Foreign relations of the United States
The United States has formal diplomatic relations with most nations. This includes all U. N. member states except for Bhutan, North Korea, Syria. Additionally, the U. S. has diplomatic relations with the Holy See and Kosovo. The United States federal statutes relating to foreign relations can be found in Title 22 of the United States Code. American relations with Eastern Europe are influenced by the legacy of the Cold War. Since the collapse of the Soviet Union, former Communist-bloc states in Europe have transitioned to democracy and capitalism. Many have joined the European Union and NATO, strengthening economic ties with the broader Western world and gaining the military protection of the United States via the North Atlantic Treaty; the United States has many important allies in the Greater Middle East region. These allies are Turkey, Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Israel, Kuwait and Qatar. Israel and Egypt are leading recipients of United States foreign aid, receiving $2.775 billion and 1.75 billion in 2010.
Turkey is an ally of the United States through its membership in NATO, while all of the other countries except Saudi Arabia and Qatar are major non-NATO allies. The United States toppled the government of Saddam Hussein during the 2003 invasion of Iraq. Turkey is host to 90 B61 nuclear bombs at Incirlik Air Base. Other allies include Qatar, where 3,500 U. S. troops are based, Bahrain, where the United States Navy maintains NSA Bahrain, home of NAVCENT and the Fifth Fleet. Many countries in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations are important partners for United States in both economic and geostrategic aspects. ASEAN's geostrategic importance stems from many factors, including: the strategic location of member countries, the large shares of global trade that pass through regional waters, the alliances and partnerships which the United States shares with ASEAN member states. In July 2009, the United States signed ASEAN's Treaty of Amity and Cooperation, which establishes guiding principles intended to build confidence among its signatories with the aim of maintaining regional peace and stability.
Trade flows are robust and increasing between the ASEAN region. Belarus Libya Sudan Syria Yemen Andorra Antigua and Barbuda Bhutan Comoros Dominica Grenada Guinea-Bissau Iran Kiribati Liechtenstein Maldives Monaco Nauru North Korea Palestine Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Samoa San Marino São Tomé and Príncipe Seychelles Solomon Islands Tonga Tuvalu Vanuatu Abkhazia Artsakh Northern Cyprus Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic Somaliland South Ossetia Transnistria Arctic policy of the United States Criticism of United States foreign policy Foreign policy of the United States List of diplomatic missions in the United States List of diplomatic missions of the United States Major non-NATO ally United States involvement in regime change United States foreign aid Watching America Guide to Countries, Office of the Historian, U. S. Department of State This article i
United States–Zambia relations
The diplomatic relationship between the United States of America and Zambia can be characterized as warm and cooperative. Several U. S. administrations cooperated with Zambia's first president, Kenneth Kaunda, in hopes of facilitating solutions to the conflicts in Rhodesia and Namibia. The United States works with the Zambian Government to defeat the HIV/AIDS pandemic, ravaging Zambia, to promote economic growth and development, to effect political reform needed to promote responsive and responsible government; the United States is supporting the government's efforts to root out corruption. Zambia is a beneficiary of Opportunity Act; the U. S. Government provides a variety of technical assistance and other support, managed by the Department of State, U. S. Agency for International Development, Millennium Challenge Account Threshold Program, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Department of Treasury, Department of Defense, Peace Corps; the majority of U. S. assistance is provided through the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief, in support of the fight against HIV/AIDS.
In addition to supporting development projects, the United States has provided considerable emergency food aid during periods of drought and flooding through the World Food Program and is a major contributor to refugee programs in Zambia through the UN High Commission for Refugees and other agencies. According to the 2012 U. S. Global Leadership Report, 59% of Zambians approve of U. S. leadership, with 30% disapproving and 11% uncertain. In 2007, U. S. assistance to Zambia exceeded $259 million. USAID's program in Zambia included over $116 million for HIV/AIDS programs utilizing PEPFAR funding and $11 million to fight corruption and increase trade under the MCA Threshold Program. In addition to programs funded through PEPFAR, the President's Malaria Initiative, the Millennium Challenge Account Threshold Program, USAID's program in Zambia supported training and technical assistance to promote economic growth through trade and investment. A country agreement inviting the Peace Corps to work in Zambia was signed by the United States and Zambia on September 14, 1993.
