It is the ninth largest lake in the world and the third largest and second deepest lake in Africa. It is home to species of fish than any other lake. The Mozambique portion of the lake was declared a reserve by the Government of Mozambique on June 10,2011. Lake Malawi is a lake, meaning that its water layers do not mix. The permanent stratification of Lake Malawis water and the boundary are maintained by moderately small chemical and thermal gradients. Lake Malawi is between 560 kilometres and 580 kilometres long, and about 75 kilometres wide at its widest point, the total surface area of the lake is about 29,600 square kilometres. The lake has shorelines on western Mozambique, eastern Malawi, the largest river flowing into it is the Ruhuhu River, and there is an outlet at its southern end, the Shire River, a tributary that flows into the very large Zambezi River in Mozambique. The lake lies in a formed by the opening of the East African Rift. This is called a divergent plate tectonics boundary and it is variously estimated at about 40,000 years old or about one to two million years.
The lake is about 350 kilometres southeast of Lake Tanganyika, another of the lakes of the East African Rift. The Lake Malawi National Park is located at the end of the lake. The lakes water is alkaline and warm with a temperature between 24 and 29 °C, while deep sections typically are about 22 °C. The oxygen limit is at a depth of approximately 250 m, effectively restricting fish, the Portuguese trader Candido José da Costa Cardoso was the first European to visit the lake in 1846. David Livingstone reached the lake in 1859, and named it Lake Nyasa, rhoadess crew found the Hermann von Wissmann in a bay near Sphinxhaven, in German East African territorial waters. Gwendolen disabled the German boat with a cannon shot from a range of about 1,800 metres. This very brief gunboat conflict was hailed by The Times in England as the British Empires first naval victory of World War I, the Lake of Stars is the nickname for Lake Malawi coined by David Livingstone. This name came about due to lights from the lanterns of the fishermen in Malawi on their boats, the lake is known as the Lake of Storms, for the unpredictable and extremely violent gales that sweep through the area.
The partition of the surface area between Malawi and Tanzania is under dispute
Bujumbura, formerly Usumbura, is the capital, largest city, and main port of Burundi. It ships most of the chief export, coffee, as well as cotton. It is on the shore of Lake Tanganyika, the second deepest lake in the world after Lake Baikal. The city center is a town with a large market, the national stadium, a large mosque. Museums in the city include the Burundi Museum of Life and the Burundi Geological Museum, ferries sail from Bujumbura to Kigoma in Tanzania. The city is home to the Bujumbura International Airport and the University of Burundi, Bujumbura grew from a small village after it became a military post in German East Africa in 1889. After World War I it was made the center of the Belgian League of Nations mandate of Ruanda-Urundi. The name was changed from Usumbura to Bujumbura when Burundi became independent in 1962, since independence, Bujumbura has been the scene of frequent fighting between the countrys two main ethnic groups, with Hutu militias opposing the Tutsi-dominated Burundi army.
Bujumbura today stands as a city but remains to develop with its country. According to the BBC, Bujumbura residents are known for their tradition of Saturday morning runs started during Burundis long years of ethnic conflict. Because the surrounding hills were home to armed militants before 2005, Bujumbura residents would try to vent their fear and frustration and claustrophobia, by running, in March 2014, President Pierre Nkurunziza banned jogging, due to fears it was being used as a cover for subversion. That same month, twenty-one opposition supporters were sentenced to life in prison for using jogging as a way to organize a demonstration that turned violent. As of June 2014 in Bujumbura, the authorities have since restricted jogging clubs to certain areas, all sports must now take place in nine parks in Bujumbura and other designated football pitches. Bujumbura is governed by a community council and community administrator and it is further divided into 13 communes, or neighborhoods, each with its own council and boss.
