The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceans, with an area of about 106,460,000 square kilometers. It covers 20 percent of the Earth's surface and about 29 percent of its water surface area, it separates the "Old World" from the "New World". The Atlantic Ocean occupies an elongated, S-shaped basin extending longitudinally between Europe and Africa to the east, the Americas to the west; as one component of the interconnected global ocean, it is connected in the north to the Arctic Ocean, to the Pacific Ocean in the southwest, the Indian Ocean in the southeast, the Southern Ocean in the south. The Equatorial Counter Current subdivides it into the North Atlantic Ocean and the South Atlantic Ocean at about 8°N. Scientific explorations of the Atlantic include the Challenger expedition, the German Meteor expedition, Columbia University's Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory and the United States Navy Hydrographic Office; the oldest known mentions of an "Atlantic" sea come from Stesichorus around mid-sixth century BC: Atlantikoi pelágei and in The Histories of Herodotus around 450 BC: Atlantis thalassa where the name refers to "the sea beyond the pillars of Heracles", said to be part of the sea that surrounds all land.
Thus, on one hand, the name refers to Atlas, the Titan in Greek mythology, who supported the heavens and who appeared as a frontispiece in Medieval maps and lent his name to modern atlases. On the other hand, to early Greek sailors and in Ancient Greek mythological literature such as the Iliad and the Odyssey, this all-encompassing ocean was instead known as Oceanus, the gigantic river that encircled the world. In contrast, the term "Atlantic" referred to the Atlas Mountains in Morocco and the sea off the Strait of Gibraltar and the North African coast; the Greek word thalassa has been reused by scientists for the huge Panthalassa ocean that surrounded the supercontinent Pangaea hundreds of millions of years ago. The term "Aethiopian Ocean", derived from Ancient Ethiopia, was applied to the Southern Atlantic as late as the mid-19th century. During the Age of Discovery, the Atlantic was known to English cartographers as the Great Western Ocean; the term The Pond is used by British and American speakers in context to the Atlantic Ocean, as a form of meiosis, or sarcastic understatement.
The term dates to as early as 1640, first appearing in print in pamphlet released during the reign of Charles I, reproduced in 1869 in Nehemiah Wallington's Historical Notices of Events Occurring Chiefly in The Reign of Charles I, where "great Pond" is used in reference to the Atlantic Ocean by Francis Windebank, Charles I's Secretary of State. The International Hydrographic Organization defined the limits of the oceans and seas in 1953, but some of these definitions have been revised since and some are not used by various authorities and countries, see for example the CIA World Factbook. Correspondingly, the extent and number of oceans and seas varies; the Atlantic Ocean is bounded on the west by South America. It connects to the Arctic Ocean through the Denmark Strait, Greenland Sea, Norwegian Sea and Barents Sea. To the east, the boundaries of the ocean proper are Europe: the Strait of Africa. In the southeast, the Atlantic merges into the Indian Ocean; the 20° East meridian, running south from Cape Agulhas to Antarctica defines its border.
In the 1953 definition it extends south to Antarctica, while in maps it is bounded at the 60° parallel by the Southern Ocean. The Atlantic has irregular coasts indented by numerous bays and seas; these include the Baltic Sea, Black Sea, Caribbean Sea, Davis Strait, Denmark Strait, part of the Drake Passage, Gulf of Mexico, Labrador Sea, Mediterranean Sea, North Sea, Norwegian Sea all of the Scotia Sea, other tributary water bodies. Including these marginal seas the coast line of the Atlantic measures 111,866 km compared to 135,663 km for the Pacific. Including its marginal seas, the Atlantic covers an area of 106,460,000 km2 or 23.5% of the global ocean and has a volume of 310,410,900 km3 or 23.3% of the total volume of the earth's oceans. Excluding its marginal seas, the Atlantic covers 81,760,000 km2 and has a volume of 305,811,900 km3; the North Atlantic covers 41,490,000 km2 and the South Atlantic 40,270,000 km2. The average depth is 3,646 m and the maximum depth, the Milwaukee Deep in the Puerto Rico Trench, is 8,486 m.
