Flies are insects with a pair of functional wings for flight and a pair of vestigial hindwings called halteres for balance. They are classified as an order called Diptera, that name being derived from the Greek δι- di- "two", πτερόν pteron "wings"; the order Diptera is divided with about 110 families divided between them. The earliest fly fossils found so far are from the Triassic, about 240 million years ago. Many insects, such as the butterfly, contain the word are not Dipterans; the word "fly" is sometimes used colloquially and non-scientifically as a name for any small flying insect: the term "true fly" is sometimes invoked to make clear the insect being referenced is a Dipteran. Flies have a mobile head, with a pair of large compound eyes, mouthparts designed for piercing and sucking, or for lapping and sucking in the other groups; the suborder Nematocera have long antennae. Flies have only a single pair of wings to fly; the hindwings evolved into advanced mechanosensory organs, which act as high-speed sensors of rotational movement and allow them to perform advanced aerobatics.
Claws and pads on their feet enable them to cling to smooth surfaces. The life cycle of flies consists of the eggs, larva and the adult. Flies undergo complete metamorphosis; the pupa in higher dipterans is a tough capsule. Flies have short lives: for example, the adult housefly lives about a month; the source of nutrition for adult flies is liquified food, including nectar. Flies are of human importance, they are important pollinators, second only to their Hymenopteran relatives. They may have been responsible for the first plant pollination in the Triassic. Mosquitoes are vectors for malaria, West Nile fever, yellow fever and other infectious diseases. Flies can be annoyances in some parts of the world where they can occur in large numbers and settling on the skin or eyes to bite or seek fluids. Larger flies such as tsetse flies and screwworms cause significant economic harm to cattle. Blowfly larvae, known as gentles, other dipteran larvae, known more as maggots, are used as fishing bait, as food for carnivorous animals, in medicine for debridement to clean wounds.
Fruit flies are used as model organisms in research. In culture, the subject of flies appears in religion, literature and music. Dipterans are insects that undergo radical metamorphosis, they belong to the Mecopterida, alongside the Mecoptera, Siphonaptera and Trichoptera. The possession of a single pair of wings distinguishes most true flies from other insects with "fly" in their names. However, some true flies such as Hippoboscidae have become secondarily wingless; the cladogram represents the current consensus view. The first true dipterans known are from the Middle Triassic around 240 million years ago, they became widespread during the Middle and Late Triassic. Phylogenetic analysis of times of divergence suggests that dipterans originated in the Permian, some 260 million years ago. Modern flowering plants did not appear until the Cretaceous, so the original dipterans must have had a different source of nutrition other than nectar. Based on the attraction of many modern fly groups to shiny droplets, it has been suggested that they may have fed on honeydew produced by sap-sucking bugs which were abundant at the time, dipteran mouthparts are well-adapted to softening and lapping up the crusted residues.
The basal clades in the Diptera include the enigmatic Nymphomyiidae. Three episodes of evolutionary radiation are thought to have occurred based on the fossil record. Many new species of lower Diptera developed in the Triassic, about 220 million years ago. Many lower Brachycera appeared in the Jurassic, some 180 million years ago. A third radiation took place among the Schizophora at the start of the Paleogene, 66 million years ago; the phylogenetic position of Diptera has been controversial. The monophyly of holometabolous insects has long been accepted, with the main orders being established as Lepidoptera, Coleoptera and Diptera, it is the relationships between these groups which has caused difficulties. Diptera is thought to be a member of Mecopterida, along with Lepidoptera, Siphonaptera and Strepsiptera. Diptera has been grouped with Siphonaptera and Mecoptera in the Antliophora, but this has not been confirmed by molecular studies. Diptera were traditionally broken down into two suborders and Brachycera, distinguished by the differences in antennae.
The Nematocera are recognized by their elongated bodies and many-segmented feathery antennae as represented by mosquitoes and crane flies. The Brachycera have rounder bodies and much sh
Raidió Teilifís Éireann
Raidió Teilifís Éireann is a semi-state company and the national public service media of Ireland. It both produces programmes and broadcasts them on television and the Internet; the radio service began on 1 January 1926, while regular television broadcasts began on 31 December 1961, making it one of the oldest continuously operating public service broadcasters in the world. RTÉ publishes a weekly lifestyle magazine called the RTÉ Guide. RTÉ is financed through advertising; some RTÉ services are only funded by advertising, while other RTÉ services are only funded by the licence fee. RTÉ is a statutory body, run by a board appointed by the Government of Ireland. General management of the organisation is in the hands of the Executive Board headed by the Director-General. RTÉ is regulated by the Broadcasting Authority of Ireland. Radio Éireann, RTÉ's predecessor and at the time a section of the Department of Posts and Telegraphs, was one of 23 founding organisations of the European Broadcasting Union in 1950.
