England cricket team
The England cricket team represents England and Wales in international cricket. Since 1997 it has been governed by the England and Wales Cricket Board, having been governed by Marylebone Cricket Club from 1903 until the end of 1996. England, as a founding nation, is a full member of the International Cricket Council with Test, One Day International and Twenty20 International status; until the 1990s, Scottish and Irish players played for England as those countries were not yet ICC members in their own right. England and Australia were the first teams to play a Test match, these two countries together with South Africa formed the Imperial Cricket Conference on 15 June 1909. England and Australia played the first ODI on 5 January 1971. England's first T20I was played on 13 June 2005, once more against Australia; as of 12 March 2019, England has played 1010 Test matches, winning 365 and losing 300. The team has won The Ashes on 32 occasions. England has played 726 ODIs, winning 362, its record in major ODI tournaments includes finishing as runners-up in three Cricket World Cups, in two ICC Champions Trophys.
England has played 108 T20Is, winning 53. They won the ICC World Twenty20 in 2010, were runners-up in 2016; as of 12 March 2019, England are ranked fifth in Tests, first in ODIs and third in T20Is by the ICC. Though the team and coaching staff faced heavy criticism after their Group Stage exit in the 2015 Cricket World Cup, it has since adopted a more aggressive and modern playing style in ODI cricket, under the leadership of captain Eoin Morgan and head coach Trevor Bayliss; the first recorded incidence of a team with a claim to represent England comes from 9 July 1739 when an "All-England" team, which consisted of 11 gentlemen from any part of England exclusive of Kent, played against "the Unconquerable County" of Kent and lost by a margin of "very few notches". Such matches were repeated on numerous occasions for the best part of a century. In 1846 William Clarke formed the All-England Eleven; this team competed against a United All-England Eleven with annual matches occurring between 1847 and 1856.
These matches were arguably the most important contest of the English season if judged by the quality of the players. The first overseas tour occurred in September 1859 with England touring North America; this team had six players from the All-England Eleven, six from the United All-England Eleven and was captained by George Parr. With the outbreak of the American Civil War, attention turned elsewhere. English tourists visited Australia in 1861–62 with this first tour organised as a commercial venture by Messrs Spiers and Pond, restaurateurs of Melbourne. Most matches played during tours prior to 1877 were "against odds", with the opposing team fielding more than 11 players to make for a more contest; this first Australian tour were against odds of at least 18/11. The tour was so successful that George Parr led a second tour in 1863–64. James Lillywhite led a subsequent England team which sailed on the P&O steamship Poonah on 21 September 1876, they played a combined Australian XI, for once on terms of 11 a side.
The match, starting on 15 March 1877 at the Melbourne Cricket Ground came to be regarded as the inaugural Test match. The combined Australian XI won this Test match by 45 runs with Charles Bannerman of Australia scoring the first Test century. At the time, the match was promoted as James Lillywhite's XI v Combined Victoria and New South Wales; the teams played a return match on the same ground at Easter, 1877, when Lillywhite's team avenged their loss with a victory by four wickets. The first Test match on English soil occurred in 1880 with England victorious. G. Grace included in the team. England lost their first home series 1–0 in 1882 with The Sporting Times printing an obituary on English cricket: In Affectionate Remembrance of ENGLISH CRICKET, which died at the Oval on 29th AUGUST 1882, Deeply lamented by a large circle of sorrowing friends and acquaintances R. I. P. N. B. – The body will be cremated and the ashes taken to Australia. As a result of this loss the tour of 1882–83 was dubbed by England captain Ivo Bligh as "the quest to regain the ashes".
England with a mixture of amateurs and professionals won the series 2–1. Bligh was presented with an urn that contained some ashes, which have variously been said to be of a bail, ball or a woman's veil and so The Ashes was born. A fourth match was played which Australia won by 4 wickets but the match was not considered part of the Ashes series. England dominated many of these early contests with England winning the Ashes series 10 times between 1884 and 1898. During this period England played their first Test match against South Africa in 1889 at Port Elizabeth. England won the 1890 Ashes Series 2–0, with the third match of the series being the first Test match to be abandoned. England lost 2 -- 1 in the 1891 -- 92 series. England again won the 1894 -- 95 series. In 1895 -- 96 England played Test South Africa; the 1899 Ashes series was the first tour where the MCC and the counties appointed a selection committee. There were three active players: Lord Hawke, W. G. Grace and Herbert Bainbridge, the captain of Warwickshire.
