 26,767 people, 10,307 households, 7,472 families residing in the county.
The population density was 71 people per square mile. There were 11,181 housing units at an average density of 30 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 89.42% White, 7.77% Black or African American, 0.25% Native American, 0.31% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 1.46% from other races, 0.77% from two or more races. 2.87% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 10,307 households out of which 33.80% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.80% were married couples living together, 11.60% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.50% were non-families. 23.90% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.00% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.56 and the average family size was 3.02. In the county, the population was spread out with 25.60% under the age of 18, 8.70% from 18 to 24, 29.90% from 25 to 44, 23.20% from 45 to 64, 12.60% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years.
For every 100 females there were 95.40 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.90 males. The median income for a household in the county was $38,457, the median income for a family was $45,731. Males had a median income of $31,876 versus $22,362 for females; the per capita income for the county was $17,749. About 7.30% of families and 10.00% of the population were below the poverty line, including 10.80% of those under age 18 and 13.10% of those age 65 or over. Lewisburg Chapel Hill Cornersville Petersburg Belfast Milltown Verona National Register of Historic Places listings in Marshall County, Tennessee Official site Marshall County Chamber of Commerce Tennessee Walking Horse Breeders' and Exhibitors' Association Annual Fainting Goat Festival Marshall County, TNGenWeb - free genealogy resources for the county Marshall County at Curlie
Williamson County, Tennessee
Williamson County is a county in the U. S. state of Tennessee. As of the 2010 United States Census, the population was 205,226; the county seat is Franklin. The county is named after Hugh Williamson, a North Carolina politician who signed the U. S. Constitution. Adjusted for relative cost of living, Williamson County is one of the wealthiest counties in the United States. Williamson County is part of the Nashville-Davidson-Murfreesboro-Franklin, TN Metropolitan Statistical Area; the Tennessee General Assembly created Williamson County on October 26, 1799, from a portion of Davidson County. This territory had long been inhabited by at least five Native American cultures, including tribes of Cherokee, Choctaw and Shawnee, it is home to two Mississippian-period mound complexes, the Fewkes site and the Old Town site, built by a culture that preceded such historic tribes. European-American settlers arrived in the area after the Revolutionary War. Fur traders had preceded them. Scots traders had families with them.
Both sides thought. Most of the settlers were migrants from Virginia and North Carolina, part of a western movement after the American Revolutionary War. Others came after a generation in Kentucky. In 1800, Abram Maury laid out Franklin, the county seat, carved out of part of a land grant he had purchased from Major Anthony Sharp. "The county was named in honor of Dr. Hugh Williamson of North Carolina, a colonel in the North Carolina militia and served three terms in the Continental Congress."Many of the county's early inhabitants were veterans, paid in land grants after the Revolutionary War. Many veterans chose not to settle in the area and sold large sections of their land grants to speculators; these in turn sold off smaller lots. In the antebellum years, the county was the second-wealthiest in the state; as part of the Middle Tennessee region, it had resources of rich soil, which planters developed with slaves for a diversity of crops including rye, oats, hemp, wheat, peas and hay. This diversity, plus timber resources, helped create a stable economy, as opposed to reliance on one cash crop.
Slavery was an integral part of the local economy. By 1850, planters and smaller slaveholders in the county held 13,000 enslaved African Americans, who made up nearly half the population of more than 27,000. Williamson County was affected by the war. Three battles were fought in the county: the Battle of Brentwood, the Battle of Thompson's Station, the Battle of Franklin, which had some of the highest fatalities of the war; the large plantations that were part of the county's economic foundation were ravaged, many of the county's youth were killed. Many Confederate casualties of the Battle of Franklin were buried in the McGavock Confederate Cemetery near the Carnton plantation house. Containing the bodies of 1,481 soldiers, it is the largest private Confederate cemetery in America; the county continued to be rural into the early 1900s. "Most residents were farmers who raised corn, wheat and livestock."In the post-Reconstruction era and the early 20th century, white violence against African Americans increased in an effort to assert dominance.
Five African Americans were lynched by white mobs in Williamson County. Among them was Amos Miller, a 23-year-old black man taken from the courtroom during his 1888 trial as a suspect in an assault case, hanged from the balcony of the county courthouse. In 1924, 15-year-old Samuel Smith was lynched in Nolensville for shooting and wounding a white grocer, he was brought back to the town to be murdered. He was the last recorded lynching victim in the Nashville area. Numerous blacks left Williamson County from 1880 through 1950 as part of the Great Migration to industrial cities in the North and Midwest for work and to escape Jim Crow oppression and violence. County population did not surpass its 1880 level until 1970, when it began to develop suburban housing in response to growth in Nashville. One of the first major manufacturers to establish operations in the county was the Dortch Stove works, which opened a factory in Franklin; the factory was developed as a Magic Chef factory, producing electric and gas ranges.
When the factory was closed due to extensive restructuring in the industry, the structure fell into disuse. The factory complex was restored in the late 1990s in an adaptation for offices, it is considered a "model historic preservation adaptive reuse project."The completion of the Interstate Highway System contributed to Nashville's rapid expansion in the mid-20th century, stimulating tremendous population growth in Williamson County. As residential suburban population has increased, the rural county has invested in infrastructure and schools, its character is changing. Between 1990 and 2000, the county's population increased 56.3 percent in the northern part, including Franklin and Brentwood. As of census estimates in 2012, Franklin has more than 66,000 residents, is the eighth-largest city in the state, its residents are affluent, with a high median income. The southern part of the county is still rural and used for agriculture. Spring Hill is a growing city in this area. According to the U.
S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 584 square miles, of which 583 square miles is land and 1.2 square miles is water. The Harpeth River and its tributary, the Little Harpeth River, are the county's primary streams. Davidson County Rutherford County Marshall