This section deals with the history of RTÉ as an organisation. For details on this history of the various services see the separate articles on those services. For history of the broadcasting service prior to 1960, see Minister for Posts and Telegraphs and RTÉ Radio 1. Broadcasting in Ireland began in 1926 with 2RN in Dublin. From that date until June 1960 the broadcasting service operated as a section of the Department of Posts and Telegraphs, those working for the service were directly employed by the Irish Government and regarded as civil servants. RTÉ was established on 1 June 1960 under the Broadcasting Authority Act 1960, the principal legislation under which it operates; the existing Radio Éireann service was transferred to the new authority, made responsible for the new television service. The television service started broadcasting on 31 December 1961, from the Kippure transmitter site near Dublin. Eamonn Andrews was the first Chairman of Radio Éireann, the first director general was Edward Roth.
The name of the authority was changed, at the suggestion of Áine Ní Cheanainn, to Radio Telefís Éireann by the Broadcasting Authority Act 1966, both the radio and television services became known as RTÉ in that year. The Broadcasting Act 2009 changed the name of the organisation from "Radio Telefís Éireann" to "Raidió Teilifís Éireann", to reflect the proper spelling of the name in Irish. However, the station retains "Radio Telefís Éireann" carved in stone at the entrance to its Donnybrook headquarters in Dublin. Under Section 31 of the Broadcasting Authority Act, 1960 the Minister for Posts and Telegraphs of the day could direct RTÉ "not to broadcast any matter, or any matter of any particular class". In 1971 the first such directive was issued by Gerry Collins, directing RTÉ not to broadcast "any matter that could be calculated to promote the aims or activities of any organisation which engages in, encourages or advocates the attaining of any particular objective by violent means". A year Collins dismissed the entire RTÉ Authority over a report of an interview with Seán Mac Stíofáin, the chief of staff of the Provisional IRA.
RTÉ reporter Kevin O'Kelly, who reported the Mac Stiofáin interview, was jailed for contempt in a court case arising out of the interview. Kelly refused to identify Mac Stiofáin's as the voice on a tape seized from his house by the Garda Síochána. In 1976 Conor Cruise O'Brien, Minister for Posts and Telegraphs, amended Section 31 and thereafter issued a new annually-based directive to the RTÉ authority. RTÉ was now explicitly banned from broadcasting interviews or reports of interviews with spokespersons for Sinn Féin, the Provisional IRA, or any organisation banned in Northern Ireland under the UK's Northern Ireland Act 1973; these directives were reissued on an annual basis until the final one appeared in January 1993. During the late 1970s RTÉ was accused of extending the censorship rules into a system of self-censorship. A small minority of programme makers emerged who approved of Section 31 supporters of the Workers' Party, including Eoghan Harris, Gerry Gregg who opposed that party's official policy.
Opponents of censorship were portrayed as secret IRA sympathizers. The effect of this ban was greater than and similar to, though less harsh than, the censorship provision introduced in 1988 in the United Kingdom; the UK ban did not prevent reports of interviews with spokespersons. This allowed interviews using actors' voices dubbing the direct speech of censored persons; this was not permissible on RTÉ. In 1992–93, in O'Toole vs RTÉ, RTÉ was found by the High Court and Supreme Court to have illegally and unconstitutionally extended the censorship ban to Sinn Féin members who were not speaking on behalf of the party; the RTÉ ban did not affect UK stations broadcasting in the Republic of Ireland as, until 1988 at least, viewers in the Republic were still able to hear the voices of Sinn Féin representatives. The following figures were issued by RTÉ as part of their annual report in 2012. In 2012 RTÉ received in total €180,894,000 in public funding from the licence fee, it received €127,100,000 in commercial revenue.