Prior to this, England teams for home Tests had been chosen by the club on whose ground the match was to be played. England lost the 1899 Ashes series 1–0, with WG Grace making his final Test appearance in the first match of the series; the start of the
Surrey County Cricket Club
Surrey County Cricket Club is one of eighteen first-class county clubs within the domestic cricket structure of England and Wales. It represents the historic county of Surrey and South London; the club's limited overs team is called "Surrey". The club was founded in 1845 but teams representing the county have played top-class cricket since the early 18th century and the club has always held first-class status. Surrey have competed in the County Championship since the official start of the competition in 1890 and have played in every top-level domestic cricket competition in England. Home of the club since its foundation in 1845 has been The Oval, in the Kennington area of Lambeth in South London; the club has an'out ground' at Woodbridge Road, where some home games are played each season. Surrey have had three notable periods of great success in their history; the club was unofficially proclaimed as "Champion County" seven times during the 1850s. In 1955, Surrey won 23 of its 28 county matches, a record that still stands and can no longer be bettered as counties have played fewer than 23 matches each season since 1993.
To date, Surrey has won the official County Championship 19 times outright, more than any other county with the exception of Yorkshire, with the most recent win being 2018. The club's traditional badge is the Prince of Wales's feathers. In 1915, Lord Rosebery obtained permission to use this symbol from the Prince of Wales, hereditary owner of the land on which The Oval stands. Champion County – 1864, 1887, 1888, it is believed that cricket was invented by children living on the Weald in Saxon or Norman times and that the game soon reached neighbouring Surrey. Although not the game's birthplace, Surrey does claim the honour of being the location of its first definite mention in print. Evidence from a January 1597 court case confirms that creckett was played by schoolboys on a certain plot of land in Guildford around 1550. In 1611, King James I gave to his eldest son, Prince of Wales, the manors of Kennington and Vauxhall, where the home ground of Surrey – The Oval – is today. To this day, the Prince of Wales's feathers feature on the cricket club's badge.
Cricket became well established in Surrey during the 17th century and the earliest village matches took place before the English Civil War. It is believed that the earliest county teams were formed in the aftermath of the Restoration in 1660; the earliest known first-class match in Surrey was Croydon v London at Croydon on 1 July 1707. In 1709, the earliest known inter-county match took place between Kent and Surrey at Dartford Brent with £50 at stake. Surrey would continue to play cricket against other representative teams from that time onwards, its greatest players during the underarm era were the famous bowler Lumpy Stevens and the wicket-keeper/batsman William Yalden, who both belonged to the Chertsey club. Surrey CCC was founded on the evening of 22 August 1845 at the Horns Tavern in Kennington, South London, where around 100 representatives of various cricket clubs in Surrey agreed a motion put by William Denison "that a Surrey club be now formed". A further meeting at the Tavern on 18 October 1845 formally constituted the club, appointed officers and began enrolling members.
A lease on Kennington Oval, a former market garden, was obtained by a Mr Houghton from the Duchy of Cornwall. Mr Houghton was of the old Montpelier Cricket Club, 70 members of which formed the nucleus of the new Surrey County club; the Honourable Fred Ponsonby the Earl of Bessborough was the first vice-president. Surrey's inaugural first-class match was against the MCC at The Oval at the end of May, 1846; the club's first inter-county match, against Kent, was held at The Oval the following month and Surrey emerged victorious by ten wickets. However, the club did not do well that year, despite the extra public attractions at The Oval of a Walking Match and a Poultry Show. By the start of the 1847 season the club was £70 in debt and there was a motion to close. Ponsonby proposed, his motion was duly passed, the club survived. The threat of construction on The Oval was successfully dispelled in 1848 thanks to the intervention of Prince Albert. In 1854, Surrey secured a new 21-year lease on their home ground and Surrey went on to enjoy an exceptionally successful decade.
