First Brazilian Republic
The First Brazilian Republic or República Velha is the period of Brazilian history from 1889 to 1930. The República Velha ended with the Brazilian Revolution of 1930 that installed Getúlio Vargas as a dictator. On November 15, 1889 Marshal Deodoro da Fonseca deposed Emperor Dom Pedro II, declared Brazil a republic, reorganized the government. From 1889 to 1930, the government was a constitutional democracy. In reality, the elections were rigged, voters in rural areas were pressured or induced to vote for the chosen candidates of their bosses and, if all those methods did not work, the election results could still be changed by one sided decisions of Congress' verification of powers commission; this system resulted in the presidency of Brazil alternating between the oligarchies of the dominant states of São Paulo and Minas Gerais. This regime is referred to as "café com leite",'coffee with milk', after the respective agricultural products of the two states; this period ended with a military coup that placed a civilian, in the presidency.
The Brazilian republic was not an ideological offspring of the republics born of the French or American Revolutions, although the Brazilian regime would attempt to associate itself with both. The republic did not have enough popular support to risk open elections, it was a regime born of a coup d'état. The republicans made Deodoro president and, after a financial crisis, appointed Field Marshal Floriano Vieira Peixoto Minister of War to ensure the allegiance of the military; the officers who joined Field Marshal Deodoro da Fonseca in ending the Empire had made an oath to uphold it. The officer corps would resolve the contradiction by linking its duty to Brazil itself, rather than to transitory governments; the Republic was born rather accidentally: Deodoro had intended only to replace the cabinet, but the republicans manipulated him into founding a republic. The history of the Old Republic was dominated by a quest for a viable form of government to replace the monarchy; this quest lurched forth between state autonomy and centralization.
The constitution of 1891, establishing the United States of Brazil, granted extensive autonomy to the provinces, now called States. The Federal system was adopted, all powers not granted in the Constitution to the Federal Government belonged to the States, it recognized. The Empire of Brazil had not absorbed the regional pátrias, now they reasserted themselves. Into the 1920s, the federal government in Rio de Janeiro was dominated and managed by a combination of the more powerful states of São Paulo, Minas Gerais, Rio Grande do Sul and to a lesser extent Pernambuco, Bahia; as a result, the history of the outset of republic in Brazil is the story of the development of the Army as a national regulatory and interventionist institution. The sudden elimination of the monarchy reduced the number of masterful national institutions to one, the Army. Although the Roman Catholic Church continued its presence throughout the country, it was not national but rather international in its personnel, doctrine and purposes.
The Army assumed this new position not haphazardly, occupying in the conservative national economical elites' heart, part of the vacuum left by the monarchy with slavery abolition, acquiring support to its de facto role, eclipsing other military institutions, like the Navy and the National Guard. The Navy attempts to prevent. Although it had more units and men in Rio de Janeiro and Rio Grande do Sul than elsewhere, the Army's presence was felt throughout the country, its personnel, its interests, its ideology, its commitments were national in scope. In the last decades of the 19th century, the United States, much of Europe, neighboring Argentina expanded the right to vote. Brazil, moved to restrict access to the polls. In 1874, in a population of about 10 million, the franchise was held by about one million, but in 1881 this had been cut to 145,296; this reduction was one reason the Empire's legitimacy foundered, but the Republic did not move to correct the situation. By 1910 there were only 627,000 voters in a population of 22 million.