RTÉ total expenditure in 2012 was €327,023,000. They had restructuring costs of €46,161,000 in 2012. Losses for the year came to €65,147,000. Profit and Loss across radio and online services. RTÉ receives income from two main sources: The television licence fee. Within the State, it is necessary to pay a fee of €160 per annum to possess any piece of
Brian Gerard O'Driscoll is a retired Irish professional rugby union player. He played at outside centre for Ireland, he captained Ireland from 2003 until 2012, captained the British and Irish Lions for their 2005 tour of New Zealand. He is regarded by critics as one of the greatest rugby players of all time. O'Driscoll is the second most-capped player in rugby union history, having played 141 test matches: 133 for Ireland, 8 for the British and Irish Lions, he scored 46 tries for Ireland and 1 try for the Lions in 2001, making him the highest try scorer of all time in Irish Rugby. He is the 8th-highest try scorer in international rugby union history, the highest scoring centre of all time. O'Driscoll holds the Six Nations record for most tries scored with 26, he has scored the most. O'Driscoll was chosen as Player of the Tournament in the 2006, 2007 and 2009 Six Nations Championships, he was inducted into the World Rugby Hall of Fame on 17 November 2016 at the opening ceremony for the Hall's first location in Rugby, Warwickshire.
O'Driscoll was involved in Irish Rugby's unsuccessful bid to hold the 2023 World Cup. He now works as ITV Sport in the United Kingdom. O'Driscoll was born in Dublin to both physicians. O'Driscoll's family was steeped in rugby, his father, played two games for Ireland and a cousin of his father, won four caps. However it was another cousin of Frank's, Barry's brother John, who put the O'Driscoll name on the map: he represented Ireland 26 times and was a member of the Lions side that toured 1980 British Lions tour to South Africa and 1983 British Lions tour to New Zealand; as a child, Brian played Gaelic football before switching to rugby. For his secondary education, he attended Blackrock College, where he played in the Senior Cup team in 1996 and 1997 after coming up through the ranks from the lower-level teams. Although O'Driscoll started the first two rounds of the competition in 1996, he was subsequently dropped to the bench for the remainder of the competition, was an unused replacement in the team's victorious final appearance, in which Leo Cullen and Bob Casey were the second row.
In 1997 they were beaten in the quarter-final by Clongowes. He was capped three times for Ireland Schools in 1996. In 1998, O'Driscoll played for the Ireland U-19 side, which won the Under 19 Rugby World Championship. After leaving school, he attended UCD on a scholarship. At UCD, he first made the under-20 side, before being promoted to the top team near the end of his first year. After two years, O'Driscoll graduated from UCD with a diploma in sports management. While at UCD, his coach John McClean moved O'Driscoll from the fly-half position to centre. O'Driscoll made his Ireland under-21 debut in February 1999, gained four caps. O'Driscoll made his debut for Leinster in 1999, under head coach Matt Williams and backs coach Alan Gaffney he became an explosive force in the Leinster backline, forming a effective centre partnership with Shane Horgan. In 2001, Leinster won the inaugural Celtic League beating Munster in Lansdowne Road. In 2003, Leinster were heavy favourites for that year's Heineken Cup but were beaten by Perpignan in the semi-finals.
Leinster appointed Michael Cheika in the summer of 2005 and despite rumours of O'Driscoll moving to France, O'Driscoll agreed to another year in Ireland. That year, O'Driscoll returning from a shoulder injury suffered on the Lions tour, would assume the captaincy for the season. Under backs coach David Knox and the movement of Argentine international Felipe Contepomi to fly half, the Leinster back line became one of the most potent in Europe. O'Driscoll excelled in wins over Bath Toulouse away from home; these victories would set up a Heineken Cup semi-final in Lansdowne Road against Munster, but defeat against the eventual champions Munster would deny O'Driscoll and his team a final berth. Leinster were denied a Magners League title, with David Humphreys of Ulster slotting an injury time drop goal to give victory to Ulster in their final game of the season. In 2007, Wasps beat Leinster in the quarter-finals of the Heineken Cup. In 2008, Leinster lost in the group stages. In 2007, Leinster reached the final hurdle of the Magners league only to be denied by the Ospreys and Cardiff.
