The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Grand Rapids Public Library
The Grand Rapids Public Library located in downtown Grand Rapids and includes seven branch libraries throughout the city. The library system has 170 full and part-time employees and has a service area of 197,000 people; the Grand Rapids Public Library was founded in 1871 and was located within the Grand Rapids City Hall. In 1904, the library moved to the Ryerson building; the building was a gift from arts and education benefactor, native son, Martin A. Ryerson. In 1967, the library expanded to more than double in size; the addition was named the Keeler wing, in honor of a $1.2 million gift from Mike and Mary Ann Keeler. In 2001, renovation began; the library was able to move back to 111 Library St. NE in 2003. Grand Rapids Public Library Official Website Evergreen Online Card Catalog
Louis Campau spelled Louis Campeau, was an important figure in the early settlement of Saginaw and Grand Rapids - two important Michigan cities in which he had established trading posts. Campau was involved in negotiations between the local Native Americans and the federal government, including the Treaty of Detroit signed in 1855 by the local chief, Cobmoosa. Campau was born in 1791 in Michigan, he was a member of the prominent Campau family. He began working the fur trade as a boy for his father, Louis Campau, Sr. and his uncle, Joseph Campau. During the War of 1812, he served under the United States Army, his wife was Sophie Marsac born in Detroit. Sophie was the daughter of an early and notable family from New France; the Sophie de Marsac Campau Grand Rapids Chapter of the Daughters of the American Revolution was created in her memory and in so doing "perpetuated the name of a woman of rare grace and character, held in high esteem by the early pioneers." He established the first trading post at what is today Saginaw, Michigan, as early as 1815.
He played a key role in negotiating the Treaty of Saginaw in 1819. This Treaty was made between Gen. Lewis Cass and Native American tribes of the Great Lakes region of Michigan. Native Americans ceded more than six million acres in the central portion of the Lower Peninsula of Michigan. Shortly after, Isaac McCoy, a Baptist minister, established a mission station in what was to become Grand Rapids, Campau arrived in the area at the suggestion of William Brewster, a fur trader with American Fur Company, his competitor. Campau became known as the official founder of Grand Rapids. In 1826, Campau built his cabin, trading post, blacksmith shop on the east bank of the Grand River near the rapids, where he found that the area Native Americans were "friendly and peaceable". Campau traveled to Detroit and returned a year with his wife and $5,000 of trade goods to trade with the Odawa and Ojibwa for fur. Campau's younger brother Touissant would assist him with his enterprise. In 1831, a federal survey was performed of the Northwest Territory and land was offered for sale.
Campau bought 72 acres around his trading post and near the Baptist mission for $90 on September 19 of that year. Living at the post were his wife and several members of his family; some of his brothers and nephews followed him to Grand Rapids. One year government surveyor Lucius Lyon purchased land north of Campau's property. Campau platted the village following Native American trails. Lyon had platted his property in an English grid format, which meant that there were two adjoining villages, with different platting formats. Campau had formatted his village streets with a row of 16 abutting row houses on Pearl Street that bordered Lyon's village, which made travel through the two villages cumbersome. Travelers had to go north to Division Street to cross into Campau's village. Campau, described as short-tempered, Lyon disagreed about the naming of the town when it was platted. Lyon wanted to call it the village of Kent rather than Grand Rapids. Lyon and land speculators from New York had formed the Kent Company, named for judge James Kent in New York, were interested in land development along the Grand River.