Throughout the 1920s, only between 2.3% and 3.4% of the total population could vote. The instability and violence of the 1890s were related to the absence of consensus among the elites regarding a governmental model; the lack of military unity and the disagreement among civilian elites about the military's role in society explain why a long-term military dictatorship was not established, as some officers advocating positivism wanted. However, military men were active in politics; the Constituent Assembly that drew up the constitution of 1891 was a battleground between those seeking to limit executive power, dictatorial in scope under President Deodoro da Fonseca, the Jacobins, radical authoritarians who opposed the paulista coffee oligarchy and who wanted to preserve and intensify presidential authority. The new charter established a federation governed by a president, a bicameral National Congress, a judiciary. However, real power was in th
Slavery in Brazil
Slavery in Brazil began long before the first Portuguese settlement was established in 1532, as members of one tribe would enslave captured members of another. Colonists were dependent on indigenous labor during the initial phases of settlement to maintain the subsistence economy, natives were captured by expeditions called bandeiras; the importation of African slaves began midway through the 16th century, but the enslavement of indigenous peoples continued well into the 17th and 18th centuries. During the Atlantic slave trade era, Brazil received more African slaves than any other country. An estimated 4.9 million slaves from Africa were brought to Brazil during the period from 1501 to 1866. Until the early 1850s, most enslaved Africans who arrived on Brazilian shores were forced to embark at West Central African ports in Luanda. Slave labor was the driving force behind the growth of the sugar economy in Brazil, sugar was the primary export of the colony from 1600 to 1650. Gold and diamond deposits were discovered in Brazil in 1690, which sparked an increase in the importation of African slaves to power this newly profitable mining.
Transportation systems were developed for the mining infrastructure, population boomed from immigrants seeking to take part in gold and diamond mining. Demand for African slaves did not wane after the decline of the mining industry in the second half of the 18th century. Cattle ranching and foodstuff production proliferated after the population growth, both of which relied on slave labor. 1.7 million slaves were imported to Brazil from Africa from 1700 to 1800, the rise of coffee in the 1830s further enticed expansion of the slave trade. Brazil was the last country in the Western world to abolish slavery. By the time it was abolished after years of campaigning by Emperor Pedro II, in 1888, an estimated four million slaves had been imported from Africa to Brazil, 40% of the total number of slaves brought to the Americas; the Portuguese became involved with the African slave trade first during the Reconquista of the Iberian Peninsula through the mediation of the Alfaqueque: the person tasked with the rescue of Portuguese captives and prisoners of war.
Slaves exported from Africa during this initial period of the Portuguese slave trade came from Mauritania, the Upper Guinea coast. Scholars estimate that as many as 156,000 slaves were exported from 1441 to 1521 to Iberia and the Atlantic islands from the African coast; the trade made the shift from Europe to the Americas as a primary destination for slaves around 1518. Prior to this time, slaves were required to pass through Portugal to be taxed before making their way to the Americas; the Portuguese first traveled to Brazil in 1500 under the expedition of Pedro Álvares Cabral, though the first Portuguese settlement was not established until 1532. Long before Europeans came to Brazil and began colonization, indigenous groups such as the Papanases, the Guaianases, the Tupinambás, the Cadiueus enslaved captured members of other tribes; the captured worked with their new communities as trophies to the tribe's martial prowess. Some enslaved would escape but could never re-attain their previous status in their own tribe because of the strong social stigma against slavery and rival tribes.
During their time in the new tribe, enslaved indigenes would marry as a sign of acceptance and servitude. For the enslaved of cannibalistic tribes, execution for devouring purposes could happen at any moment. While other tribes did not consume human flesh, their enslaved were still put to work, used as hostages, killed mercilessly. After the arrival of the Portuguese in Brazil, the Native Americans started to trade their prisoners, instead of using them as slaves or food, in exchange for goods, but the enslavement of Europeans could occur, as happened with Hans Staden who, after being set free, wrote a book about the customs of the Native Americans. The colonization effort proved to be a difficult undertaking on such a vast continent, indigenous slave labor was turned to for agricultural workforce needs. Aggressive mission networks of the Portuguese Jesuits were the driving force behind this recruitment, they mobilized an indigenous labor force to live in colonial villages to work the land; these indigenous enslaving expeditions were known as bandeiras.