In 2008, Leinster won that title ahead of Munster, marking O'Driscoll's second honour with the province, his first and only as captain. The 2008–09 season marked a shift in focus for O'Driscoll. While retaining the Irish captaincy under new coach Declan Kidney, he handed the honour of Leinster captain to Leo Cullen. O'Driscoll scored two tries in the defeat of English champions London Wasps, however this victory was followed by away defeats for Leinster to both London Wasps and Castres. Leinster advanced to the quarter-finals to face Harlequins at the Twickenham Stoop; when O'Driscoll was absent through injury in April 2009, Leinster relinquished their Magners League crown to Munster at Thomond Park. Against Harlequins, Leinster scored a 6 -- the game infamous for the Bloodgate incident. In the semi-final against rivals Munster in Croke Park, an 82,206 sell out, O'Driscoll was awarded the man of the match award after an intercept try completed a convincing win for Leinster and sent O'Driscoll to his first Heineken Cup final.
Leinster captured the Heineken Cup against Leicester Tigers on 23 May 2009. The 19–16 Heineken Cup victory included a drop goal from O'Driscoll, suffering from a shoulder injury. In the 2010–11 season, O'Driscoll won his second Heineken Cup with Leinster. Having been injured in a Magners League
A tribunal is any person or institution with authority to judge, adjudicate on, or determine claims or disputes—whether or not it is called a tribunal in its title. For example, an advocate who appears before a court with a single judge could describe that judge as'their tribunal'. Many governmental bodies that are titled'tribunals' are so described to emphasize that they are not courts of normal jurisdiction. For example, the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda is a body specially constituted under international law. In many cases, the word tribunal implies a judicial body with a lesser degree of formality than a court, to which the normal rules of evidence and procedure may not apply, whose presiding officers are neither judges nor magistrates. Private judicial bodies are often styled'tribunals'. However, the word tribunal is not conclusive of a body's function–for example, in Great Britain, the Employment Appeal Tribunal is a superior court of record; the term is derived from magistrates of the Classical Roman Republic.
"Tribunal" referred to the office of the tribunes, the term is still sometimes used in this sense in historical writings. In the Republic of Ireland, tribunal popularly refers to a public inquiry established under the Tribunals of Inquiry Act 1921; the main difference between a Parliamentary Inquiry and a Tribunal of Inquiry in Ireland is that non-statutory inquiries are not vested with the powers and rights of the High Court. Tribunals of Inquiry are. Tribunals are established by resolution of the Houses of the Oireachtas to enquire into matters of urgent public importance, it is not a function of Tribunals to administer justice, their work is inquisitorial. Tribunals are obliged to report their findings to the Oireachtas, they have the power to enforce the attendance and examination of witnesses and the production of documents relevant to the work in hand. Tribunals can consist of one or more people. A layperson, or non-lawyer, may be the Sole member of a tribunal; the tribunal system of the United Kingdom is part of the national system of administrative justice.
Though it has grown up on an ad hoc basis since the beginning of the twentieth century, from 2007 reforms were put in place to build a unified system with recognised judicial authority, routes of appeal and regulatory supervision. In the Netherlands, before the separation of lawmaking, law enforcement, justice duties, all sentences were delivered by a tribunal of seven schepenen or magistrates, appointed by the local count; such a tribunal was called a Vierschaar, so called for a rope -or cord -, drawn In a four-square dimension, wherein the judges took place on four benches. These benches were positioned in a square as well with the defendant standing in the middle. Towns had the Vierschaar privilege to hear their own disputes; the Vierschaar was located in the town hall, many historic town halls still have such a room decorated with scenes from the Judgment of Solomon. There are tribunals for settling various administrative and tax-related disputes, including Central Administrative Tribunal, Income Tax Appellate Tribunal, Customs and Service Tax Appellate Tribunal, National Green Tribunal, Competition Appellate Tribunal and Securities Appellate Tribunal, among others.
In several states, Food Safety Appellate Tribunals have been created to hear appeals against orders of adjudicating officers for food safety. Armed Forces Tribunal is a military tribunal in India, it was established under the Armed Forces Tribunal Act, 2007. The following tribunals exist within the Judiciary of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China: Lands, Small Claims, Obscene Articles. For public inquiries, commissions are set up instead, under the Commissions of Inquiry Ordinance. In the Roman Catholic Church, a tribunal refers to one of three instances of ecclesiastical courts: a diocesan tribunal a provincial tribunal, that is, of more than one diocese and referred to as an appellate court, or the Sacra Rota Romana, or Sacred Roman Rota, the highest court of appeals. In Australia, the term tribunal implies a judicial body with a lesser degree of formality than a court, with a simplified legal procedure presided over by a lawyer, not a judge or magistrate.