Although Lyon was able to obtain land near the river and created Canal Street to meet up with Campau's Monroe Avenue the Kent Company was “forced out of existence”. The two villages were merged by Campau under the name of Grand Rapids, it was incorporated in 1838 and became a city in 1850. He was good friends with William Quevillon, the first white settler of Ludington, Michigan. In October 1883, he was the first settler in Kent County, Michigan to buy land from the White Pigeon land office, located on the Chicago Road, this linked Chicago and Detroit. Both Louis and his brother Antoine were involved in treaty negotiations that made them a lot of money. Louis was involved in the Treaty of Denver in 1855 and he received a sizeable payout for the negotiations; the Treaty of Detroit with the federal government meant that one of the signers, would relocate with his tribe from the Grand Rapids area to Oceana County, Michigan. The treaty was signed by 54 other leaders of Chippewa tribes in Detroit. In exchange for their ancestral lands $540,000 in cash and goods were split among all of the represented tribes.
Much of it went like Campau. It was to be paid out over 10 years. Daughters of the American Revolution of Michigan. Sophie de Marsac Campau chapter, Grand Rapids. Sophie de Marsac Campau Chapter, Daughters of the American Revolution, Grand Rapids, Michigan 1912-1913. Christopher Mabie. Uncle Louis: The Biography Of Louis Campau, Founder Of Saginaw And Grand Rapids. Van Naerden Publishing
Ryerson University Library
Ryerson University Library and Archives is the library of Ryerson University in Toronto, Canada. The Ryerson Library collection consists of over 500,000 books, over CAD$3 million is spent annually to acquire electronic resources, including e-journals, e-books and indexes, geospatial data, catalogued websites or electronic documents. Most of the electronic resources can be accessed remotely by Ryerson community members with Internet access, although authentication of Ryerson Library registration is required for access to all commercial resources; the Library acquires materials to support the curriculum taught at the university and to support the research needs of faculty. All hard copy materials are housed in the Library building at Victoria Streets. In addition to library materials, the Library provides access to desktop computers, laptops, as well as research help and technology assistance; the 11-storey tower was built in 1974, is an example of Brutalist architecture. On January 18, 2008, the university announced the acquisition of properties including the former site of Sam the Record Man, which allowed the expansion of the library to a prime Yonge Street location.
The expansion was designed by architectural firms Zeidler Partnership Architects of Toronto and Snøhetta of Oslo, Norway. In February 2015, the library expansion opened its doors as the Student Learning Center; the Ronald D. Besse Information and Learning Commons, located on the main floor of the Ryerson University Library, provides access to a wide range of information resources with various technology available to student and staff; the Commons area was named after a donation from Ronald D. Besse, the Commons provides learning support through a variety of services such as classroom instruction, reference services and technology support; the Ryerson Archives serves as the institutional memory of the Ryerson community. The Archives acquires and makes accessible a broad range of primary source materials which provide an administrative, fiscal, legal and cultural record of Ryerson University. Special Collections was established to help support the learning and teaching needs and facilitate the scholarly and creative activities of the Ryerson community by acquiring and preserving photography and cultural history objects.
We have a particular responsibility to help students and staff gain access to objects in niche subject areas and aid them in the interpretation of those objects. Media related to Ryerson University Library at Wikimedia Commons Official site
Grand Rapids, Michigan
Grand Rapids is the second-largest city in Michigan, the largest city in West Michigan. It is on the Grand River about 30 miles east of Lake Michigan; as of the 2010 census, the city population was 188,040. In 2010, the Grand Rapids metropolitan area had a population of 1,005,648, the combined statistical area of Grand Rapids-Muskegon-Holland had a population of 1,321,557. Grand Rapids is the county seat of Kent County. A historic furniture-manufacturing center, Grand Rapids is home to five of the world's leading office furniture companies, is nicknamed Furniture City, its more common modern nickname of River City refers to the landmark river. The city and surrounding communities are economically diverse, based in the health care, information technology, automotive and consumer goods manufacturing industries, among others. Grand Rapids is the childhood home of U. S. President Gerald Ford, buried with his wife Betty on the grounds of the Gerald R. Ford Presidential Museum in the city; the city's main airport is named after him.