Being “Champion County” seven times from 1850 to 1859 and again in 1864. In 1857, all nine matches played by the county resulted in victory; this was the time of great players like William Caffyn, Julius Caesar, HH Stephenson and Tom Lockyer, a fine captain in Frederick Miller. An i
Nottinghamshire County Cricket Club
Nottinghamshire County Cricket Club is one of eighteen first-class county clubs within the domestic cricket structure of England and Wales. It represents the historic county of Nottinghamshire; the club's limited overs team is called the Notts Outlaws. The county club was founded in 1841 but Nottinghamshire teams formed by earlier organisations the old Nottingham Cricket Club, had played top-class cricket since 1771 and the county club has always held first-class status. Nottinghamshire have competed in the County Championship since the official start of the competition in 1890 and have played in every top-level domestic cricket competition in England; the club plays most of its home games at the Trent Bridge cricket ground in West Bridgford, a venue for Test matches. The club has played matches at numerous other venues in the county, their kit colours are dark green with a gold/yellow trim for the Natwest T20 Blast and more yellow dominant for the Royal London One Day Cup. Champion County – 1865, 1871, 1872, 1875, 1880, 1884, 1885, 1886.
The outcome of the game was "not determined on account of a dispute having arisen by one of the Sheffield players being jostled"! The match is the first important inter-county match involving teams from either Nottinghamshire or Yorkshire; this match involved the old Nottingham town club which continued to play important matches into the 19th century. Nottinghamshire as a county team, played its first inter-county match versus Sussex at Brown's Ground, Brighton on 27, 28 and 29 August 1835. Nottinghamshire was recognised as a first-class county team, rather than a town club team, from 1835 but it is doubtful if the organisation at this time was a formally constituted club; the formal creation of Nottinghamshire CCC was enacted in March or April 1841. Founding club captain William Clarke formed the All-England Eleven team which included great players such as Fuller Pilch and Alfred Mynn, it was Clarke's successor as Nottinghamshire captain, George Parr, who first captained a united England touring team in 1859.
Early professional greats such as Alfred Shaw and Arthur Shrewsbury ensured that Notts were a force in the period before 1900. Thanks to the outstanding bowling combination of Tom Wass and Albert Hallam, the county won the County Championship in 1907 when George Gunn, John Gunn and Wilfred Payton were prominent. Between the wars Notts enjoyed the services of the famous bowlers Harold Bill Voce. Strong batting from George Gunn, Arthur Carr and Dodger Whysall saw them emerge as champions in 1929 after losing the title on the final day of the season in 1927. Prior to the second war, opening batsman Walter Keeton gained Test recognition, though the bowling was less effective. Through the early fifties the team was weak; the signing of the Australian leg break bowler Bruce Dooland, arrested the decline but until the signing of the incomparable Garfield Sobers in 1968, the team was weak. Sobers hit Malcolm Nash of Glamorgan for six sixes in an over in a County Championship game at Swansea in his first season.
Mike Harris scored in the 1970s, including nine centuries in 1971 but apart from Barry Stead, the bowling lacked penetration. Nottinghamshire enjoyed one of their strongest teams in the late seventies and early eighties when the New Zealand all-rounder Richard Hadlee, South African captain Clive Rice and England batsman Derek Randall led the team to the County Championship in 1981; the club's most successful season came in 1987, as Rice and Hadlee marked their departure with the double of County Championship and NatWest Trophy. Chris Broad and Tim Robinson continued the club's long tradition of batting excellence into the England team but for some years the club struggled to repeat those achievements, although they did claim a Benson & Hedges Cup in 1989 and a Sunday League title in 1991 under Robinson's captaincy. Former Warwickshire off spinner Eddie Hemmings made a significant contribution whil
Henry Calthorpe Blofeld, OBE nicknamed Blowers by Brian Johnston, is a retired English sports journalist and amateur ornithologist best known as a cricket commentator for Test Match Special on BBC Radio 4 and BBC Radio 5 Live Sports Extra. He has established a reputation as a commentator with an accent and syntax, quintessentially Old Etonian both in style and substance, he writes on cricket and has authored eight books to date. Blofeld's family were landowners at Hoveton in Norfolk and he was the youngest of three siblings, his elder brother, Sir John Blofeld, became a High Court judge. Henry's father was at Eton with Ian Fleming and his name is believed to have been the inspiration for the name of James Bond supervillain, Ernst Stavro Blofeld. Blofeld is a distant relative of the Honourable Freddie Calthorpe, a former England Test captain, contrary to common belief, he is not Calthorpe's nephew. Blofeld was educated at Sunningdale School in Berkshire and at Eton College, in Buckinghamshire, followed by King's College at the University of Cambridge, but failed both his final exams "by an innings".
