Rwanda at the 2012 Summer Olympics
Rwanda competed at the 2012 Summer Olympics in London, held from 27 July to 12 August 2012. The country's participation at London marked its eighth appearance in the Summer Olympics since its début at the 1984 Summer Olympics; the delegation included seven competitors which included field athletes. The other people that represented the country were cross-country cyclist Adrien Niyonshuti, judoka Fred Yannick Uwase, swimmers Jackson Niyomugabo and Alphonsine Agahozo; the track and field athletes qualified for the Games by meeting qualification standards while the remaining four made the Olympics through wildcard places. Niyonshuti was the flag bearer for closing ceremonies. No athletes were able to achieve medals at the London Olympic Games. Rwanda participated in eight Summer Olympic Games between its début at the 1984 Summer Olympics in Los Angeles, United States and the 2012 Summer Olympics in London, England; the highest number of athletes sent by Rwanda to a summer Games was ten to the 1992 Olympics.
No Rwandan athlete has won a medal at the Olympic Games. Rwanda participated in the London Summer Olympics from 27 July to 12 August 2012; the Rwandan National Olympic Committee selected three track and field athletes via qualification standards. An NOC would be able to enter up to three qualified athletes in each individual event as long as each athlete met the "A" standard, or one athlete per event if they met the "B" standard; the seven athletes that were selected to compete in the London Games were Robert Kajuga in the men's 10,000 metres, Jean Pierre Mvuyekure in the men's marathon, Jean Pierre Mvuyekure in the women's marathon, Adrien Niyonshuti in the men's cross-country cycling, Fred Yannick Uwase in the men's 73 kilograms in judo, Jackson Niyomugabo in the men's 50 metre freestyle and Alphonsine Agahozo in the women's 50 metre freestyle. Long-distance runner Épiphanie Nyirabaramé was unable to qualify after being unable to meet the required qualification standards. Niyonshuti was the flag bearer for closing ceremonies.
The team trained at Bury St Edmunds Leisure Centre's track and swimming facilities for a two-week period in a deal, announced in October 2009. The delegation was led by their chef de mission Serge Mwambali which included the NOC president Charles Rudakubana and secretary-general Parfait Busabizwa; the athletes were coached by Nicholas Dusine and Innocent Rwabuhihi. Rudakubana said on 20 June. Robert Kajuga was one of the two oldest male athletes to represent Rwanda at the London Olympics, at 27 years old, he had not taken part in any previous Olympic Games. Kajuga qualified for the Games via qualification standards because his fastest time of 28 minutes and three seconds, set at the 2012 African Championships in Athletics which placed him fifth, was two seconds faster than the "B" qualifying standard for his event, the 10,000 metres, he was the second Rwandan field athlete to attain qualification. He competed in the event, held on 4 August, finishing 14th out of 26 athletes overall, with a time of 27 minutes and 56.67 seconds.
The time was a new personal best for the athlete but was 35 seconds slower than the Rwandan national record. Kajuga ranked ahead of Nguse Tesfaldet Amlosom of Ethiopia and Thomas Ayeko from Uganda but behind Dathan Ritzenhein of the United States, he finished 26.25 seconds behind event winner Mo Farah of Great Britain. After completing the event Kajuga said that he was "really happy" with his performances and that his début Olympic Games was a "good experience"; the 2012 Summer Games marked Jean Pierre Mvuyekure's Olympic début. He qualified for the Games because his fastest time of two hours, 17 minutes and 32 seconds, set at the 2012 Rome Marathon, was 28 seconds faster than the "B" qualifying standard for his event, the marathon. In an interview before the race Mvuyekure stated that he was "really ready" to participate and hoped to run to the best of his ability. After heavy rain fell in London before the marathon he said that it could impede some runners but did not want to use the weather as an excuse.