The bathymetry of the Atlantic is dominated by a submarine mountain range called the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. It runs from 87°N or 300 km south of the North Pole to the subantarctic Bouvet Island at 42°S; the MAR divides the Atlantic longitudinally into two halves, in each of which a series of basins are delimited by secondary, transverse ridges. The MAR reaches above 2,000 m along most of its length, but is interrupted by larger transform faults at two places: the Romanche Trench near the Equator and the Gibbs Fracture Zone at 53°N; the MAR is a barrier for bottom water, but at these two transform faults deep water currents can pass from one side to the othe
Árainn Mhór is an island off the west coast of County Donegal in Ulster, Ireland. Arranmore is the largest inhabited island of County Donegal, with a population of 514 in 2011, down from 528 in 2006, 543 in 2002, over 600 in 1996; the island is part of the Donegal Gaeltacht, with most of the inhabitants speaking Ulster Irish. It is known in English as Arran Island. In Irish the island was traditionally called Árainn, it was sometimes called in Irish Árainn Uí Dhomhnaill, meaning the'Aran of the O'Donnells'. There are 529 people living on Arranmore and 62% are native Irish speakers. During the summer, students of all ages, from all over Ireland travel to the island for a 3-week holiday, it is a popular way of meeting new people and learning the Irish language. Students attend ceilí dance in the evenings, they are taught about the Irish language through Irish. Irish must be spoken at all times over the 3 week period; the college on Arranmore is known as Coláiste Árainn Mhóir, meaning the'College of Arranmore'.
The island lies 5 kilometres off a small coastal village in The Rosses. The island is served by two ferry services which operate between Arranmore and Burtonport on the mainland; the two operators make use of vessels built for the Scottish ferry operator Caledonian MacBrayne, allowing both to carry passengers and heavy goods vehicles. Most of the population lives along the southern and eastern coast, where the main village, Leabgarrow, is located; the island has been settled since'pre-Celtic times', the few remaining signs of early settlement include a promontory fort to the south of the island and shell middens dotted along the beaches. Its position near the Atlantic shipping lanes was exploited, with a coastguard station and a lighthouse positioned on the most north-westerly point, a World War 2 monitoring post set up to look out for the British, due to possible invasion as were many others along the Irish coast. U-Boats; the permanent population is 650. A large proportion of the housing stock are holiday homes, with both native islanders and their descendants, as well as non locals.
The island was the first offshore island in Ireland to get electricity from the Rural Electrification Scheme, run by the E. S. B. in 1957, but was amongst the last places in the country to get universally reliable piped water and an automatic phone exchange. It went directly from a manual switchboard to an ISDN-enabled system, which had to be upgraded within weeks due to massive demand for consumer phone lines, as the previous exchange had been limited to issuing numbers to business ventures only, only had 47 internal lines, it relies on tourism for its income, as well as the traditional Gaeltacht summer schools. In recent years, a local development co-op has encouraged the development of other industries on the island, such as a call centre and teacher training for Irish teachers; the island's many lakes provide rod fishing opportunities. The Arranmore Island transmitter is a relay station used by 2RN and Highland Radio to provide coverage to the island and much of The Rosses which are shielded by mountains from the main transmissions.
Two towers exist, the smaller of which belongs to Highland Radio, the larger to 2RN. The EIRP of the stations transmitted by 2RN is amongst the highest of any relay station; the site is 125 metres above sea level, with the 2RN antenna standing at 45 metres. A 1 kW transmitter, on 104.0 MHz, has been proposed for the i102-104FM radio station which launched in February 2008. Both O2 Ireland and Vodafone Ireland have transmission stations on the 2RN mast. UHF 45 is allocated to but unused by TV3. 41, 44, 47 and 51 are allocated for Digital terrestrial television. The island is twinned with Beaver Island, an island in northern Lake Michigan where a large number of former residents gathered after being evicted from Arranmore in the mid-1800s. There are still today a number of families on Beaver Island; the Arranmore RNLI Station, with its Severn-class lifeboat, is amongst the best equipped in the county. Aphort Plohogue Fallagowan Ballintra Ballard Illion Leabgarrow Leabrannagh Pollawaddy Scraigatoke Torries Lighthouses in Ireland List of RNLI stations Ulster Irish Eighter Island Inishcoo Rutland Island Árainn Mhór Official Website Árainn Mhór Ferry Service Arranmore Ferry Service Irish language study 2006
Lifford is the county town of County Donegal, Ireland. It is the administrative capital of the county and the seat of Donegal County Council, although the town of Letterkenny is mistaken for fulfilling this role. Lifford lies in the Finn Valley area of East Donegal where the River Finn meets the River Mourne to create the River Foyle; the Burn Deele, a burn, flows into the River Foyle just north of Lifford. The town grew up around a castle built there by Manghus Ó Domhnaill, ruler of Tír Chonaill, in the 16th century, it became a British Army garrison town until Ireland won independence as a dominion in early December 1922. It is linked to that town by Lifford Bridge. Manus O'Donnell began building the castle in 1527 on the Wednesday after St. Brendan's day, he completed the masonry and woodwork by the end of that summer though the O’Neill’s of Tyrone were at war with him. In 1543 the castle of Leithbher was given to Cahir O'Gallagher to be guarded for the O’Donnell clan, he proceeded to banish the people loyal to the O’Donnell’s from the castle so that he could keep it for himself.