Blofeld played cricket at both Eton. He was wicket-keeper for the Eton College First XI and had an exceptional career as a schoolboy cricketer. In 1956, Blofeld scored 104 not out for a Public Schools team against the Combined Services, he was given the Cricket Society's award for the most promising young player of the season. Appointed Eton captain in his final year at school, Blofeld suffered a serious accident, when he was hit by a bus while riding a bicycle, remaining unconscious for 28 days. Although his injuries curtailed his subsequent cricketing career, Blofeld did go on to play 16 first-class matches for Cambridge University during 1958 and 1959; the 1958 side was skippered by future England captain Ted Dexter and his first victim behind the stumps, on his debut for Cambridge against Kent, was another future England captain, Colin Cowdrey, whom he caught off Dexter's bowling. He was unable to obtain a regular place in the side as a wicket keeper and only played in that position when first choice Chris Howland was unavailable.
Of the 16 games that Blofeld played for Cambridge, he kept wicket in only four of them. In 1959, Blofeld played in half of the University fixtures, including the Varsity Match against Oxford, where he won his Blue "as an opening batsman of sorts... the worst Blue awarded since the war" according to Blofeld himself. Fittingly, he made his only first-class century against the Marylebone Cricket Club at Lord's in July 1959, in his penultimate game for Cambridge, he attended King's College, but left after two years without receiving a degree. In his only match for Free Foresters, against Cambridge University in 1960, Blofeld kept wicket, his last first-class victim was Howland. He played one Gillette Cup match for a minor county, Norfolk against Hampshire in 1965 under the captaincy of Bill Edrich, 49 years old at the time. Playing as an opening batsman, Blofeld top scored for his side with 60. Blofeld took a job at the merchant bank Robert Benson Lonsdale for three years, but it was not to his taste and he drifted into sports journalism.
He reported on the England tour to India in 1963/4 for The Guardian, was close to being picked as an emergency batsman to replace the ill Micky Stewart for the 2nd Test in Bombay. When he was told by David Clark, the tour manager, that he might have to play, Blofeld replied "I would play if needed, but if I scored 50 or upwards in either innings I was damned if I would stand down for the Calcutta Test". On the day of the Test Stewart played despite his illness. After tea on the first day, Stewart was rushed back to hospital and played no further part in the tour. Blofeld continued as a print journalist until 1972, he had previously commentated for ITV in the 1960s. Blofeld has been a regular commentator for TMS since 1972, except for a period at BSkyB from 1991 to 1994. Blofeld's cricket commentary is characterised by his plummy voice and his idiosyncratic mention of superfluous details regarding the scene, including things such as construction cranes or numbers of pink shirts in the crowd. After the tea and lunch breaks he is known to talk for extended periods of time about the food on offer, in particular cakes, with occasional interruptions to describe the situation on the field.
He uses the phrase "my dear old thing". Since 2006 he has commentated less missing the 2007 World Cup, despite having covered the opening ceremonies of the two preceding World Cups in 2003 and 1999 for TMS. Speaking to Michael Parkinson about this on BBC Radio 2 on 26 August 2007, he responded to the question of why he was commentating less these days, by remarking that "they want to bring in new faces" adding that during the Ashes series during 2006–7 "I felt in a funny way that I wasn't part of it any more". During the summer 2008 season, he resumed a full commentating quota on ODIs. Blofeld missed the 2009 home test series against South Africa but returned for the 2010 home series against Pakistan, he did not cover the Ashes series in Australia during 2010–11 but returned for the Indian tour of England in Summer 2011. In January 2012, he rejoined the TMS team covering England's tour of the United Arab Emirates against Pakistan and the autumn 2012 England tour of India. In 1995, Blofeld was censured for an antisemitic comment made live on-air on Test Match Special, when broadcasting from Headingley: He r
Melody Thornton is an American singer-songwriter and television personality. She rose to stardom as a member of the successful pop group the Pussycat Dolls; the youngest member of the group, Thornton assumed the second most prominent vocal role, after lead vocalist Nicole Scherzinger, was distinguished for her melismatic vocal runs. As of 2010, Thornton has departed from the group to focus on her solo career. Thornton's first mixtape, P. O. Y. B. L was released March 15, 2012. Thornton graduated from Camelback High School in Phoenix, Arizona in 2003, she is of Mexican American descent from her mother Elia, her father Theolph Thornton of African American descent. Thornton has an older sister named Nichole Thornton, her talent was first discovered at a Papago Elementary School talent show when she sang Mariah Carey's remake of Badfinger's "Without You". In 2003, soprano vocalist Thornton was recruited in the Pussycat Dolls order to add vocal strength to the group, she saw the Pussycat Dolls on MTV Diaries featuring Christina Aguilera and heard they were auditioning for a new group member.