For thousands of years, succeeding cultures of indigenous peoples occupied the area. Over 2000 years ago, people associated with the Hopewell culture occupied the Grand River Valley. A tribe from the Ottawa River traveled to the Grand River valley, fighting three battles with the Prairie Indians who were established in the area; the tribe split, with the Chippewas settling in the northern lower peninsula, the Pottawatomies staying south of the Kalamazoo River and the Ottawa staying in central Michigan. By the late 1600s, the Ottawa, who occupied territory around the Great Lakes and spoke one of the numerous Algonquian languages, moved into the Grand Rapids area and founded several villages along the Grand River; the Ottawa established on the river, which they called O-wash-ta-nong, or far-away-water due to the river's length, where they "raised corn, melons and beans, to which they added game of the woods and the fish from the streams". In 1740, an Ottawa man who would be known as Chief Noonday and become the future chief of the Ottawa, was born.
Between 1761 and 1763, Chief Pontiac visited the area annually, gathering over 3,000 natives and asking them to volunteer to fight the British in Detroit, which would culminate into Pontiac's War. The Potawatomi attacked the Ottawa in 1765, attempting to take the Grand River territory but were defeated. By the end of the 1700s, there were an estimated 1,000 Ottawa in the Kent County area. After the French established territories in Michigan, Jesuit missionaries and traders traveled down Lake Michigan and its tributaries. At the start of the 19th century, European fur traders and missionaries established posts in the area among the Ottawa, they lived in peace, trading European metal and textile goods for fur pelts. In 1806, Joseph and his wife Madeline La Framboise, Métis, traveled by canoe from Mackinac and established the first trading post in West Michigan in present-day Grand Rapids on the banks of the Grand River, near what is now Ada Township, they were Roman Catholic. They both spoke Ottawa, Madeline's maternal ancestral language.
After the murder of her husband in 1809 while en route to Grand Rapids, Madeline La Framboise carried on the trade business, expanding fur trading posts to the west and north, creating a good reputation among the American Fur Company. La Framboise, whose mother was Ottawa and father French merged her successful operations with the American Fur Company. By 1810, Chief Noonday established a village on the west side of the river with about 500 Ottawa. Madeline La Framboise returned to Mackinac; that year, Grand Rapids was described as being the home of an Ottawa village of about 50 to 60 huts on the west side of the river near the 5th Ward, with Kewkishkam being the village chief and Chief Noonday being the chief of the Ottawa. The first permanent European-American settler in the Grand Rapids area was Isaac McCoy, a Baptist minister. General Lewis Cass, who commissioned Charles Christopher Trowbridge to establish missions for Native Americans in Michigan, ordered McCoy to establish a mission in Grand Rapids for the Ottawa.
In 1823, McCoy, as well as Paget, a Frenchman who brought along a Native American pupil, traveled to Grand Rapids to arrange a mission, though negotiations fell through with the group returning to the Carey mission for the Potawatomi on the St. Joseph River. In 1824, Baptist missionary Rev. L. Slater traveled with two settlers to Grand Rapids to perform work; the winter of 1824 was difficult, with Slater's group having to resupply and return before the spring. Slater erected the first settler structures in Grand Rapids, a log cabin for himself and a log schoolhouse. In 1825, McCoy established a missionary station, he represented the settlers who began arriving from Ohio, New York and New England, the Yankee states of the Northern Tier. Shortly after, Detroit-born Louis Campau, known as the official founder of Grand Rapids, was convinced by fur trader William Brewster, in a rivalry with the American Fur Company, to travel to Grand Rapids and establish trade there. In 1826, Campau built his cabin, trading post, blacksmith shop on the east bank of the Grand River near the rapids, stating the Native Americans in the area were "friendly and peaceable".
Campau returned to Detroit returned a year with his wife and $5,000 of trade goods to trade with the Ottawa and Ojibwa, with the only currency being fur. Campau's longer brother Touissant would assist him with trade and other tasks at hand. In 1831 the federal survey of the Northwest Territory reached the Grand River.