Bujumbura features a tropical climate with distinct wet and dry seasons. Its wet season is from October through April, while the dry season covers the five months. Despite being located close to the equator, Bujumbura is not nearly as warm as one might expect, average temperatures are constant throughout the course of the year with the high temperature at around 29 °C and the low temperature at around 19 °C. Bujumburas central market is in the City Centre, along Rwagasore Avenue, vendors moved their business to the central market, many settling outside the market due to lack of space
The common warthog is a wild member of the pig family found in grassland and woodland in sub-Saharan Africa. Females, at 45 to 75 kg, are typically a bit smaller and lighter in weight than males, a warthog is identifiable by the two pairs of tusks protruding from the mouth and curving upwards. The lower pair, which is far shorter than the upper pair, the upper canine teeth can grow to 25.5 cm long and have a wide elliptical cross section, being about 4.5 cm deep and 2.5 cm wide. A tusk will curve 90° or more from the root, and will not lie flat on a table, the tusks are used for digging, for combat with other hogs, and in defense against predators – the lower set can inflict severe wounds. Common warthog ivory is taken from the constantly growing canine teeth, the tusks, particularly the upper set, work in much the same way as elephant tusks with all designs scaled down. Tusks are carved predominantly for the tourist trade in east and southern Africa, the head of the common warthog is large, with a mane down the spine to the middle of the back.
Its color is black or brown. Tails are long and end with a tuft of hair, common warthogs do not have subcutaneous fat and the coat is sparse, making them susceptible to extreme environmental temperatures. The common warthog is the only pig species that has adapted to grazing and its diet is omnivorous, composed of grasses, roots and other fruits, fungi, insects and carrion. The diet is variable, depending on availability of different food items. During the wet seasons, warthogs graze on short perennial grasses, during the dry seasons, they subsist on bulbs and nutritious roots. Warthogs are powerful diggers, using both their snouts and feet, whilst feeding, they often bend their front feet backwards and move around on the wrists. Calloused pads that protect the wrists during such movement form quite early in the development of the fetus, although they can dig their own burrows, they commonly occupy abandoned burrows of aardvarks and other animals. The common warthog commonly reverses into burrows, with its head facing the opening, common warthogs will wallow in mud to cope with high temperatures and huddle together to cope with low temperatures.
Although capable of fighting, the common warthogs primary defense is to flee by means of fast sprinting, the common warthogs main predators are humans, leopards, wild dogs and hyenas. Cheetahs are capable of catching warthogs of up to their own weight and raptors such as Verreauxs eagle owls, however, if a female common warthog has any piglets, she will defend them very aggressively. On occasion, common warthogs have been observed charging and even wounding large predators, common warthogs have been observed allowing banded mongooses and vervet monkeys to groom them to remove ticks. Common warthogs are not territorial, but instead occupy a home range, common warthogs live in groups called sounders
Richard Francis Burton
Sir Richard Francis Burton KCMG FRGS was an English explorer, translator, soldier, cartographer, spy, poet and diplomat. He was famed for his travels and explorations in Asia, according to one count, he spoke 29 European and African languages. Burton defied many aspects of the pervasive British ethnocentrism of his day and his works and letters extensively criticized colonial policies of the British Empire, even to the detriment of his career. A characteristic feature of his books is the copious footnotes and appendices containing remarkable observations, Burton was a captain in the army of the East India Company, serving in India. Following this, he was engaged by the Royal Geographical Society to explore the east coast of Africa, in life, he served as British consul in Fernando Pó, Damascus and, Trieste. He was a Fellow of the Royal Geographical Society and was awarded a knighthood in 1886. Burton was born in Torquay, Devon, at 21,30 on 19 March 1821, in his autobiography and he was baptized on 2 September 1821 at Elstree Church in Borehamwood, Hertfordshire.