These expeditions were composed of bandeirantes, adventurers who penetrated westward in their search for Indian slaves. These adventurers came from a wide spectrum of backgrounds, including plantation owners and members of the military, as well as people of mixed ancestry and captured Indian slaves. In 1629, Antônio Raposo Tavares led a bandeira, composed of 2,000 allied índios, "Indians", 900 mamelucos, "mestizos" and 69 whites, to find precious metals and stones and to capture Indians for slavery; this expedition alone was responsible for the enslavement of over 60,000 indigenous people. African slavery became more common in Brazil during the mid 16th century, though the enslavement of indigenous people continued into the 17th and the 18th century in the backlands of Brazil. In the first 250 years after the colonization of the land 70% of all immigrants to the colony were enslaved people. Indigenous slaves remained much cheaper during this time than their African counterparts, though they did suffer horrendous death rates from European diseases.
Although the average African slave lived to only be twenty-three years old due to terrible work conditions, this was still about four years longer than Indigenous slaves, which w
Machado de Assis
Joaquim Maria Machado de Assis known by his surnames as Machado de Assis, Machado, or Bruxo do Cosme Velho, was a pioneer Brazilian novelist, poet and short story writer. Regarded as the greatest writer of Brazilian literature he did not gain widespread popularity outside Brazil in his own lifetime. In 1897 he became the first President of the Brazilian Academy of Letters, he was multilingual, having taught himself French, English and Greek in life. Machado's works had a great influence on Brazilian literary schools of the late 19th and early 20th centuries. In 1941, the Brazilian Academy of Letters founded in his honor the Prêmio Machado de Assis, the most prestigious literary award in Brazil. For his innovation and audacity in early themes, Assis is seen as a writer of unprecedented production, being known for his irony and wide vocabulary. Among his most famous works are Dom Casmurro, Memórias Póstumas de Brás Cubas and Quincas Borba. Machado de Assis was included on American literary critic Harold Bloom's list of the greatest 100 geniuses of literature.
Joaquim Maria Machado de Assis was born on 21 June 1839 in Rio de Janeiro capital of the Empire of Brazil. His parents were Francisco José de Assis, a mulatto wall painter, the son of freed slaves, Maria Leopoldina da Câmara Machado, an Azorean Portuguese washerwoman, he was born in Livramento country house, owned by Dona Maria José de Mendonça Barroso Pereira, widow of senator Bento Barroso Pereira, who protected his parents and allowed them to live with her. Dona Maria José became Joaquim's godmother. Machado had a sister. Joaquim was not a good student. While helping to serve masses, he met Father Silveira Sarmento, who became his Latin teacher and a good friend; when Joaquim was ten years old, his mother died, his father took him along as he moved to São Cristóvão. Francisco de Assis met the mulatta Maria Inês da Silva, they married in 1854. Joaquim had classes in a school for girls only, thanks to his stepmother who worked there making candies. At night he learned French with an immigrant baker.
In his adolescence, he met the mulatto Francisco de Paulo Brito, who owned a bookstore, a newspaper and typography. On 12 January 1855, Francisco de Paula published the poem Ela written by Joaquim 15 years old, in the newspaper Marmota Fluminense. In the following year, he was hired as typographer's apprentice in the Imprensa Oficial, where he was encouraged as a writer by Manuel Antônio de Almeida, the newspaper's director and a novelist. There he met Francisco Otaviano and liberal senator, Quintino Bocaiúva, who decades would become known for his role as a republican orator. Francisco Otaviano hired Machado to work on the newspaper Correio Mercantil as a proofreader in 1858, he continued to write for the Marmota Fluminense and for several other newspapers, but he did not earn much and had a humble life. As he did not live with his father anymore, it was common for him to eat only once a day for lack of money. Around this time, he became a friend of the writer and liberal politician José de Alencar, who taught him English.