In 1544 Calvagh, the son of O'Donnell, went to the English Lord Justice, brought back English soldiers with him to Tirconnell, the olden name for County Donegal. O'Donnell and these men went with ‘ordnance and engines for taking towns’ to the castle of Lifford to take it back from the descendants of the O'Gallaghers. Cahir, the son of Tuathal Balbh & Turlough, the son of Felim Fin O'Gallagher, taken hostage earlier, were brought to the castle to see if the O’Gallagher’s would surrender. Which they wouldn’t; as the English attacked one was killed so they killed Cahir, the son of Tuathal on the spot. The castle was surrendered to O’Donnell to spare the life of Turlough, the son of Felim Fin and another son of Tuathal Balbh; the Battle of Lifford was fought in 1600 during Tyrone's Rebellion. Following the defeat of O'Doherty's Rebellion at the Battle of Kilmacrennan in 1608, a number of captured rebels were brought to Lifford where they were tried by Irish civilian courts and executed; the most notable rebel to be executed was Phelim Reagh MacDavitt.
In 1611 Lifford came into the possession of Sir Richard Hansard during the Plantation of Ulster. One of the conditions of his grant was; this service continued until 1730 when the first bridge linking Strabane was built. In the 19th century a curious custom existed when if, by the end of the Assizes in Lifford or Omagh courthouses, a jury could not reach a unanimous verdict in a case, they were sent to the "verge" of the county to be dismissed. In some of the cases of counties Donegal and Tyrone this would have been the middle of Lifford Bridge; the present bridge was constructed by engineering company McAlpines in 1964, jointly funded by Donegal County Council and the old Tyrone County Council. During The Troubles in 1968, an attempt was made to blow the bridge up. However, it today remains an important road link. Lifford achieved national recognition in the 2008 Tidy Towns Awards as the best newcomer to the competition in Category'C'. Lifford was once a constituency that elected two M. P.s from the area to the Irish House of Commons from the years 1692 until 1800.
More information on who represented. Lifford is now part of the county-wide five-seat Donegal constituency. Prior to that, it was in the Dáil constituency of Donegal South-West, it had been in Donegal North-East, but due to the population shift within the County an electoral boundary review in 2008 moved the town and environs to Donegal SW. The town moved from the Letterkenny Electoral Area to the Stranorlar Electoral Area as part of that boundary review. In the 2016 General Election, the constituency returned Charlie McConalogue, Pearse Doherty, Pat "the Cope" Gallagher, Joe McHugh and Thomas Pringle; the town is part of the Stranorlar Municipal District which returns local residents to Donegal County Council. There are two local residents who are councillors with Donegal County Council, namely Gerry Crawford and Gary Doherty. Lifford Town has a population of 1,626 as of an increase of 178 on the 2006 census. Of the 1,626 residents 794 were male and 832 female. Lifford is part of the Parish of Clonleigh with a population of 3,547, the parish is sub-divided for electoral purposes into two separate Electoral Districts, Clonleigh North and Clonleigh South, in 2016 the population of Clonleigh North was 1,374 and in Clonleigh South the 2016 population was 2,173.