His father, Lt. -Colonel Henry Peard Driscoll and Mrs Richard Graves, richards mother, Martha Baker, was the daughter and co-heiress of a wealthy English squire, Richard Baker, of Barham House, for whom he was named. Burton had two siblings, Maria Katherine Elizabeth Burton and Edward Joseph Netterville Burton, born in 1823 and 1824, Burtons family travelled considerably during his childhood. In 1825, they moved to Tours, Burtons early education was provided by various tutors employed by his parents. He first began an education in 1829 at a preparatory school on Richmond Green in Richmond, Surrey. Over the next few years, his family travelled between England and Italy, Burton showed an early gift for languages and quickly learned French, Italian and Latin, as well as several dialects. During his youth, he was rumored to have carried on an affair with a young Roma woman, even learning the rudiments of her language, the peregrinations of his youth may have encouraged Burton to regard himself as an outsider for much of his life.
As he put it, Do what thy manhood bids thee do, from none, Burton matriculated at Trinity College, Oxford, on 19 November 1840. Before getting a room at the college, he lived for a time in the house of Dr. William Alexander Greenhill. Here, he met John Henry Newman, whose churchwarden was Dr. Greenhill, despite his intelligence and ability, Burton was antagonised by his teachers and peers. During his first term, he is said to have challenged another student to a duel after the latter mocked Burtons moustache, Burton continued to gratify his love of languages by studying Arabic, he spent his time learning falconry and fencing. In April 1842, he attended a steeplechase in deliberate violation of college rules and subsequently dared to tell the college authorities that students should be allowed to attend such events
Bukavu is a city in eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo, lying at the extreme south-western edge of Lake Kivu, west of Cyangugu in Rwanda, and separated from it by the outlet of the Ruzizi River. It is the capital of the South Kivu province and as of 2012 it had an population of 806,940. The current Governor of Bukavu is Marcelin Chishambo, Bukavu is part of the ancient territory of Bushi Kingdom, the main ethnic group of South-Kivu. It was governed by a “Muluzi” Nyalukemba, when the first Arabs, (“Muluzi” or “Baluzi” in the plural means « the nobleman or nobility to Shi. It is equivalent to Watutsi or Tutsi in Kinyarwanda, before the Europeans came in Bushi Kingdom, Bukavu was called “Rusozi”. The name Bukavu comes from the transformation of word bu nkafu in Mashi, Bukavu was established in 1901 by the Belgian colonial authorities. Originally named Costermansville or Costermansstad after Vice Governor-General Paul Costermans until 1954 and they were attracted by the subtropical climate and scenic location.
Many colonial villas have gardens sloping down to the shore, by contrast, the main residential district for ordinary people, climbs up the hillside inland. The surrounding hills reach a height of 2,000 metres, following the Rwandan Genocide, Hutu refugees and many members of the former Hutu-led government fled as part of the Great Lakes refugee crisis. The refugee camps around Goma and Bukavu became a center of the Hutu insurgency from the camps against the new Watutsi government of Rwanda, although to a very minimal extent. In November 1996 at the start of the First Congo War, Rwandan government forces attacked the Hutu camps. This reason of the Rwandan attacked is disputable as there are reasons to believe that this was not the reason for the Rwandan government to attack Congo. The Rwandan government supported rebels in Zaire led by Laurent Kabila who overthrew the Kinshasa government with their help, Rwanda supported the rebel Rally for Congolese Democracy against Kabila. The reason for this support is believed to be rather economical than the protection of the Rwandan territory, about 16,000 women were raped on a single weekend after General Nkunda told his troops This city is yours for three days.