In many cases the lawyers who function as tribunal members do so only on a part time basis, spend the greater part of their time carrying out other aspects of legal practice, such as representing clients. In many cases, the formal rules of evidence which apply in courts do not apply in tribunals, which enables tribunals to hear forms of evidence which courts may not be allowed to consider. Tribunals deal with simpler matters. Appeal from a tribunal is to a court. Tribunals in the Australian judicial system include: Administrative Appeals Tribunal Migration Review Tribunal New South Wales Civil and Administrative Tribunal Queensland Civil and Administrative Tribunal State Administrative Tribunal of Western Australia Victorian Civil and Administrative Tribunal South Australian Civil and Administration Tribunal In
A television show is any content produced for broadcast via over-the-air, cable, or internet and viewed on a television set, excluding breaking news, advertisements, or trailers that are placed between shows. Television shows are most scheduled well ahead of time and appear on electronic guides or other TV listings. A television show might be called a television program if it lacks a narrative structure. A television series is released in episodes that follow a narrative, are divided into seasons or series – yearly or semiannual sets of new episodes. A show with a limited number of episodes may be called serial, or limited series. A one-time show may be called a "special". A television film is a film, broadcast on television rather than released in theaters or direct-to-video. Television shows can be viewed as they are broadcast in real time, be recorded on home video or a digital video recorder for viewing, or be viewed on demand via a set-top box or streamed over the internet; the first television shows were experimental, sporadic broadcasts viewable only within a short range from the broadcast tower starting in the 1930s.
Televised events such as the 1936 Summer Olympics in Germany, the 1937 coronation of King George VI in the UK, David Sarnoff's famous introduction at the 1939 New York World's Fair in the US spurred a growth in the medium, but World War II put a halt to development until after the war. The 1947 World Series inspired many Americans to buy their first television set and in 1948, the popular radio show Texaco Star Theater made the move and became the first weekly televised variety show, earning host Milton Berle the name "Mr Television" and demonstrating that the medium was a stable, modern form of entertainment which could attract advertisers; the first national live television broadcast in the US took place on September 4, 1951 when President Harry Truman's speech at the Japanese Peace Treaty Conference in San Francisco was transmitted over AT&T's transcontinental cable and microwave radio relay system to broadcast stations in local markets. The first national color broadcast in the US occurred on January 1, 1954.
During the following ten years most network broadcasts, nearly all local programming, continued to be in black-and-white. A color transition was announced for the fall of 1965, during which over half of all network prime-time programming would be broadcast in color; the first all-color prime-time season came just one year later. In 1972, the last holdout among daytime network shows converted to color, resulting in the first all-color network season. Television shows are more varied than most other forms of media due wide variety formats and genres that can be presented. A show may non-fictional, it may be historical. They could be instructional or educational, or entertaining as is the case in situation comedy and game shows. A drama program features a set of actors playing characters in a historical or contemporary setting; the program follows their adventures. Except for soap opera-type serials, many shows before the 1980s, remained static without story arcs, the main characters and premise changed little.
If some change happened to the characters' lives during the episode, it was undone by the end. Because of this, the episodes could be broadcast in any order. Since the 1980s, there are many series that feature progressive change to the plot, the characters, or both. For instance, Hill Street Blues and St. Elsewhere were two of the first American prime time drama television series to have this kind of dramatic structure. While the series, Babylon 5 is an extreme example of such production that had a predetermined story running over its intended five-season run. In 2012, it was reported that television was growing into a larger component of major media companies' revenues than film; some noted the increase in quality of some television programs. In 2012, Academy-Award-winning film director Steven Soderbergh, commenting on ambiguity and complexity of character and narrative, stated: "I think those qualities are now being seen on television and that people who want to see stories that have those kinds of qualities are watching television."