The first group of volunteers was sworn in on April 7, 1994. The Peace Corps program in Zambia has continued to increase with more than 200 American volunteers working to promote sustainable development through their activities in agricultural and natural resource management and sanitation, rural education, humanitarian assistance. Volunteers are working in all of Zambia's nine provinces to build the local capacity to manage family fish farms, develop an innovative paradigm via appropriate technologies, to promote food security and promote positive resource management practices, to implement health reforms at the village level, to promote and support rural education, to extend HIV/AIDS education and prevention efforts through full participation in PEPFAR. Volunteers live in rural villages in remote parts of the country without running water, electricity, or other amenities. Peace Corps Zambia has one of the highest rates of extension and enjoys successful partnerships with many other aid organizations in Zambia.
Ambassador--Donald Booth Deputy Chief of Mission—Michael Koplovsky Public Affairs Officer—Christopher Wurst Political/Economic Section Chief—Jill Derderian Consular Officer—Malia Heroux Defense Attaché—Lt. Col. David Dougherty Centers for Disease Control and Prevention—vacant USAID Mission Director—Melissa Williams Peace Corps Director—Thomas Kennedy The U. S. Embassy in Zambia is in Lusaka; the US Embassy realizes Zambia's potential to become one of Africa's leading free market democracies, they are committed to aiding critical areas of Zambia's development like human and financial resources. Zambia is one of the 15 countries promised a total of 1.5 billion dollars for AIDS Relief under President Bush's Emergency Plan. In education, the Ambassador's Scholarship Program provides education for 1,500 Zambian boys and girls; the Embassy's Public Affairs Section sends about 15 Zambians a year to the US to participate in International Visitor programs, brings speakers from the US to Zambia about 4 times a year.
It provides for scholars from the US to come to Zambia for longer stays, sends Zambians to study in the US on Humphrey and Fulbright Fellowships. To promote economic development, The US government is prepared to forgive 100% of Zambia's bilateral debt when Zambia completes the Highly Indebted Poor Country initiative; until the US government has forgiven all payments of interest and principal on Zambia's half billion dollar debt to the US, in 2003, $34 million in payments were forgiven. Zambian Americans Foreign relations of Zambia Foreign relations of the United States New York Times: "For the hungry in Zambia, U. S. law may hinder urgent food aid" This article incorporates public domain material from the United States Department of State website https://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/index.htm. History of Zambia - U. S. relations Media related to Relations of the United States and Zambia at Wikimedia Commons
Coca-Cola, or Coke, is a carbonated soft drink manufactured by The Coca-Cola Company. Intended as a patent medicine, it was invented in the late 19th century by John Stith Pemberton and was bought out by businessman Asa Griggs Candler, whose marketing tactics led Coca-Cola to its dominance of the world soft-drink market throughout the 20th century; the drink's name refers to two of its original ingredients: coca leaves, kola nuts. The current formula of Coca-Cola remains a trade secret, although a variety of reported recipes and experimental recreations have been published; the Coca-Cola Company produces concentrate, sold to licensed Coca-Cola bottlers throughout the world. The bottlers, who hold exclusive territory contracts with the company, produce the finished product in cans and bottles from the concentrate, in combination with filtered water and sweeteners. A typical 12-US-fluid-ounce can contains 38 grams of sugar; the bottlers sell and merchandise Coca-Cola to retail stores and vending machines throughout the world.