Thornton went to the audition and was recruited in December 2003. For her audition, Thornton only was still accepted into the group; as with the other Dolls, she is a salaried employee of Interscope Records. Her nickname for the group is "Baby Doll" because she is the youngest of the group and because she was childish; the Pussycat Dolls achieved worldwide success in 2005 with their album PCD, which debuted at number five on the U. S. Billboard 200 Chart and produced the hits "Don't Cha", "Buttons", "Stickwitu", the last of which earned the group a Grammy Award nomination. Following the departure of Carmit Bachar in March 2008, the group continued as a quintet and in 2008 released their second studio album, Doll Domination which included the hits "When I Grow Up", "I Hate This Part", "Jai Ho!" and "Hush Hush". She was the only member to have contributed vocals apart from Scherzinger on Doll Domination, she provides additional backing vocals and ad-libs to several of the songs, although on Takin' Over the World", "Elevator", "Love the Way You Love Me" and "Painted Windows" she can be found sharing the lead vocals with Scherzinger.
Additionally on "When I Grow Up", "Whatcha Think About That" and "Top of the World" she sings secondary vocals. She recorded her first solo song called "Space", included in the deluxe edition of Doll Domination. During the Pussycat Doll's hiatus, Thornton worked on several projects including a cameo on Keri Hilson's music video "Slow Dance" and being a judge at E!'s TV show Bank of Hollywood with the production by Ryan Seacrest. In June 2010 Rap-Up was working on her solo album. Speaking about her position in the group she commented, "I got into the group to sing; that was made clear to me. But it became more apparent what was going on. Roles were being minimized and minimized, by the time it got on the show, it was much like'Y'all play your part and this is what it is.' It was tough because you don't want to shit on your own opportunity."On February 20, 2010, in an interview for The Source Thornton explained that her songs will be different from the group's sound but will not going to abandon that pop demographic that she acquired through the Pussycat Dolls.
In June 2010 Rap-Up first announced that Thornton was working on her solo album with collaborators including Cee Lo Green, Polow da Don, Lil Wayne. On Vibe Magazine she stated that she is working with Dre and Vidal. Thornton's recording of the Cee Lo produced song; the song was recorded by Green and Lauren Bennett for his album The Lady Killer. On June 16, 2011, Thornton's first official single, "Sweet Vendetta", was released. On June 26, 2011, Thorton announced plans to have her debut solo album released sometime in 2012. On March 5, 2012, Lipstick & Guilt was released as a promotional single. On March 15, 2012, her first mixtape "P. O. Y. B. L", an acronym for Piss on Your Black List, was released; the mixtape four originals all written by Melody. The project includes production from Andre Harris and State, Mark Vinten, Melody on the self-produced "Hit the Ground Runnin'," plus a duet with Bobby Newberry. On May 24, 2012, a music video for the cover version of "Bulletproof" from P. O. Y. B. L, featuring Bobby Newberry, premiered.
On June 14, 2012, she made a cameo appearance in a Bobby Newberry's music video for his debut single Dirrty Up, alongside ex-Pussycat Doll member Ashley Roberts. On April 30, 2013, Thornton was a featured vocalist on LL Cool J's 2013 album Authentic on the track "Something About You" along with Charlie Wilson and Earth, Wind & Fire. On May 17, 2013, Thornton made a special guest appearance in Fat Joe's music video "Ballin'". In 2017, Thornton appeared in the second season of E4 reality series Celebs Go Dating, in 2019, she participated in the eleventh series of Dancing on Ice alongside professional partner Alexander Demetriou, she finished in fifth place, after being eliminated in Week 8 following a skate-off against Saara Aalto. Official website Melody Thornton on IMDb
Zimbabwe national cricket team
The Zimbabwe national cricket team is administered by Zimbabwe Cricket. Zimbabwe is a full member of the International Cricket Council with Test and One Day International status; as of November 2018, Zimbabwe is ranked tenth in Tests, eleventh in ODIs and twelfth in Twenty20 Internationals by the ICC. Zimbabwe – known as Rhodesia until 1980 – had a national cricket team before it achieved Test status. A brief summary of key moments: Rhodesia was represented in the South African domestic cricket tournament, the Currie Cup, sporadically from 1904 to 1932, regularly from 1946 until independence. Following independence, the country began to play more international cricket. On 21 July 1981, Zimbabwe became an associate member of the ICC. Zimbabwe participated in the 1983 Cricket World Cup, as well as the 1992 events. Zimbabwe's first World Cup campaign in 1983 ended in the group stage, as they lost five of their six matches. However, they threw a surprise against Australia. Batting first, Zimbabwe reached a total of 239 for 6 in the allotted 60 overs, with skipper Duncan Fletcher top-scoring with 69 not out.