Lifford is served by several schools. For Second level education students must travel to either, Stranorlar or Strabane in Northern Ireland. Primary schools cater for children from age 5 to 13 in yearly classes from Junior Infants to sixth class. All children must receive an education in the Republic of Ireland between the ages of five and sixteen. More information can be found by clicking HERE. Primary Schools in Lifford are: St. Patrick’s. A 162 pupil school. Scoil Mhuire gan Smal. A 102 pupil school (En
Convoy, County Donegal
Convoy is a village in the east of County Donegal, being located in the Finn Valley district. It is part of the Barony of Raphoe, it is situated on the Burn Deele, on the road from Stranorlar to Raphoe, from which latter parish it was separated in 1825, formed into a distinct parish. At its north-western extremity is the mountain of Cark, 1198 feet above the level of the sea. Convoy had a total population of 1,526 according to the 2016 census. Like many other towns in the vicinity, it has its origins in the Plantation of Ulster. Convoy is home to a mixed religious community, reflected in the schools and churches in the town. There is a mixed primary school in the town. There is a Catholic church, a Church of Ireland church and a Free Presbyterian Church of Ulster church or'kirk' in the town. There are no secondary schools in Convoy and local children tend to travel to Raphoe or Stranorlar for second level education; the Burn Deele is a burn. Convoy once had a woollen mill located on the banks of the Burn Deele, but this closed in the early 1980s with the resultant loss of many local jobs.
Most people who lived in Convoy worked in the Convoy Woollen Mill and what economy there was managed to sustain a couple of shops and the Post Office. If one did not work in the Mill or manage to get casual labouring jobs in one of the farms outside the village, one had little choice but to emigrate, to either building work in England or Scotland or to the promise of something better in America; the woollen mill is now host to a business area, promoted and assisted by the Republic of Ireland's former state development body FÁS. The Montgomery family of Convoy is descended from Alexander Montgomery, Prebendary of Doe, who died about 1658, he was brought over from Scotland by his kinsman, George Montgomery, who became the first Protestant Bishop of Raphoe in 1604. Alexander Montgomery of Croaghan, near Lifford, bought the Convoy estate from the Nesbitt family in 1719. Boyton House was first occupied in November 1807 by the family of Robert Montgomery of Brandrim who had inherited the estate form his cousin, Sandy Montgomery of Convoy.
Sandy represented Donegal in Grattan's Parliament for thirty two years. He was noted for his duelling, his brothers were John of Lisbon and Richard, a general in Washington’s army who fell at the siege of Quebec in 1775. Sandy was a secret supporter of the United Irishmen, he voted against the Act of Union in 1800. Boyton House used to contain the letter which Washington wrote to the family on Richard’s death and receipts for meat bought by thehundred-weight in Raphoe by the Montgomery family for free distribution in Convoy during the Famine; the house passed through marriage to the Boyton family in the nineteenth century. There are daily Bus Éireann buses serving Convoy which go to such places as Derry and Strabane several times a day. Convoy railway station opened on 1 January 1909, closed on 1 January 1960; the nearest railway station is operated by Northern Ireland Railways and runs from Waterside Station in Derry, via Coleraine, to Belfast Central railway station and Belfast Great Victoria Street railway station.
The strategically important Belfast-Derry railway line is to be upgraded to facilitate more frequent trains and improvements to the permanent way such as track and signalling to enable faster services. Convoy is to be the proposed site of the Donegal GAA centre of excellence, it is set to be completed by the end of 2013. Seán Dunnion, chairman of the county board said of the centre: “The benefits that can be accrued out of it will be huge to our footballers, our hurlers, our ladies, our camogie players, our schools…the benefits to everyone will be immense.” St. Mary's G. A. A is the local G. A. A club. Founded in 1928 the club caters for players both female at all age levels in football; the players come from the villages of Convoy and Raphoe with the pitch located in Convoy. They have a distinguished history having won many junior titles. Convoy has Convoy Arsenal; the club were Donegal Junior League winners in 2003, won the Division One title in 2004 and were runners-up in the Premier Division in 2005.