He competed in the 12 August event, finishing 79th out of 85 runners, with a time of two hours, 51 minutes and seven seconds. He finished in front of Greece's Konstantinos Poulios and Zohar Zimro of Israel but behind Ram Singh Yadav from India. Mvuyekure was 22 minutes and 18 seconds behind the marathon winner Stephen Kiprotich of Uganda. Claudette Mukasakindi was the oldest athlete to represent Rwanda at the London Games at the age of 29, she had not participated in any previous Olympic Games. Mukasakindi attained qualification into the Games because her fastest time of two hours, 40 minutes and 18 minutes, set at the 2012 Cagliari Marathon, was two minutes and 42 seconds faster than the "B" qualifying standard for her event, the marathon, she was denied entry into the Games because the world athletics governing body, the International Association of Athletics Federations, did not recognise the Cagliari Marathon as an eligible event for qualification. Injuries and poor performances from other athletes allowed her to enter the Olympics.
Mukasakindi participated in the marathon, held on 5 August, finishing 101st out of 107 competitors, with a time of two hours, 51 minutes and seven seconds. She finished ahead of Luvsanlkhündegiin Otgonbayar of Mongolia and Evelin Talts from Estonia (two hours, 54
Sydney is the state capital of New South Wales and the most populous city in Australia and Oceania. Located on Australia's east coast, the metropolis surrounds Port Jackson and extends about 70 km on its periphery towards the Blue Mountains to the west, Hawkesbury to the north, the Royal National Park to the south and Macarthur to the south-west. Sydney is made up of 40 local government areas and 15 contiguous regions. Residents of the city are known as "Sydneysiders"; as of June 2017, Sydney's estimated metropolitan population was 5,230,330 and is home to 65% of the state's population. Indigenous Australians have inhabited the Sydney area for at least 30,000 years, thousands of engravings remain throughout the region, making it one of the richest in Australia in terms of Aboriginal archaeological sites. During his first Pacific voyage in 1770, Lieutenant James Cook and his crew became the first Europeans to chart the eastern coast of Australia, making landfall at Botany Bay and inspiring British interest in the area.
In 1788, the First Fleet of convicts, led by Arthur Phillip, founded Sydney as a British penal colony, the first European settlement in Australia. Phillip named the city Sydney in recognition of 1st Viscount Sydney. Penal transportation to New South Wales ended soon after Sydney was incorporated as a city in 1842. A gold rush occurred in the colony in 1851, over the next century, Sydney transformed from a colonial outpost into a major global cultural and economic centre. After World War II, it experienced mass migration and became one of the most multicultural cities in the world. At the time of the 2011 census, more than 250 different languages were spoken in Sydney. In the 2016 Census, about 35.8% of residents spoke a language other than English at home. Furthermore, 45.4% of the population reported having been born overseas, making Sydney the 3rd largest foreign born population of any city in the world after London and New York City, respectively. Despite being one of the most expensive cities in the world, the 2018 Mercer Quality of Living Survey ranks Sydney tenth in the world in terms of quality of living, making it one of the most livable cities.
It is classified as an Alpha+ World City by Globalization and World Cities Research Network, indicating its influence in the region and throughout the world. Ranked eleventh in the world for economic opportunity, Sydney has an advanced market economy with strengths in finance and tourism. There is a significant concentration of foreign banks and multinational corporations in Sydney and the city is promoted as Australia's financial capital and one of Asia Pacific's leading financial hubs. Established in 1850, the University of Sydney is Australia's first university and is regarded as one of the world's leading universities. Sydney is home to the oldest library in Australia, State Library of New South Wales, opened in 1826. Sydney has hosted major international sporting events such as the 2000 Summer Olympics; the city is among the top fifteen most-visited cities in the world, with millions of tourists coming each year to see the city's landmarks. Boasting over 1,000,000 ha of nature reserves and parks, its notable natural features include Sydney Harbour, the Royal National Park, Royal Botanic Garden and Hyde Park, the oldest parkland in the country.