The Coca-Cola Company sells concentrate for soda fountains of major restaurants and foodservice distributors. The Coca-Cola Company has on occasion introduced other cola drinks under the Coke name; the most common of these is Diet Coke, along with others including Caffeine-Free Coca-Cola, Diet Coke Caffeine-Free, Coca-Cola Zero Sugar, Coca-Cola Cherry, Coca-Cola Vanilla, special versions with lemon and coffee. Based on Interbrand's "best global brand" study of 2015, Coca-Cola was the world's third most valuable brand, after Apple and Google. In 2013, Coke products were sold in over 200 countries worldwide, with consumers drinking more than 1.8 billion company beverage servings each day. Coca-Cola ranked No. 87 in the 2018 Fortune 500 list of the largest United States corporations by total revenue. Confederate Colonel John Pemberton, wounded in the American Civil War and became addicted to morphine, began a quest to find a substitute for the problematic drug. In 1885 at Pemberton's Eagle Drug and Chemical House, a drugstore in Columbus, Georgia, he registered Pemberton's French Wine Coca nerve tonic.
Pemberton's tonic may have been inspired by the formidable success of Vin Mariani, a French-Corsican coca wine, but his recipe additionally included the African kola nut, the beverage's source of caffeine. It is worth noting that a Spanish drink called "Kola Coca" was presented at a contest in Philadelphia in 1885, a year before the official birth of Coca-Cola; the rights for this Spanish drink were bought by Coca-Cola in 1953. In 1886, when Atlanta and Fulton County passed prohibition legislation, Pemberton responded by developing Coca-Cola, a nonalcoholic version of Pemberton's French Wine Coca; the first sales were at Jacob's Pharmacy in Atlanta, Georgia, on May 8, 1886, where it sold for five cents a glass. Drugstore soda fountains were popular in the United States at the time due to the belief that carbonated water was good for the health, Pemberton's new drink was marketed and sold as a patent medicine, Pemberton claiming it a cure for many diseases, including morphine addiction, nerve disorders and impotence.
Pemberton ran the first advertisement for the beverage on May 29 of the same year in the Atlanta Journal. By 1888, three versions of Coca-Cola – sold by three separate businesses – were on the market. A co-partnership had been formed on January 14, 1888 between Pemberton and four Atlanta businessmen: J. C. Mayfield, A. O. Murphey, C. O. Mullahy, E. H. Bloodworth. Not codified by any signed document, a verbal statement given by Asa Candler years asserted under testimony that he had acquired a stake in Pemberton's company as early as 1887. John Pemberton declared that the name "Coca-Cola" belonged to his son, but the other two manufacturers could continue to use the formula. Charley Pemberton's record of control over the "Coca-Cola" name was the underlying factor that allowed for him to participate as a major shareholder in the March 1888 Coca-Cola Company incorporation filing made in his father's place. Charley's exclusive control over the "Coca-Cola" name became a continual thorn in Asa Candler's side.
Candler's oldest son, Charles Howard Candler, authored a book in 1950 published by Emory University. In this definitive biography about his father, Candler states: "... on April 14, 1888, the young druggist Asa Griggs Candler purchased a one-third interest in the formula of an completely unknown proprietary elixir known as Coca-Cola." The deal was between John Pemberton's son Charley and Walker, Candler & Co. – with John Pemberton acting as cosigner for his son. For $50 down and $500 in 30 days, Candler & Co. obtained all of the one-third interest in the Coca-Cola Company that Charley held, all while Charley still held on to the name. After the April 14 deal, on April 17, 1888, one-half of the Walker/Dozier interest shares were acquired by Candler for an additional $750. In 1892, Candler set out to incorporate a second company; when Candler had the earliest records of the "Coca-Cola Company" destroyed in 1910, the action was claimed to have been made during a move to new corporation offices around this time.