Fletcher produced career-best figures of 4 for 42 to restrict Australia to 226 for 7, thereby recording a stunning upset in cricket history. In the 1987 World Cup, Zimbabwe lost all six of their group-stage matches, though they came close to winning against New Zealand. Chasing 243 to win from 50 overs, wicketkeeper-batsman David Houghton scored 142, but Zimbabwe were all out for 239 in the final over, thus losing by three runs. In the 1992 tournament, Zimbabwe failed to progress beyond the round-robin stage, losing seven of their eight matches, though there were two notable achievements. Against Sri Lanka in their first match, Zimbabwe posted their then-highest total of 312 for 4, with wicketkeeper-batsman Andy Flower top-scoring with 115 not out. However, the Sri Lankans chased this total down with four balls to spare. In their final match, Zimbabwe faced England in an inconsequential encounter, England having made the semi-finals. Batting first, Zimbabwe were all out for 134. Eddo Brandes produced a stunning spell of 4 for 21, including dismissing Graham Gooch first ball, to help restrict England to 125 all out and thus give Zimbabwe a shock nine-run victory.
These twenty World Cup matches were Zimbabwe's only international games during this period. Zimbabwe was granted Test status by the ICC in July 1992 and played its first Test match in October that year, against India at Harare Sports Club, they became the ninth Test nation. Zimbabwe's early Test performances were weak, leading to suggestions that they had been granted Test status prematurely. Of their first 30 Test matches, they won just one, at home against Pakistan in early 1995. In the one-day arena, the team soon became competitive, if not strong. In particular, world respect was gained for their fielding ability. In spite of his team's difficulties, wicket-keeper/batsman Andy Flower was at one point rated the best batsman in world cricket. During this era, Zimbabwe produced such cricketers as Flower's brother Grant, allrounders Andy Blignaut and Heath Streak. Murray Goodwin was a world-class batsman. Another world-class batsman was David Houghton, who holds the record for the highest individual Test score for Zimbabwe of 266 against Sri Lanka in 1994/95.
Sometime captain and middle order batsman Alistair Campbell, leg-spinning all rounder Paul Strang, Eddo Brandes, pace bowler/opener Neil Johnson were other important contributors for Zimbabwe on the world stage at this time. With the appearance of these quality players, a breakthrough was achieved in levels of performance in the late 1990s where the Zimbabwean team began winning Tests against other nations, which included a series win against Pakistan; the political situation in Zimbabwe declined at around the same time, which had a detrimental effect on the national team's performances. Zimbabwe excelled at the 1999 Cricket World Cup, coming in fifth place in the Super Sixes and only missing out on a semi-final place due to having an inferior net run-rate than New Zealand. In the group stage, Zimbabwe beat India by three runs, before facing their neighbours South Africa the best team in the world. Batting first, Zimbabwe made 233 for 6, with a well-fought 76 by opening batsman Neil Johnson.
In reply, South Africa collapsed to 40 for 6, before Lance Klusener and Shaun Pollock scored half-centuries to reduce the margin of defeat to 48 runs. This was one of Zimbabwe's most famous wins. Neil Johnson excelled with the ball, taking three wickets and claiming the Man of the Match award. Johnson quit playing for Zimbabwe after this tournament. During this period, Zimbabwe beat all Test-playing nations regularly. Zimbabwe beat New Zealand both home and away in 2000–2001; the team reached finals of many multi-national one day tournaments. Increasing politicisation of cricket, including selectorial policy, along with the declining situation in Zimbabwe disrupted the 2003 Cricket World Cup, jointly hosted by Zimbabwe and South Africa. England forfeited a match scheduled to be played in Zimbabwe, risking their own progress through the competition, citing "security concerns" as their reason. Zimbabwean players Andy Flower and fast bowler Henry Olonga wore black armbands, for "mourning the death of democracy" in Zimbabwe.