During the 2015 South Kivu earthquake, at least one policemen was killed, Bukavus proximity to the Lake Tanganyika ports of Bujumbura and Kalundu-Uvira give it an additional advantage, with access on the lake to the railheads of Kigoma and Kalemie. Isolation, largely due to bad road infrastructure, has found to be an important determinant of wealth and/or development in South Kivu. Bukavu has numerous lakeside wharves and boat transport is used extensively in the Congolese waters of the lake in the absence of well maintained roads, Kavumu Airport located about 30 kilometres north is the domestic airport for Bukavu. This airport has not been renovated for many years, the renovation of this airport will be a great relief to the region and will facilitate many business and the growth of the economy
Ujiji is the oldest town in western Tanzania, located about 6 miles south of Kigoma. In 1900, the population was estimated at 10,000, part of the Kigoma/Ujiji urban area, the regional population was about 50,000 in 1978. Ujiji is the place where Richard Burton and John Speke first reached the shore of Lake Tanganyika in 1858. It is the site of the meeting on 10 November 1871 when Henry Stanley found Dr. David Livingstone. I see him. ’ and off he darted to meet him, the American flag at the head of the caravan told of the nationality of the stranger. There is a modest museum, there is a former slave route near the market. In 1878, the London Missionary Society established their first missionary post on the shore of Lake Tanganyika at Ujiji, some in Burundi claim the location of the famous meeting is a few miles south of the capital Bujumbura. However the Livingstone-Stanley Monument in Mugere actually marks a visit the two men made 15 days on their joint exploration of northern Lake Tanganyika, initially an Arab slave trade route that began in the 1850s, formerly known as Ugoi
Lake Kivu is one of the African Great Lakes. It lies on the border between the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Rwanda, and is in the Albertine Rift, Lake Kivu empties into the Ruzizi River, which flows southwards into Lake Tanganyika. Lake Kivu is approximately 90 km long and 50 km at its widest and its irregular shape makes measuring its precise surface area difficult, it has been estimated to cover a total surface area of some 2,700 km2. The surface of the lake sits at a height of 1,460 metres above sea level. The lake has a depth of 475 m and a mean depth of 220 m, making it the worlds eighteenth deepest lake by maximum depth. Some 1370 km2 or 58 percent of the lakes lie within DRC borders. The lake bed sits upon a rift valley that is slowly being pulled apart, the worlds tenth-largest island on a lake, lies in Lake Kivu, as does the tiny island of Tshegera, which lies within the boundaries of Virunga National Park. Settlements on the shore include Bukavu, Kalehe and Goma in Congo, and Gisenyi, Kibuye.
Lake Kivu is a fresh water lake and, along with Cameroonian Lake Nyos, around the lake, geologists found evidence of massive biological extinctions about every thousand years, presumably caused by outgassing events. The trigger for lake overturns is unknown in Lake Kivus case, the gaseous chemical composition of exploding lakes is unique to each lake. In Lake Kivus case and carbon dioxide due to lake water interaction with a volcano, the amount of methane is estimated to be 65 cubic kilometres. If burnt over one year, it would give a power of about 100 gigawatts for the whole period. There is an estimated 256 cubic kilometers of carbon dioxide, the water temperature is 24 °C, and the pH level is about 8.6. The methane is reported to be produced by reduction of the volcanic CO2. These are found at three different intervals, the sapropelic layers are believed to be related to hydrothermal discharge and the diatoms to a bloom which reduced the carbon dioxide levels low enough to precipitiate monohydrocalcite.
The carbon dioxide would suffocate large numbers of people in the basin as the gases roll off the lake surface. It is possible that the lake could spawn lake tsunamis as gas explodes out of it, the risk posed by Lake Kivu began to be understood during the analysis of more recent events at Lake Nyos. Lake Kivus methane was originally thought to be merely a natural resource for export
The Congo River is a river in Africa. It is the second largest river in the world by discharge, the Congo-Chambeshi river has an overall length of 4,700 km, which makes it the ninth-longest river. Measured along the Lualaba, the Congo River has a length of 4,370 km. The Congo Basin has an area of about 4 million km2. The name River Congo originated from the Kingdom of Kongo which was located on the bank of the river. The kingdom in turn is named for the Bantu population, in the 17th century reported as Esikongo, South of the Kongo kingdom proper lay the similarly named Kakongo kingdom, mentioned in 1535. Abraham Ortelius in his map of 1564 labels as Manicongo the city at the mouth of the river. The tribal names in kongo possibly derive from a word for a gathering or tribal assembly. Little is known about the peoples of the inner Congo, but It is probable that the word Kongo itself implies a public gathering, the usual interpretations, admittedly unsatisfactory, make the mistake of being too concrete, for example, they may claim that Kongo comes from nkongo.