On the back of that success, Convoy Arsenal joined the Ulster Senior League in 2005. As well as catering for the more senior players from the area, they presently have teams in the Donegal Saturday League in the under-8, under-10, under-12, under-14 and under-16 grades. List of populated places in Ireland
Buncrana is a town in County Donegal, Ireland. It is beside Lough Swilly on the Inishowen peninsula, 23 kilometres northwest of Derry and 43 kilometres north of Letterkenny. In the 2016 census, the population was 6,785 making it the second most populous town in County Donegal, after Letterkenny, the largest in Inishowen. Buncrana is the historic home of the O'Doherty clan and developed around the defensive tower known as O'Doherty's Keep at the mouth of the River Crana; the town moved to its present location just south of the River Crana when George Vaughan built the main street in 1718. The town was a major centre for the textile industry in County Donegal from the 19th century until the mid-2000s. On the northern bank of the River Crana as it enters Lough Swilly sits the three-story O'Doherty's Keep, the only surviving part of an original 14th-century Norman castle; the first two levels of the keep were built after 1333. In 1601 the O'Doherty's Keep was described as being a small, two-story castle, inhabited by Conor McGarret O'Doherty.
In 1602 the third level was added and it was upgraded by Hugh Boy O'Doherty as an intended base for Spanish military aid that hoped to land at Inch. The keep was burned by Crown forces in 1608 in reprisal for the rebellion of Sir Cahir O'Doherty, who had sacked and razed the city of Derry. After Sir Cahir O'Doherty was killed at the Battle of Kilmacrennan, he was attaindered and his land seized; the keep was granted to Sir Arthur Chichester, who leased it to Englishman Henry Vaughan, where it was repaired and lived in by the Vaughan family until 1718. In 1718, Buncrana Castle was built by George Vaughan, it was one of the first big manor houses built in Inishowen, stone was taken from the bawn, or defensive wall, surrounding O'Doherty's Keep to build it, it was erected on the original site of Buncrana. Vaughan moved the town to its present location, where he founded the current main street and built the Castle Bridge across the River Crana leading to his Castle. During the 1798 Rebellion, Theobald Wolfe Tone was held in Buncrana Castle when he was captured after the British/French naval battle off the coast of Donegal, before being taken to Derry and subsequently to Dublin.
On 18 May 1812, Isaac Todd bought the entire town of Buncrana the townlands of Tullydish and Ballymacarry, at the Court of Chancery on behalf of the trustees of the Marquess of Donegall. His nephews inherited the castles, they became known as the Thornton-Todds; the castle remains as a private home today. In the forecourt there is a memorial rock in honour of Sir Cahir O'Doherty, a plaque dedicated to Wolfe Tone. One of the oldest remaining inhabited residences in Buncrana is a Georgian property called Westbrook House, situated at the entrance to Swan Park just north of the town center of Buncrana; the house was built in 1807 by Judge Wilson, who built the single-arch stone bridge leading to the house and the entrance to Swan Park. In October 1905, Buncrana was the first town in County Donegal to receive electricity, it was generated at Swan Mill which continued to provide electricity for the town until September 1954 when Buncrana was brought under the ESB Rural Electrification Scheme. On 30 July 1922, during the Irish Civil War, Buncrana was captured by the Free State forces from Republican forces without the loss of life.
The Free State forces held the railway station and telegraph offices and all the roads entering the town. At 4:00am a sentry stopped a car on the outskirts of the town and on discovering it contained the Republican commander, with five armed volunteers, arrested them. At around 7:00am the Republican forces' position was surrounded and were given fifteen minutes to surrender, they complied, were arrested and their weapons and ammunition seized. That day, 100 Free State troops commandeered a train at Buncrana station and proceeded to take Clonmany and other locations on the peninsula. Buncrana was the object of public attention in 1972, when after Operation Motorman it became the place of refuge for many Provisional Irish Republican Army members from Derry. In 1991, a local Sinn Féin councillor, Eddie Fullerton, was murdered by loyalists from Northern Ireland. In March 2016 Buncrana town came to public attention when five people of the same family died after their car slipped off Buncrana Pier into the waters of Lough Swilly.
Only a 4month old baby survived when the father, Sean McGrotty, passed his daughter through a window to a passer-by who swam out to help. On November 23, 2017 an inquest found that the driver died by'misadventure'. Post-mortem results showed that the driver was more than three times over the drink drive limit. Buncrana Town Council was the Local Authority for the town and provided an extensive range of services in the area; these services ranged from planning control, to the provision of social housing, to the upkeep and improvement of roads, maintenance of parks and public open spaces. The Town Council was abolished in June 2014 when the Local Government Reform Act 2014 was implemented, its functions were taken over by Donegal County Council in 2014. Buncrana is in the Inishowen Municipal District. Buncrana is part of the Donegal since 2016, it was part of the Donegal North-East constituency of Dáil Éireann. Buncrana is located on the eastern shore of Lough Swilly in north County Donegal; the main urban area of the town is situated between the Crana River to the north and the Mill River to the south.