Both were dismissed from the team and applied for political asylum overseas. This public political protest caused considerable embarrassment to the co-h
Leg before wicket
Leg before wicket is one of the ways in which a batsman can be dismissed in the sport of cricket. Following an appeal by the fielding side, the umpire may rule a batsman out lbw if the ball would have struck the wicket, but was instead intercepted by any part of the batsman's body; the umpire's decision will depend on a number of criteria, including where the ball pitched, whether the ball hit in line with the wickets, whether the batsman was attempting to hit the ball. Leg before wicket first appeared in the laws of cricket in 1774, as batsmen began to use their pads to prevent the ball hitting their wicket. Over several years, refinements were made to clarify where the ball should pitch and to remove the element of interpreting the batsman's intentions; the 1839 version of the law used a wording. However, from the latter part of the 19th century, batsmen became expert at "pad-play" to reduce the risk of their dismissal. Following a number of failed proposals for reform, in 1935 the law was expanded, such that batsmen could be dismissed lbw if the ball pitched outside the line of off stump.
Critics felt this change made the game unattractive as it encouraged negative tactics at the expense of leg spin bowling. After considerable debate and various experiments, the law was changed again in 1972. In an attempt to reduce pad-play the new version, used to this day, allowed batsmen to be out lbw in some circumstances if they did not attempt to hit the ball with their bat. Since the 1990s, the availability of television replays and ball-tracking technology to assist umpires has increased the percentage of lbws in major matches. However, the accuracy of the technology and the consequences of its use remain controversial. In his 1995 survey of cricket laws, Gerald Brodribb states: "No dismissal has produced so much argument as lbw. Owing to its complexity, the law is misunderstood among the general public and has proven controversial among spectators and commentators. Since the law's introduction, the proportion of lbw dismissals has risen through the years. Statistics reveal that the probability of a batsman being dismissed lbw in a Test match varies depending on where the match is played and which teams are playing.
The definition of leg before wicket is Law 36 in the Laws of Cricket, written by the Marylebone Cricket Club. Before a batsman can be dismissed lbw, the fielding team must appeal to the umpire. If the bowler delivers a no-ball — an illegal delivery — the batsman cannot be out lbw under any circumstances. Otherwise, for the batsman to be adjudged lbw, the ball, if it bounces, must pitch in line with or on the off side of the wickets; the ball must strike part of the batsman's body without first touching his bat, in line with the wickets and have been going on to hit the stumps. The batsman may be out lbw if, having made no attempt to hit the ball with his bat, he is struck outside the line of off stump by a ball that would have hit the wickets; the umpire must assume that the ball would have continued on the same trajectory after striking the batsman if it would have bounced before hitting the stumps. A batsman can be out lbw if the ball did not hit his leg: for example, a batsman struck on the head could be lbw, although this situation is rare.
However, he cannot be lbw if the ball pitches on the leg side of the stumps if the ball would have otherwise hit the wickets. A batsman who has attempted to hit the ball with his bat cannot be lbw if the ball strikes him outside the line of off stump. However, some shots in cricket, such as the switch hit or reverse sweep, involve the batsman switching between a right- and left-handed stance; the law explicitly states that the off side is determined by the batsman's position when the bowler commences his run-up. According to MCC guidelines for umpires, factors to consider when giving an lbw decision include the angle at which the ball was travelling and whether the ball was swinging through the air, he must account for the height of the ball at impact and how far from the wicket the batsman was standing. The MCC guidance states that it is easier to make a decision when the ball strikes the batsman without pitching, but that the difficulty increases when the ball has bounced and more so when there is a shorter time between the ball pitching and striking the batsman.
The earliest known written version of the Laws of Cricket, dating from 1744, does not include an lbw rule. At the time, batsmen in English cricket used curved bats, which made it unlikely that they would be able to stand directly in front of the wickets. However, a clause in the 1744 laws gave umpires the power to take action if the batsman was "standing unfair to strike". Cricket bats were modified to become straighter over the following years, allowing batsmen to stand closer to the wickets. Subsequently, some players deliberately began to obstruct the ball from hitting the wickets; such tactics were criticised by writers and a revision of the laws in 1774 ruled that the batsman was out if he deliberately stopped the ball from hitting the wicket with his leg. However, critics noted that the umpires were left the difficult task of interpreting the intentions of batsmen; the 1788 version of the laws no longer required the umpires to take account of the batsman's intent. Further clar