Built attractions such as the Sydney Harbour Bridge and the World Heritage-listed Sydney Opera House are well known to international visitors. The main passenger airport serving the metropolitan area is Kingsford-Smith Airport, one of the world's oldest continually operating airports. Established in 1906, Central station, the largest and busiest railway station in the state, is the main hub of the city's rail network; the first people to inhabit the area now known as Sydney were indigenous Australians having migrated from northern Australia and before that from southeast Asia. Radiocarbon dating suggests human activity first started to occur in the Sydney area from around 30,735 years ago. However, numerous Aboriginal stone tools were found in Western Sydney's gravel sediments that were dated from 45,000 to 50,000 years BP, which would indicate that there was human settlement in Sydney earlier than thought; the first meeting between the native people and the British occurred on 29 April 1770 when Lieutenant James Cook landed at Botany Bay on the Kurnell Peninsula and encountered the Gweagal clan.
He noted in his journal that they were somewhat hostile towards the foreign visitors. Cook was not commissioned to start a settlement, he spent a short time collecting food and conducting scientific observations before continuing further north along the east coast of Australia and claiming the new land he had discovered for Britain. Prior to the arrival of the British there were 4,000 to 8,000 native people in Sydney from as many as 29 different clans; the earliest British settlers called the natives Eora people. "Eora" is the term the indigenous population used to explain their origins upon first contact with the British. Its literal meaning is "from this place". Sydney Cove from Port Jackson to Petersham was inhabited by the Cadigal clan; the principal language groups were Darug and Dharawal. The earliest Europeans to visit the area noted that the indigenous people were conducting activities such as camping and fishing, using trees for bark and food, collecting shells, cooking fish. Britain—before that, England—and Ireland had for a long time been sending their convicts across the Atlantic to the American colonies.
That trade was ended with the Declaration of Independence by the United States in 1776. Britain decided in 1786 to found a new penal outpost in the territory discovered by Cook some 16 years ear
Djibouti at the 2000 Summer Olympics
Djibouti took part in the 2000 Summer Olympics, which were held in Sydney, Australia from 15 September to 1 October. The country's participation at Sydney marked its fifth appearance in the Summer Olympics since its debut at the 1984 Summer Games in Los Angeles, United States; the delegation included field athletes. Gadid failed to finish the marathon. Djibouti participated in four Summer Olympics between its debut at the 1984 Games in Los Angeles, United States, the 2000 Summer Olympics in Sydney, Australia. Djibouti made their Olympic debut in 1984. Djibouti's one and only medal prior to these games was a bronze awarded to Hussein Ahmed Salah in the men's marathon at the 1988 Summer Olympics in Seoul, South Korea; the highest number of Djibouti competing at a Games was eight at the 1992 Summer Olympics in Barcelona, Spain. The Djibouti team for the 2000 Summer Olympics featured Omar Daher Gadid in the men's marathon, who had competed in the 10,000 metres at the 1992 Games; the sole female Djibouti athlete at the 2000 Games was Roda Ali Wais.
She set a new record for her nation upon competing, being the youngest athlete to represent Djibouti, at the age of 16 years and 162 days. Wais was the first female to represent Djibouti in the Olympic games, she competed in the second heat of the women's 800 metres on 22 September. Wais finished last with a time of two minutes and 31.74 seconds. This was over 24 seconds adrift of Romania's Elena Iagăr. Only the top two athletes from the heat qualified, Wais' competition ended with that heat. Omar Daher Gadid was the only male athlete competing for Djibouti at the 2000 Summer Olympics, competed in the men's marathon on 1 October. In a field of 100 runners, 19 did not complete the race including Gadid; the medals were shared between athletes from African nations with the gold and bronze going to Ethiopia's Gezahgne Abera and Tesfaye Tola and the silver won by Eric Wainaina from Kenya. KeyNote–Ranks given for track events are within the athlete's heat only N/A = Round not applicable for the event
Rwanda the Republic of Rwanda, is a country in Central and East Africa and one of the smallest countries on the African mainland. Located a few degrees south of the Equator, Rwanda is bordered by Uganda, Tanzania and the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Rwanda is in the African Great Lakes region and is elevated; the climate is temperate to subtropical, with two dry seasons each year. The population is predominantly rural, with a density among the highest in Africa. Rwandans are drawn from just one cultural and linguistic group, the Banyarwanda, although within this group there are three subgroups: the Hutu and Twa; the Twa are a forest-dwelling pygmy. Scholars disagree on differences between the Hutu and Tutsi. Christianity is the largest religion in the country; the sovereign state of Rwanda has a presidential system of government. The president is Paul Kagame of the Rwandan Patriotic Front, who took office in 2000. Rwanda today has low corruption compared with neighbouring countries, although human rights organisations report suppression of opposition groups and restrictions on freedom of speech.