From English literature, he was influenced by Laurence Sterne, William Shakespeare, Lord Byron and Jonathan Swift. He learned German years and in his old age, Greek, he was invited by Bocaiúva to work at his newspaper Diário do Rio de Janeiro in 1860. Machado wrote several plays for a short time, he gained some notability and began to sign his writings as J. M. Machado de Assis, the way he would be known for posterity: Machado de Assis, his father Francisco de Assis died in 1864. Machado learned of his father's death through acquaintances, he dedicated his compilation of poems called "Crisálidas" to his father: "To the Memory of Francisco José de Assis and Maria Leopoldina Machado de Assis, my Parents." With the Liberal Party's ascension to power about that time, Machado thought he might receive a patronage position that would help him improve his life. To his surprise, aid came from the Emperor Dom Pedro II, who hired him as director-assistant in the Diário Oficial in 1867, knighted him as an honor.
In 1888 Machado was made an officer of the Order of the Rose. In 1868 Machado met the Portuguese Carolina Augusta Xavier de Novais, five years older than him, she was the sister of his colleague Faustino Xavier de Novais, for whom he worked on the magazine O Futuro. Afflicted with a stammer, Machado was shy and lean, but he was intelligent and well learned, he married Carolina on 12 November 1869. They had no children. Machado managed to rise in his bureaucratic career, first in the Agriculture Department. Three years he became the head of a section in it, he published two poetry books: Falenas, in 1870, Americanas, in 1875. Their weak reception made him explore other literary genres, he wrote five romantic novels: Ressurreição, A Mão e Luva and Iai
Manuel Ferraz de Campos Sales
Dr. Manuel Ferraz de Campos Sales was a Brazilian lawyer, coffee farmer and politician who served as the fourth President of Brazil, he was born in the city of São Paulo. He graduated as a lawyer from the Faculdade de Direito do Largo de São Francisco, São Paulo, in 1863, he served as a provincial deputy three times, general-deputy once, as minister of justice and governor of São Paulo. The pinnacle of his political career was his election as president of Brazil, an office he held between 1898 and 1902. Austere financial reforms were adopted during his tenure. Works by or about Manuel Ferraz de Campos Sales at Internet Archive List of Presidents of Brazil
Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907
The Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907 are a series of international treaties and declarations negotiated at two international peace conferences at The Hague in the Netherlands. Along with the Geneva Conventions, the Hague Conventions were among the first formal statements of the laws of war and war crimes in the body of secular international law. A third conference was planned for 1914 and rescheduled for 1915, but it did not take place due to the start of World War I; the Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907 were the first multilateral treaties that addressed the conduct of warfare and were based on the Lieber Code, signed and issued by U. S. President Abraham Lincoln to the Union Forces of the United States on 24 April 1863, during the American Civil War; the Lieber Code was the first official comprehensive codified law that set out regulations for behavior in times of martial law. As such, the code was regarded as the best summary of the first customary laws and customs of war in the 19th century and was welcomed and adopted by military establishments of other nations.
The 1874 Brussels Declaration listed 56 articles. Much of the regulations in the Hague Conventions were borrowed from the Lieber Code. Both conferences included negotiations concerning the laws of war and war crimes. A major effort in both conferences was the creation of a binding international court for compulsory arbitration to settle international disputes, considered necessary to replace the institution of war; this effort, failed at both conferences. Most of the countries present, including the United States, the United Kingdom, France and Persia, favored a process for binding international arbitration, but the provision was vetoed by a few countries, led by Germany; the First Hague Conference came from a proposal on 24 August 1898 by Russian Tsar Nicholas II. Nicholas and Count Mikhail Nikolayevich Muravyov, his foreign minister, were instrumental in initiating the conference; the conference opened on 18 May 1899, the Tsar's birthday. The treaties and final act of the conference were signed on 29 July of that year, they entered into force on 4 September 1900.