The modern name of the Kongo people or Bakongo was introduced in the early 20th century, the name Zaire is from a Portuguese adaptation of a Kikongo word nzere, a truncation of nzadi o nzere. The Democratic Republic of the Congo and the Republic of the Congo are named after it, the state of Zaire during 1971–1997 was named after the river, after its name in French and Portuguese. The Congos drainage basin covers 4,014,500 square kilometres, the Congos discharge at its mouth ranges from 23,000 to 75,000 cubic metres per second, with an average of 41,000 cubic metres per second. The river and its tributaries flow through the Congo Rainforest, the second largest rain forest area in the world, second only to the Amazon Rainforest in South America. Because its drainage basin includes both north and south of the equator, its flow is stable, as there is always at least one part of the river experiencing a rainy season. The Chambeshi River in Zambia is generally taken as the source of the Congo in line with the accepted practice worldwide of using the longest tributary, as with the Nile River.
The Congo River Basin is one of the distinct physiographic sections of the larger Mid-African province, sorted in order from the mouth heading upstream. Lower Congo Downstream of Kinshasa, there are no important tributaries, luvua Luapula Chambeshi Although the Livingstone Falls prevent access from the sea, nearly the entire Congo above them is readily navigable in sections, especially between Kinshasa and Kisangani. Large river steamers worked the river until quite recently, the Congo River still is a lifeline in a land with few roads or railways
The Nile sources, he told a friend, are valuable only as a means of opening my mouth with power among men. It is this power which I hope to remedy an immense evil and his subsequent exploration of the central African watershed was the culmination of the classic period of European geographical discovery and colonial penetration of Africa. His meeting with Henry Morton Stanley on 10 November 1871 gave rise to the popular quotation Dr. Livingstone and he was the second of seven children born to Neil Livingstone and his wife Agnes. David was employed at the age of 10 in the mill of Henry Monteith & Co. in Blantyre Works. He and his brother John worked twelve-hour days as piecers, tying broken cotton threads on the spinning machines and he was a student at the Charing Cross Hospital Medical School in 1838–40, with his courses covering medical practice and botany. Neil Livingstone was a Sunday school teacher and teetotaller who handed out Christian tracts on his travels as a tea salesman. He extensively read books on theology and missionary enterprises and this rubbed off on the young David, who became an avid reader, but he loved scouring the countryside for animal and geological specimens in local limestone quarries.
Other significant influences in his life were Thomas Burke, a Blantyre evangelist. At age nineteen and his left the Church of Scotland for a local Congregational church, influenced by preachers like Ralph Wardlaw. For Livingstone, this meant a release from the fear of eternal damnation, Livingstones reading of missionary Karl Gützlaffs Appeal to the Churches of Britain and America on behalf of China enabled him to persuade his father that medical study could advance religious ends. Livingstones experiences in H. Monteiths Blantyre cotton mill were important from ages 10 to 26. To enter medical school, he required some knowledge of Latin, a local Roman Catholic named Daniel Gallagher helped him learn Latin to the required level. Later in life, Gallagher became a priest and founded the third oldest Catholic Church in Glasgow, St Simons, a painting of both Gallagher and Livingstone by Roy Petrie hangs in that churchs coffee room. In addition, he attended divinity lectures by Wardlaw, a leader at this time of vigorous anti-slavery campaigning in the city, shortly after, he applied to join the London Missionary Society and was accepted subject to missionary training.