The country has been governed by a strict administrative hierarchy since precolonial times. Rwanda is one of only two countries with a female majority in the national parliament. Hunter gatherers settled the territory in the stone and iron ages, followed by Bantu peoples; the population coalesced first into clans and into kingdoms. The Kingdom of Rwanda dominated from the mid-eighteenth century, with the Tutsi kings conquering others militarily, centralising power and enacting anti-Hutu policies. Germany colonised Rwanda in 1884 as part of German East Africa, followed by Belgium, which invaded in 1916 during World War I. Both European nations perpetuated a pro-Tutsi policy; the Hutu population revolted in 1959. They massacred numerous Tutsi and established an independent, Hutu-dominated state in 1962. A 1973 military coup saw a change of leadership; the Tutsi-led Rwandan Patriotic Front launched a civil war in 1990. The presidents of Rwanda and Burundi, both Hutus, died together when their aeroplane was shot down in April 1994.
Social tensions erupted in the 1994 genocide, in which Hutu extremists killed an estimated 500,000 to 1 million Tutsi and moderate Hutu. The RPF ended the genocide with a military victory. Rwanda's economy suffered in wake of the 1994 genocide, but has since strengthened; the economy is based on subsistence agriculture. Coffee and tea are the major cash crops for export. Tourism is a fast-growing sector. Rwanda is one of only two countries in which mountain gorillas can be visited safely, visitors pay high prices for gorilla tracking permits. Music and dance are an integral part of Rwandan culture drums and the choreographed intore dance. Traditional arts and crafts are produced throughout the country, including imigongo, a unique cow dung art; the name "Rwanda" is derived from the Rwanda-Rundi word rwanda meaning "domain" or an "area occupied by a swarm". The official name of the country was "Rwandese Republic" until May 2003, when the adoption of a new national constitution changed it to its current name of "Republic of Rwanda".
Modern human settlement of what is now Rwanda dates from, at the latest, the last glacial period, either in the Neolithic period around 8000 BC, or in the long humid period which followed, up to around 3000 BC. Archaeological excavations have revealed evidence of sparse settlement by hunter gatherers in the late stone age, followed by a larger population of early Iron Age settlers, who produced dimpled pottery and iron tools; these early inhabitants were the ancestors of the Twa, aboriginal pygmy hunter-gatherers who remain in Rwanda today. Between 700 BC and 1500 AD, a number of Bantu groups migrated into Rwanda, clearing forest land for agriculture; the forest-dwelling Twa moved to the mountain slopes. Historians have several theories regarding the nature of the Bantu migrations. An alternative theory is that the migration was slow and steady, with incoming groups integrating into rather than conquering the existing society. Under this theory, the Hutu and Tutsi distinction arose and was a class distinction rather than a racial one.