After Candler had gained a better foothold on Coca-Cola in April 1888, he was forced to sell the beverage he produced with the recipe he had under the names "Yum Yum" and "Koke". This was while Charley Pemberton was selling the elixir, although a cruder mixture, under the name "Coca-Cola", all with his father's blessing. After both names failed to catch on for Candler, by the middle of 1888, the Atlanta pharmacist was quite anxious t
March 23 Movement
The March 23 Movement abbreviated as M23 and known as the Congolese Revolutionary Army, was a rebel military group based in eastern areas of the Democratic Republic of the Congo operating in the province of North Kivu. The 2012 M23 rebellion against the DRC government led to the displacement of large numbers of people. On 20 November 2012, M23 took control of Goma, a provincial capital with a population of one million people, but was requested to evacuate it by the International Conference on the Great Lakes Region because the DRC government had agreed to negotiate with them. In late 2013 Congolese troops, along with UN troops, retook control of Goma and M23 announced a ceasefire, saying it wanted to resume peace talks. A United Nations report found that Rwanda commanded the M23 rebel group. Rwanda ceased its support following international pressure as well as the military defeat by the DRC and the UN in 2013. On 23 March 2009, the National Congress for the Defence of the People signed a peace treaty with the DRC government, where it became a political party, the M23 soldiers integrated into the Armed Forces of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
M23 takes its name from the date of these peace accords. The armed wing of the group is led by General Makenga Sultani, who has served as acting president of the group since the 28 February 2013 removal of Bishop Jean-Marie Runiga Lugerero, a former CNDP member; the M23 was formed on 4 April 2012 when nearly 300 soldiers - the majority of them former members of the National Congress for the Defence of the People - turned against the DRC government, citing poor conditions in the army and the government's unwillingness to implement the 23 March 2009 peace deal. General Bosco Ntaganda known as "The Terminator", was accused by the Government of Kinshasa of leading the group, President Kabila called for his arrest on 11 April 2012; the government had threatened to redeploy former CNDP soldiers away from North Kivu before the full implementation of the peace agreement, which prompted many of them to defect from the army and create the M23. The M23 is made up of Tutsis and opposes the Hutu Power militia Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Rwanda as well as area Mai-Mai.
To be able to upstaff the troops, occupied villages were asked to deliver youngsters for the formation of village defence committees. This way, a larger number of more experienced soldiers could be stationed on the battlefield. However, this approach backfired when M23 troops tried to extort from the local population, since the armed youngsters defended their own villagers. Following military successes, M23 rebels made additional demands, citing issues of human rights, democracy, as well as good governance, they have accused President Kabila of cheating in the November 2011 elections. The rebels have threatened to depose the president; the rebels were active in North Kivu province, fighting government forces in the Rutshuru and Masisi territories. On 6 June 2012 a Congolese spokesman reported that 200 M23 soldiers had died in the mutiny and that over 370 soldiers had surrendered to FARDC, including 25 Rwandan citizens. On 8 July 2012, Colonel Sultani Makenga announced that a government offensive to dislodge the group from their hideouts had failed, that they had in turn captured several towns towards Goma, the provincial capital.
March 23 Movement forces had advanced to the outskirts of Goma by 18 November 2012 and warned the UN peacekeepers not to support government troops. Congolese government spokesman Lambert Mende accused Rwanda of backing the rebels. "The DRC has "not yet declared war. This is our country, our duty". M23 rebels advanced on Goma 20 November, the Congolese Army retreated with little fighting. M23 forces paraded through the city, some residents turned out to welcome them. Congolese customs officers abandoned their posts. United Nations peacekeepers watched the occupation without intervening, stating that their mandate was limited to protecting the safety of civilians. Jeune Afrique reported that M23 rebels acquired as well as six artillery pieces ~20 shipping containers filled with arms and ammunitions of various caliber, all of which were abandoned by the FARDC during their retreat from Goma. DR Congo president Joseph Kabila urged Goma's citizens to "resist" the M23 takeover. UN Secretary General Ban Ki-moon criticized the M23 for alleged human rights violations during the takeover, including "intimidation of journalists", abduction of women and children.
Noting that the First Congo War had begun with fighting in the same region, the New York Times described the takeover of Goma as "raising serious questions about the stability of Congo as a whole". On 21 November 2012, during the siege more than 2,000 Congolese soldiers and 700 policemen defected to M23. On 22 November, the FARDC, in cooperation with local Mai-Mai elements, routed the M23 rebels from the nearby town of Sake, 27 kilometers from Goma, as they marched towards Bukavu. 22 November, Kabila suspended General Gabriel Amisi's FARDC commission because of an inquiry into his alleged role in arms sales to various rebel groups, including the FDLR, in the eastern part of the country, so it implicated M23. On 23 November, M23 rebels retook Sake from the FARDC after an intense four-hour battle and reinforced their position in the town, as they moved toward Kirotshe to the