When a person or company decides to create a new series, they develop the show's elements, consisting of the concept, the characters, the crew, cast. They "pitch" it to the various networks in an attempt to find one interested enough to order a prototype first episode of the series, known as a pilot. Eric Coleman, an animation executive at Disney, told an interviewer, "One misconception is that it's difficult to get in and pitch your show, when the truth is that development executives at networks want much to hear ideas, they want much to get the word out on what types of shows they're looking for."To create the pilot, the structure and team of the whole series must be put together. If audiences respond well to the pilot, the network will pick up the show to air it the next season. Sometimes they save it for mid-season, or father review. Other times, they pass forcing the show's creator to "shop it around" to other networks. Many shows never make it past the pilot stage; the show hires a stable of writers, who usually
A hotel is an establishment that provides paid lodging on a short-term basis. Facilities provided may range from a modest-quality mattress in a small room to large suites with bigger, higher-quality beds, a dresser, a refrigerator and other kitchen facilities, upholstered chairs, a flat screen television, en-suite bathrooms. Small, lower-priced hotels may offer only the most basic guest facilities. Larger, higher-priced hotels may provide additional guest facilities such as a swimming pool, business centre, childcare and event facilities, tennis or basketball courts, restaurants, day spa, social function services. Hotel rooms are numbered to allow guests to identify their room; some boutique, high-end hotels have custom decorated rooms. Some hotels offer meals as part of a board arrangement. In the United Kingdom, a hotel is required by law to serve food and drinks to all guests within certain stated hours. In Japan, capsule hotels provide a tiny room suitable only for sleeping and shared bathroom facilities.
The precursor to the modern hotel was the inn of medieval Europe. For a period of about 200 years from the mid-17th century, coaching inns served as a place for lodging for coach travelers. Inns began to cater to richer clients in the mid-18th century. One of the first hotels in a modern sense was opened in Exeter in 1768. Hotels proliferated throughout Western Europe and North America in the early 19th century, luxury hotels began to spring up in the part of the 19th century. Hotel operations vary in size, function and cost. Most hotels and major hospitality companies have set industry standards to classify hotel types. An upscale full-service hotel facility offers luxury amenities, full service accommodations, an on-site restaurant, the highest level of personalized service, such as a concierge, room service, clothes pressing staff. Full service hotels contain upscale full-service facilities with a large number of full service accommodations, an on-site full service restaurant, a variety of on-site amenities.
Boutique hotels are smaller independent, non-branded hotels that contain upscale facilities. Small to medium-sized hotel establishments offer a limited amount of on-site amenities. Economy hotels are small to medium-sized hotel establishments that offer basic accommodations with little to no services. Extended stay hotels are small to medium-sized hotels that offer longer-term full service accommodations compared to a traditional hotel. Timeshare and destination clubs are a form of property ownership involving ownership of an individual unit of accommodation for seasonal usage. A motel is a small-sized low-rise lodging with direct access to individual rooms from the car park. Boutique hotels are hotels with a unique environment or intimate setting. A number of hotels have entered the public consciousness through popular culture, such as the Ritz Hotel in London; some hotels are built as a destination in itself, for example at casinos and holiday resorts. Most hotel establishments are run by a General Manager who serves as the head executive, department heads who oversee various departments within a hotel, middle managers, administrative staff, line-level supervisors.
The organizational chart and volume of job positions and hierarchy varies by hotel size and class, is determined by hotel ownership and managing companies. The word hotel is derived from the French hôtel, which referred to a French version of a building seeing frequent visitors, providing care, rather than a place offering accommodation. In contemporary French usage, hôtel now has the same meaning as the English term, hôtel particulier is used for the old meaning, as well as "hôtel" in some place names such as Hôtel-Dieu, a hospital since the Middle Ages; the French spelling, with the circumflex, was used in English, but is now rare. The circumflex replaces the's' found in the earlier hostel spelling, which over time took on a new, but related meaning. Grammatically, hotels take the definite article – hence "The Astoria Hotel" or "The Astoria." Facilities offering hospitality to travellers have been a feature of the earliest civilizations. In Greco-Roman culture and ancient Persia, hospitals for recuperation and rest were built at thermal baths.
Japan's Nishiyama Onsen Keiunkan, founded in 705, was recognised by the Guinness World Records as the oldest hotel in the world. During the Middle Ages, various religious orders at monasteries and abbeys would offer accommodation for travellers on the road; the precursor to the modern hotel was the inn of medieval Europe dating back to the rule of Ancient Rome. These would provide for the needs of travellers, including food and lodging and fodder for the traveller's horse and fresh horses for the mail coach. Famous London examples of inns include the Tabard. A typical layout of an inn had an inner court with bedrooms on the two sides, with the kitchen and parlour at the front and the stables at the back. For a period of about 200 years from the mid-17th century, coaching inns served as a place for lodging for coach travellers. Coaching inns stabled teams of horses for stagecoaches and mail coaches and replaced tired teams with fresh teams. Traditionally they were seven miles apart, but this depended much on the terrain.