He qualified as a Licentiate of the Faculty of Physicians and Surgeons of Glasgow on 16 November 1840, Livingstone hoped to go to China as a missionary, but the First Opium War broke out in September 1839 and the LMS suggested the West Indies instead. In 1840, while continuing his studies in London, Livingstone met LMS missionary Robert Moffat, on leave from Kuruman. He was excited by Moffats vision of expanding missionary work northwards, buxtons arguments that the African slave trade might be destroyed through the influence of legitimate trade and the spread of Christianity. Livingstone, focused his ambitions on Southern Africa, during this time, Livingstone was attacked by a lion while staying in an African village, trying to defend the villages sheep from the animal
Henry Morton Stanley
Sir Henry Morton Stanley GCB was a Welsh-American journalist and explorer who was famous for his exploration of central Africa and his search for missionary and explorer David Livingstone. Upon finding Livingstone, Stanley reportedly asked, Dr. Livingstone, Henry Stanley was born in 1841 as John Rowlands in Denbigh, Wales. His mother Elizabeth Parry was 18 years old at the time of his birth and she abandoned him as a very young baby and cut off all communication. Stanley never knew his father, who died within a few weeks of his birth, there is some doubt as to his true parentage. As his parents were unmarried, his birth certificate describes him as a bastard, the boy John was given his fathers surname of Rowlands and brought up by his maternal grandfather Moses Parry, a once-prosperous butcher who was living in reduced circumstances. He cared for the boy until he died, when John was five, Rowlands stayed with families of cousins and nieces for a short time, but he was eventually sent to the St.
Asaph Union Workhouse for the Poor. The overcrowding and lack of supervision resulted in his being frequently abused by older boys, historian Robert Aldrich has alleged that the headmaster of the workhouse raped or sexually assaulted Rowlands. When Rowlands was ten, his mother and two half-siblings stayed for a short while in this workhouse, but he did not recognize them until the headmaster told him who they were, Rowlands emigrated to the United States in 1859 at age 18. He disembarked at New Orleans and, according to his own declarations, became friends by accident with Henry Hope Stanley and he saw Stanley sitting on a chair outside his store and asked him if he had any job openings. He did so in the British style, Do you need a boy, the childless man had indeed been wishing he had a son, and the inquiry led to a job and a close relationship between them. Out of admiration, John took Stanleys name, later, he wrote that his adoptive parent died two years after their meeting, but in fact the elder Stanley did not die until 1878.
This and other discrepancies led John Bierman to argue that no adoption took place, Tim Jeal goes further, and, in Chapter Two of his biography, subjects Stanleys account in his posthumously published Autobiography to detailed analysis. Stanley reluctantly joined in the American Civil War, first enrolling in the Confederate Armys 6th Arkansas Infantry Regiment, after being taken prisoner at Shiloh, he was recruited at Camp Douglas, Illinois by its commander Colonel James A. He joined the Union Army on 4 June 1862 but was discharged 18 days because of severe illness, after recovering, he served on several merchant ships before joining the US Navy in July 1864. He became a keeper on board the USS Minnesota, which led him into freelance journalism. Stanley and a junior colleague jumped ship on 10 February 1865 in Portsmouth, Stanley was possibly the only man to serve in the Confederate Army, the Union Army, and the Union Navy. Following the Civil War, Stanley became a journalist in the days of frontier expansion in the American West and he organised an expedition to the Ottoman Empire that ended catastrophically when he was imprisoned.
He eventually talked his way out of jail and received restitution for damaged expedition equipment, an assignment to report on the Spanish Civil War followed
Hydroelectricity is electricity produced from hydropower. In 2015 hydropower generated 16. 6% of the total electricity and 70% of all renewable electricity. Hydropower is produced in 150 countries, with the Asia-Pacific region generating 33 percent of global hydropower in 2013, China is the largest hydroelectricity producer, with 920 TWh of production in 2013, representing 16.9 percent of domestic electricity use. The cost of hydroelectricity is relatively low, making it a source of renewable electricity. The hydro station consumes no water, unlike coal or gas plants, the average cost of electricity from a hydro station larger than 10 megawatts is 3 to 5 U. S. cents per kilowatt-hour. With a dam and reservoir it is a source of electricity since the amount produced by the station can be changed up or down very quickly to adapt to changing energy demands. Once a hydroelectric complex is constructed, the project produces no direct waste, Hydropower has been used since ancient times to grind flour and perform other tasks.