The earliest form of social organisation in the area was the clan. The clans were not limited to genealogical lineages or geographical area, most included Hutu and Twa. From the 15th century, the clans began to coalesce into kingdoms. One of these, the Kingdom of Rwanda, ruled by the Tutsi Nyiginya clan, became dominant from the mid-eighteenth century; the kingdom reached its greatest extent during the nineteenth century under the reign of King K
Swimming at the 2000 Summer Olympics
The swimming competitions at the 2000 Summer Olympics in Sydney took place from 16 to 23 September 2000 at the Sydney International Aquatic Centre in Homebush Bay. It featured 32 events, a total of 954 swimmers from 150 nations; the swimming program for 2000 was expanded from 1996, with the inclusion of the semifinal phase in each of the events except for some special cases. Long-distance swimming events and all relays still maintained the old format with only two phases: heats and final; because of the radical changes in the competition format, it was extended into an eight-day program and thereby continued into the present era. Swimmers from the United States were the most successful, winning 14 golds, 8 silver, 11 bronze to lead the overall medal count with 33. Meanwhile, Australia had produced a total of 18 medals to claim the second spot in the tally. A total of fourteen world records and thirty-eight Olympic records were set during the competition; the following events were contested: Freestyle: 50, 100, 200, 400, 800 and 1500.
M = Morning session, E = Evening session A total of 954 swimmers from 150 nations would compete in swimming events at these Olympic Games. Aruba, Côte d'Ivoire, Dominican Republic, Equatorial Guinea, Guinea, Laos, Federated States of Micronesia, Niger, Rwanda, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines and Tajikistan made their official debut in swimming. Nations with swimmers at the Games are: * Swimmers who participated in the heats only and received medals. * Swimmers who participated in the heats only and received medals. Official Olympic Report 2000 Sydney Olympics Coverage – ABC News Australia
2000 Summer Olympics
The 2000 Summer Olympic Games known as the Games of the XXVII Olympiad and known as Sydney 2000 or the Millennium Olympic Games/Games of the New Millennium, were an international multi-sport event, held between 15 September and 1 October 2000 in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. It was the second time that the Summer Olympics were held in Australia, the Southern Hemisphere, the first being in Melbourne, Victoria, in 1956. Sydney was selected as the host city for the 2000 Games in 1993. Teams from 199 countries participated; the Games’ cost was estimated to be A$6.6 billion. The Games received universal acclaim, with the organisation, volunteers and Australian public being lauded in the international media. Bill Bryson from The Times called the Sydney Games "one of the most successful events on the world stage", saying that they "couldn't be better". James Mossop of the Electronic Telegraph called the Games "such a success that any city considering bidding for future Olympics must be wondering how it can reach the standards set by Sydney", while Jack Todd in the Montreal Gazette suggested that the "IOC should quit while it's ahead.
Admit there can never be a better Olympic Games, be done with it," as "Sydney was both exceptional and the best". In preparing for the 2012 Olympic Games in London, Lord Coe declared the Sydney Games the "benchmark for the spirit of the Games, unquestionably" and admitting that the London organising committee "attempted in a number of ways to emulate what the Sydney Organising Committee did." These were the final Olympic Games under the IOC presidency of Juan Antonio Samaranch. These were the second Olympic Games to be held in spring and is to date the most recent games not to be held in its more traditional July or August summer slot; the final medal tally was led by the United States, followed by Russia and China with host Australia at fourth place overall. Several World and Olympic records were broken during the games. With little or no controversies, the games were deemed successful with the rising standard of competition amongst nations across the world. Sydney won the right to host the Games on 24 September 1993, after being selected over Beijing, Berlin and Manchester in four rounds of voting, at the 101st IOC Session in Monte Carlo, Monaco.