Some English towns had as many as ten such inns and rivalry between them was intense, not only for the income from the stagecoach operators but for the revenu
Irish dance or Irish dancing is a group of traditional dance forms originating from Ireland, encompassing dancing both solo and in groups, dancing for social and performance purposes. Irish dance in its current form developed from various influences such as French quadrilles and English country dancing throughout the 18th and 19th centuries. Dance was taught by "travelling dance masters" across Ireland throughout this period, separate dance forms developed according to regional practice and differing purposes. Irish dance became a significant part of Irish culture for Irish nationalist movements. From the early 20th century, a number of organisations promoted and codified the various forms of dance, creating competitive structures and standardised styles. Solo Irish dance includes the most well-known form of Irish dance, Irish stepdance, popularised from 1994 onwards by dance shows such as Riverdance, and, practised competitively across the Irish diaspora. Stepdance is characterised by the rigid upper body and intricate footwork of its performers.
Other forms of solo Irish dance include sean-nós dance, a relaxed and social dance style involving improvised steps, festival Irish dance, a style which separated from step dance in the mid-20th century. Irish dancing in groups is made up of a number of styles and traditions, which developed from French and English dances and formations. Ceili dance, practised both competitively and is performed by groups of two to sixteen people, uses traditional or codified dances and formations, its footwork is simple, emphasis is placed on the figures and formations of the dances. Set dance is a social tradition, for groups of four dancers, includes elements of the intricate footwork found in step dance. There is little documentary evidence of dance being practised in Ireland prior to the 17th century. Scholars have hypothesised that this may result from the integral and unremarkable nature of dance in pre-modern Irish society, or from the non-literate nature of the Irish cultural tradition. Indeed, the modern Irish words for "dance", rince and damhsa did not develop until the 16th century.
The scant evidence available is that of visitors to Ireland, such as a fourteenth-century song written in the South of England, where the poet invites his listeners to "come ant daunce wyt me in Irlaunde". The first native Irish documentary evidence of dancing is an account of a Mayor of Waterford's visit to Baltimore, County Cork in 1413, where the attendees "took to the floor" to celebrate Christmas Eve. However, the Norman invasion of Ireland in the twelfth century is to have brought with it the round dance tradition, as it was contemporaneously performed in Norman strongholds. Accounts of dancing in the seventeenth century suggest that dancing was by that time widespread throughout Ireland. A report from 1600 mentions that Irish dances were group dances similar in form to English country dances, references mention the "rinnce fada" known as the "long dance" or "fading"; this dance, performed to a jig tune though not to any particular piece of music, became the customary conclusion to balls held in Ireland towards the end of the seventeenth century.
At this time, dancing was accompanied by musicians playing bagpipes or the Jew's harp. By the 1760s, the distinctive hornpipe rhythm of the Irish dance tradition had developed, with the introduction of the fiddle to Ireland from the European continent, a new class of "dancing master" began to emerge; the dancing traditions of Ireland grew in association with traditional Irish music. Although its origins are unclear, it was influenced by dance forms from the Continent the Quadrille. Travelling dancing masters taught across Ireland as late as the early 19th centuries; because local venues were small, dances were demonstrated on tabletops, or the tops of barrels. As a result, these early styles are characterized by the arms held rigidly at the sides, a lack of lateral movement; as larger dance venues became available, styles grew to include more movement of the body and around the dance area. A variety of forms of solo Irish dance have developed; these include the well-known "modern" stepdance performed competitively.
The most predominant form of Irish stepdance is that popularised by the Broadway show Riverdance, other Irish dancing stage shows since the late 20th century. Characterised by a rigid torso and dances performed high on the balls of the feet, this style became distinct from the late 19th century when the Gaelic League began efforts to preserve and promote Irish dance as part of a broader nationalist movement concerned with Irish culture. In 1929, the League formed An Coimisiún Le Rincí Gaelacha in order to codify and standardise stepdancing competition and education. Over the following decades, CLRG expanded globally, promoted this particular form of stepdance by developing examinations and qualifications for teachers and competition adjudicators. Today, stepdance in the style codified by the Gaelic League is performed competitively in a number of countries, under the auspices of a number of organisations which have at various times broken away from CLRG. Irish solo stepdances fall into two broad categories based on the shoes worn:'hard shoe' and'soft shoe' dances.
There are four soft shoe dance styles: the reel, slip jig, light jig and'single