In the mid-1770s, French engineer Bernard Forest de Bélidor published Architecture Hydraulique which described vertical-, by the late 19th century, the electrical generator was developed and could now be coupled with hydraulics. The growing demand for the Industrial Revolution would drive development as well, in 1878 the worlds first hydroelectric power scheme was developed at Cragside in Northumberland, England by William George Armstrong. It was used to power an arc lamp in his art gallery. The old Schoelkopf Power Station No.1 near Niagara Falls in the U. S. side began to produce electricity in 1881. The first Edison hydroelectric power station, the Vulcan Street Plant, began operating September 30,1882, in Appleton, Wisconsin, by 1886 there were 45 hydroelectric power stations in the U. S. and Canada. By 1889 there were 200 in the U. S. alone, at the beginning of the 20th century, many small hydroelectric power stations were being constructed by commercial companies in mountains near metropolitan areas.
Grenoble, France held the International Exhibition of Hydropower and Tourism with over one million visitors, by 1920 as 40% of the power produced in the United States was hydroelectric, the Federal Power Act was enacted into law. The Act created the Federal Power Commission to regulate hydroelectric power stations on federal land, as the power stations became larger, their associated dams developed additional purposes to include flood control and navigation. Federal funding became necessary for development and federally owned corporations, such as the Tennessee Valley Authority. Hydroelectric power stations continued to become larger throughout the 20th century, Hydropower was referred to as white coal for its power and plenty. Hoover Dams initial 1,345 MW power station was the worlds largest hydroelectric station in 1936
Lake Albert (Africa)
Lake Albert, Albert Nyanza and formerly Lake Mobutu Sese Seko, is a lake located in Uganda and the Democratic Republic of the Congo. It is one of the African Great Lakes, Lake Albert is Africas seventh-largest lake, and the worlds twenty-seventh largest lake by volume. Lake Albert is located in the center of the continent, on the border between Uganda and the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Lake Albert is the northernmost of the chain of lakes in the Albertine Rift, the western branch of the East African Rift. It is about 160 km long and 30 km wide, with a depth of 51 m. Lake Albert is part of the system of the upper Nile. Its main sources are the Victoria Nile, ultimately coming from Lake Victoria to the southeast, and the Semliki River, the water of the Victoria Nile is much less saline than that of Lake Albert. Its outlet, at the northernmost tip of the lake, is the Albert Nile, at the southern end of the lake, where the Semliki comes in, there are swamps. Farther south looms the Ruwenzori Range, while a range of hills called the Blue Mountains tower over the northwestern shore, the few settlements along the shore include Butiaba and Pakwach.
In 1864, the explorers Samuel Baker and Sass Flóra found the lake, in the 20th century, Congolese president Mobutu Sese Seko temporarily named the lake after himself. European colonialists operated shipping on the lake, the British planned shipping on Lake Albert as part of a network of railway, river steamer and lake steamer services linking British interests in Egypt, east Africa and southern Africa. Thornycroft & Company shipyard at Woolston, Hampshire built the cargo and she was named after the British Army officer Robert Thorne Coryndon, who was governor of Uganda 1918-22. Winston Churchill described the ship as the best library afloat and Ernest Hemingway called her magnificence on water and she either was scuttled in 1962 or sank in 1964. She remains unsalvaged and partly submerged in the lake, in March 2014, a boat carrying Congolese refugees capsized in Lake Albert, killing more than 250 people. On 26 December 2016, a boat carrying 45 members and fans of a village football team capsized in Lake Albert killing at least 30 people