What is referred to as the Hague Convention of 1899 consisted of three main treaties and three additional declarations:: Convention for the Pacific Settlement of International DisputesThis convention included the creation of the Permanent Court of Arbitration, which exists to this day. The section was ratified by all major powers and many smaller powers - 26 signatories in all, including Germany, Austria-Hungary, China, Spain, the United States of America, France, Great Britain and Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Portugal, Russia, Siam and Norway, Switzerland and Bulgaria.: Convention with respect to the Laws and Customs of War on LandThis voluminous convention contains the laws to be used in all wars on land between signatories. It specifies the treatment of prisoners of war, includes the provisions of the Geneva Convention of 1864 for the treatment of the wounded, forbids the use of poisons, the killing of enemy combatants who have surrendered, looting of a town or place, the attack or bombardment of undefended towns or habitations.
Inhabitants of occupied territories may not be forced into military service against their own country and collective punishment is forbidden. The section was ratified by all major powers mentioned above.: Convention for the Adaptation to Maritime Warfare of the Principles of the Geneva Convention of 22 August 1864This convention provides for the protection of marked hospital ships and requires them to treat the wounded and shipwrecked sailors of all belligerent parties. It too was ratified by all major powers.: Declaration concerning the Prohibition of the Discharge of Projectiles and Explosives from Balloons or by Other New Analogous MethodsThis declaration provides that, for a period of five years, in any war between signatory powers, no projectiles or explosives would be launched from balloons, "or by other new methods of a similar nature." The declaration was ratified by all the major powers mentioned above, except the United Kingdom and the United States.: Declaration concerning the Prohibition of the Use of Projectiles with the Sole Object to Spread Asphyxiating Poisonous GasesThis declaration states that, in any war between signatory powers, the parties will abstain from using projectiles "the sole object of, the diffusion of asphyxiating or deleterious gases."
Ratified by all major powers, except the United States.: Declaration concerning the Prohibition of the Use of Bullets which can Easily Expand or Change their Form inside the Human Body such as Bullets with a Hard Covering which does not Completely Cover the Core, or containing IndentationsThis declaration states that, in any war between signatory powers, the parties will abstain from using "bullets which expand or flatten in the human body." This directly banned soft-point bullets and "cross-tipped" bullets (which had a cross-shaped incision in the
Law School, University of São Paulo
The Law School, University of São Paulo is an institution of higher education and research in the field of Law located in São Paulo, Brazil. It joined the University of São Paulo in 1934. One of the oldest establishments of higher education in Brazil, the oldest law school, the São Francisco Law School, was founded together with the Olinda Law School, by Brazilian regent Dom Pedro I on August 11, 1827, but its classes began earlier than Olinda's; as it was founded a few years after the proclamation of the Independence of Brazil, it was essential for the administration of the Brazilian Empire, having taught most of those who would be part of the Brazilian government. The school was first installed in a monastery building from the Franciscan order, rebuilt several times since, for instance, after a fire; the most recent construction dates from 1934. A number of Brazilian politicians and famous writers have studied at Largo de São Francisco since its foundation, such as Castro Alves, Álvares de Azevedo, Fagundes Varela, Rui Barbosa, Monteiro Lobato.
There is a statue of Álvares de Azevedo in front of the building with this quote: "Foi poeta, sonhou e amou na vida", which translates to "He was a poet and loved in life". Students come from all over the country to study at São Francisco and contribute with bohemian and cultural lifestyle to the Brazilian most cosmopolitan city of São Paulo. There is a gravestone in its patio, where Julius Frank, a German professor dear to students, was buried in 1841; because Frank was a Protestant, he could not be buried in any of the Catholic graveyards in São Paulo, so the students chose to bury him inside the school as homage. Ranked as the best Law School in Brazil, São Francisco Law School has been the alma mater to 12 Brazilian presidents and many outstanding public officers, scholars, writers and businessmen; each year São Francisco Law School admits 460 new students in its undergraduate program, from 10,000 to 15,000 applicants. Graduate programs are available
Allies of World War I
The Allies of World War I or Entente Powers is the term used for the coalition that opposed the Central Powers of Germany, Austria-Hungary, the Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria during the First World War. By the end of the first decade of the 20th century, the major European powers were divided between the Triple Entente and the Triple Alliance; the Entente was made up of the United Kingdom and Russia. The Triple Alliance was composed of Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy, which remained neutral in 1914; as the war progressed, each coalition added new members. Japan joined the Entente in 1914. After proclaiming its neutrality at the beginning of the war, Italy joined the Entente in 1915; the United States joined as an "associated power" rather than an official ally.'Associated members' included Serbia, Greece and Romania. When the war began in 1914, the Central Powers were opposed by the Triple Entente, formed in 1907 by the British Empire, the Russian Empire and the French Third Republic. Fighting commenced when Austria invaded Serbia on 28 July 1914, purportedly in response to the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to Emperor Franz Joseph.