The Australian city of Melbourne had lost out to Atlanta for the 1996 Summer Olympics four years earlier. Beijing lost its bid to host the games to Sydney in 1993, but was awarded the 2008 Summer Olympics in July 2001 after Sydney hosted the previous year, it would be awarded the 2022 Winter Olympics twenty-two years in 2015. Although it is impossible to know why members of the International Olympic Committee voted for Sydney over Beijing in 1993, it appears that an important role was played by Human Rights Watch's campaign to "stop Beijing" because of China's human rights record. Many in China were angry at what they saw as U. S.-led interference in the vote, the outcome contributed to rising anti-Western sentiment in China and tensions in Sino-American relations. The Oxford Olympics Study 2016 estimates the outturn cost of the Sydney 2000 Summer Olympics at USD 5 billion in 2015-dollars and cost overrun at 90% in real terms; this includes sports-related costs only, that is, operational costs incurred by the organizing committee for the purpose of staging the Games, e.g. expenditures for technology, workforce, security, catering and medical services, direct capital costs incurred by the host city and country or private investors to build, e.g. the competition venues, the Olympic village, international broadcast center, media and press center, which are required to host the Games.
Indirect capital costs are not included, such as for road, rail, or airport infrastructure, or for hotel upgrades or other business investment incurred in preparation for the Games but not directly related to staging the Games. The cost for Sydney 2000 compares with a cost of USD 4.6 billion for Rio 2016, USD 40–44 billion for Beijing 2008 and USD 51 billion for Sochi 2014, the most expensive Olympics in history. Average cost for the Summer Games since 1960 is USD 5.2 billion, average cost overrun is 176%. In 2000, the Auditor-General of New South Wales reported that the Sydney Games cost A$6.6 billion, with a net cost to the public between A$1.7 and A$2.4 billion. Many venues were constructed in the Sydney Olympic Park, which failed in the years following the Olympics to meet the expected bookings to meet upkeep expenses. In the years leading up to the games, funds were shifted from education and health programs to cover Olympic expenses, it has been estimated that the economic impact of the 2000 Olympics was that A$2.1 billion has been shaved from public consumption.
Economic growth was not stimulated to a net benefit and in the years after 2000, foreign tourism to NSW grew by less than tourism to Australia as a whole. A "multiplier" effect on broader economic development is not realised, as a simple "multiplier" analysis fails to capture is that resources have to be redirected from elsewhere: the building of a stadium is at the expense of other public works such as extensions to hospitals. Building sporting venues does not add to the aggregate stock of productive capital in the years following the Games: "Equestrian centres, softball compounds and man-made rapids are not useful beyond their immediate function." In the years after the games, infrastructure issues have been of growing concern to citizens those in the western suburbs of Sydney. Proposed rail links to Sydney's west have been estimated to cost in the same order of magnitude as the public expenditure on the games. Although the Olympic Games Opening Ceremony was not sc
Athletics at the 2000 Summer Olympics – Women's 800 metres
The Women's 800 metres at the 2000 Summer Olympics as part of the athletics programme was held at Stadium Australia on Friday 22 September, Saturday 23 September, Monday 25 September 2000. The top two runners in each of the initial five heats automatically qualified for the semi-final; the next six fastest runners from across the heats qualified for the semi-final. The top three runners in each semi-final automatically qualified for the final; the next two fastest runners from across the heats qualified for the final. There were a total number of 39 participating athletes. In the final, Helena Fuchsova took her lane 1 position out to the lead, with Brigita Langerholc sweeping across the track from lane 8 to shut the door on Hazel Clark and the rest of the pack. Fuchsova held the lead through a 55.04 first lap and on to 600 metres in 1:25.5. Behind her the pack scrambled for position with Kelly Holmes on Fuchsova's shoulder. Holmes Maria Mutola Stephanie Graf all passed on the final turn. On the final straightaway, Mutola rans strong on the outside, advancing past Holmes, with Graf sprinting past for silver.
Four years it would be reversed, with Holmes running past Mutoloa on the final straight. All times shown are in seconds. Q denotes qualification by place in heat. Q denotes qualification by overall place. DNS denotes did not start. DNF denotes did not finish. DQ denotes disqualification. NR denotes national record. OR denotes Olympic record. WR denotes world record. PB denotes personal best. SB denotes season best. Overall Results Round 1 Overall Results Semi-finals Official Report Official Report of the 2000 Sydney Summer Olympics