The principle street follows a rough north-south r
Castlefinn, sometimes spelt Castlefin, is a market town in the Finn Valley of County Donegal, Ireland. It is located between Ballybofey and Lifford and as of 2016 the population was 705; the River Finn flows by the town. The town is located in along the main N15 national primary road, which runs from Bundoran to Lifford; the town lies 8 miles from the twin towns of Ballybofey / Stranorlar. It has close links to the twin towns of Ballybofey/Stranorlar and has strong links with West Tyrone in Northern Ireland with the towns of Strabane and Castlederg; the main social outlet in the town is a pub called McBride's, at the foot of the Long Brae beside the main road between Lifford and Ballybofey. Other pubs in the town include Lynch's Tavern aka Skins; the five housing estates in the town are called the Emmett Park built in the 1980s Sessaigh Park built in the 2000s, Caislean Court built in the 1990s, Hillhead built in the 1970s and Grahamsland built in the 1950s. The town centre is located around the Diamond area, where 3 routes merge.
This area has a number of functions retail/commercial. The Diamond is an attractive area, with landscaped planting areas; this area has a number of buildings that are included on the Record of Protected Structures. The town has a number of functions including retail, education, economic, agricultural and recreational and a C. P. I center. However, the majority of functions are limited in scope due to the deficiency in population to support a number of large-scale services. Castlefinn serves as the focus of primary education for the surrounding rural areas; the National School has a large catchment area and has 180+ pupils attending. This provides employment for a number of associated job opportunities; the town has a play school for pre-school age children. The town centre is the focus of a wide range of activities; the town offers the basic essential retail outlets including grocery stores, petrol station, Post office, take-aways, public houses and some hairdressers. The town has a recycling facility, located on the Castlederg road beside the bridge.
The main facility is the C. P. I center, used for football, parties and the youth club. Holmes' Coaches is the main transport for the schools, but Castlefinn Cabs and Bus Hire is another taxi company. There is a soccer field. Castlefinn is the home of Finn Valley Radio which broadcasts on 95.8FM locally and around the world online, the station holds a community licence and its studios are located at the CPI Centre, their slogan is "Ireland's Happiest Radio Station" and can be listened to by visiting www.finnvalleyfm.com Founded by women Castlefinn is in the parish of Donaghmore, barony of Raphoe, 4.5 miles from Lifford. Its name translates from the castle on the banks of the river Finn, the stones from the castle were used in the construction of the bridge that still stands today, at the close of Elizabeth I’s reign it belonged to Sir Niall Garbh O’Donnell, it is situated on the river Finn, navigable to the River Foyle for vessels of 14 tons’ burden, is on the road from Strabane to Stranorlar and in 1837 consisted of a single street, with a Roman Catholic chapel.
St Mary's National School, Castlefin Scoil Náisiúnta Domhnach Mór, Castlefinn St. Safan's, Scoil NáisiÚnta Naomh Samhthann, Castlefinn Castlefinn railway station opened on 7 September 1863, but closed on 1 January 1960. A number of buses pass through Castlefinn on a daily basis going to Letterkenny, Strabane, Dublin and Galway. Seán Reid, musician List of populated places in Ireland Castlefinn Online Donegal County Council - Castlefinn Local Area Plan
Carrick, County Donegal
Carrick is a small town located within the parish of Glencolmcille in County Donegal, Ireland. Carrick in Gaelic means'rock', this name fits this town as there is a mountain called Sliabh Liag, rocky and it is the highest sea cliff in Europe; the population of this small town was 282. It is located between neighbouring towns Glencolmcille, Meenanary and Kilcar. In this town you will find 3 pubs, 2 local run shops, 2 coffee shops, a church, post office, a national school and a secondary school. Sport plays a huge part in the secondary school Coláiste na Carraige, with them winning many trophies for Gaelic Football such as many Ulster titles and taking part of the All Ireland semi final, Girls Basketball Team on reaching the final in 2010; the athletics club has had some success throughout many years with some achieving scholarships