At the same time, German troops entered neutral Belgium and Luxembourg as dictated by the Schlieffen Plan. This allowed Belgium to be treated as an Ally, in contrast to Luxembourg which retained control over domestic affairs but was occupied by the German military. In the East, between 7–9 August the Russians entered German East Prussia on 7 August, Austrian Eastern Galicia. Japan joined the Entente by declaring war on Germany on 23 August Austria on 25 August. On 2 September, Japanese forces surrounded the German Treaty Port of Tsingtao in China and occupied German colonies in the Pacific, including the Mariana and Marshall Islands. Despite its membership of the Triple Alliance, Italy remained neutral until 23 May 1915 when it joined the Entente, declaring war on Austria but not Germany. On 17 January 1916, Montenegro left the Entente. On 6 April 1917, the United States entered the war as a co-belligerent, along with the associated allies of Liberia and Greece. After the 1917 October Revolution, Russia left the Entente and agreed to a separate peace with the Central Powers with the signing of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk on 3 March 1918.
Romania was forced to do the same in the May 1918 Treaty of Bucharest but on 10 November, it repudiated the Treaty and once more declared war on the Central Powers. These changes meant the Allies who negotiated the Treaty of Versailles in 1919 included France, Italy and the US; this came into being on 16 January 1920 with Britain, France and Japan as permanent members of the Executive Council. For much of the 19th century, Britain sought to maintain the European balance of power without formal alliances, a policy known as splendid isolation; this left it dangerously exposed as Europe divided into opposing power blocs and the 1895-1905 Conservative government negotiated first the 1902 Anglo-Japanese Alliance the 1904 Entente Cordiale with France. The first tangible result of this shift was British support for France against Germany in the 1905 Moroccan Crisis; the 1905-1915 Liberal government continued this re-alignment with the 1907 Anglo-Russian Convention. Like the Anglo-Japanese and Entente agreements, it focused on settling colonial disputes but by doing so paved the way for wider co-operation and allowed Britain to refocus resources in response to German naval expansion.
Since control of Belgium allowed an opponent to threaten invasion or blockade British trade, preventing it was a long-standing British strategic interest. Under Article VII of the 1839 Treaty of London, Britain guaranteed Belgian neutrality against aggression by any other state, by force if required. Chancellor Bethmann Hollweg dismissed this as a'scrap of paper,' but British law officers confirmed it as a binding legal obligation and its importance was well understood by Germany; the 1911 Agadir Crisis led to secret discussions between France and Britain in case of war with Germany. These agreed that within two weeks of its outbreak, a British Expeditionary Force of 100,000 men would be landed in France. Britain was committed to support France in a war against Germany but this was not understood outside government or the upper ranks of the military; as late as 1 August, a clear majority of the Liberal government and its supporters wanted to stay out of the war. While Liberal leaders Herbert Asquith and Edward Grey considered Britain and morally committed to support France regardless, waiting until Germany triggered the 1839 Treaty provided the best chance of preserving Liberal party unity.
The German high command was aware entering Belgium would lead to British intervention but decided the risk was acceptable. On 3 August, Germany demanded unimpeded progress through any part of Belgium a