Scandinavia is a region in Northern Europe, with strong historical and linguistic ties. The term Scandinavia in local usage covers the three kingdoms of Denmark and Sweden; the majority national languages of these three, belong to the Scandinavian dialect continuum, are mutually intelligible North Germanic languages. In English usage, Scandinavia sometimes refers to the Scandinavian Peninsula, or to the broader region including Finland and Iceland, always known locally as the Nordic countries. While part of the Nordic countries, the remote Norwegian islands of Svalbard and Jan Mayen are not in Scandinavia, nor is Greenland, a constituent country within the Kingdom of Denmark; the Faroe Islands are sometimes included. The name Scandinavia referred to the former Danish, now Swedish, region of Scania. Scandinavia and Scandinavian entered usage in the late 18th century, being introduced by the early linguistic and cultural Scandinavist movement; the majority of the population of Scandinavia are descended from several North Germanic tribes who inhabited the southern part of Scandinavia and spoke a Germanic language that evolved into Old Norse.
Icelanders and the Faroese are to a significant extent descended from the Norse and are therefore seen as Scandinavian. Finland is populated by Finns, with a minority of 5% of Swedish speakers. A small minority of Sami people live in the extreme north of Scandinavia; the Danish and Swedish languages form a dialect continuum and are known as the Scandinavian languages—all of which are considered mutually intelligible with one another. Faroese and Icelandic, sometimes referred to as insular Scandinavian languages, are intelligible in continental Scandinavian languages only to a limited extent. Finnish and Meänkieli are related to each other and more distantly to the Sami languages, but are unrelated to the Scandinavian languages. Apart from these, German and Romani are recognized minority languages in parts of Scandinavia. "Scandinavia" refers to Denmark and Sweden. Some sources argue for the inclusion of the Faroe Islands and Iceland, though that broader region is known by the countries concerned as Norden, or the Nordic countries.
The use of "Scandinavia" as a convenient general term for Denmark and Sweden is recent. According to some historians, it was adopted and introduced in the eighteenth century, at a time when the ideas about a common heritage started to appear and develop into early literary and linguistic Scandinavism. Before this time, the term "Scandinavia" was familiar to classical scholars through Pliny the Elder's writings and was used vaguely for Scania and the southern region of the peninsula; as a political term, Scandinavia was first used by students agitating for pan-Scandinavianism in the 1830s. The popular usage of the term in Sweden and Norway as a unifying concept became established in the nineteenth century through poems such as Hans Christian Andersen's "I am a Scandinavian" of 1839. After a visit to Sweden, Andersen became a supporter of early political Scandinavism. In a letter describing the poem to a friend, he wrote: "All at once I understood how related the Swedes, the Danes and the Norwegians are, with this feeling I wrote the poem after my return:'We are one people, we are called Scandinavians!'".
The clearest example of the use of Scandinavia is Finland, based on the fact that most of modern-day Finland was part of the Swedish kingdom for hundreds of years, thus to much of the world associating Finland with all of Scandinavia. However, the creation of a Finnish identity is unique in the region in that it was formed in relation to two different imperial models, the Swedish and the Russian, as described by the University of Jyväskylä based editorial board of the Finnish journal Yearbook of Political Thought and Conceptual History. Various promotional agencies of the Nordic countries in the United States serve to promote market and tourism interests in the region. Today, the five Nordic heads of state act as the organization's patrons and according to the official statement by the organization its mission is "to promote the Nordic region as a whole while increasing the visibility of Denmark, Iceland and Sweden in New York City and the United States"; the official tourist boards of Scandinavia sometimes cooperate under one umbrella, such as the Scandinavian Tourist Board.
The cooperation was introduced for the Asian market in 1986, when the Swedish national tourist board joined the Danish national tourist board to coordinate intergovernmental promotion of the two countries. Norway's government entered one year later. All five Nordic governments participate in the joint promotional efforts in the United States through the Scandinavian Tourist Board of North America. While the term "Scandinavia" is used for Denmark and Sweden, the term "Nordic countries" is used unambiguously for Denmark, Sweden and Iceland, including their associated territories. Scandinavia can thus be considered a subset of the Nordic countries. Furthermore, the term Fennoscandia refers to Scandinavia and Karelia, excluding Denmark and overseas territories, but the usage of this term is restricted to geology when speaking of the Fennoscandian Shield. In addition to the mainland Scandinavian countries of: Denmark Norway (constitutional monarchy with a parliament
The Tanezrouft is a natural region located along the borders of Algeria and Mali, west of the Hoggar mountains. It is one of the most desolate parts of the Sahara Desert. Tanezrouft is a barren plain extending to the west of the Hoggar mountains and to the southeast of the sandy Erg Chech, it is composed of differing materials: the Tanezrouft contains sandstone deposits, whereas the Hoggar formations are metamorphic rocks. The Tanezrouft's sandstone hills contain some rising to 500 meters elevation. Numerous sand dunes rise from sandy stretches, interspersed with sandstone outcrops; the terrain shows stark evidence of long-ago water erosion. In the present era the terrain is being shaped by wind erosion, which occurs much faster than in other areas, since there is little or no vegetation to hold the surface in place; the area is known for aridity and extreme heat, high temperatures in summer can reach 52 °C or more. Tanezrouft has been long-shunned by nearby civilizations. A trade route may have connected the area with Ghadames and the Hoggar, since 500 BC.
It is now spanned north-south from Béchar in Algeria to Gao in Mali. Poste Maurice Cortier is a fueling station along the route. Tanezrouft is nearly uninhabited. There is a vast water-bearing stratum a few thousand feet below the dry lifeless desert surface. In the Niger portion of Tanezrouft, populations of the endangered painted hunting dog were viable west of the Hoggar Mountains, but now the painted hunting dog is thought to be extinct for the entirety of Niger. In 2018, the asteroid 26871 Tanezrouft was named after the Tanezrouft Basin Notes SourcesC. Michael Hogan. 2009. Painted Hunting Dog: Lycaon pictus, GlobalTwitcher.com, ed. N. Stromberg William Basil Morgan and John Charles Pugh. 1969. West Africa, Published by Methuen, 788 pages, ISBN 978-0416269000
The Ténéré is a desert region in the south central Sahara. It comprises a vast plain of sand stretching from northeastern Niger into western Chad, occupying an area of over 400,000 square kilometres; the Ténéré's boundaries are said to be the Aïr Mountains in the west, the Hoggar Mountains in the north, the Djado Plateau in the northeast, the Tibesti Mountains in the east, the basin of Lake Chad in the south. The central part of the desert, the Erg du Bilma, is centred at 17°35′N 10°55′E, it is the locus of the Neolithic Tenerian culture. The name Ténéré comes from the Tuareg language, meaning "desert", in much the same way that the Arabic word for "desert", came to be applied to the region as a whole; the Ténéré has typical of the large Sahara Desert. The climate is hyper-arid hot and dry year-round and there is no plant life; the average high temperatures are above 40 °C for about 5 months and more in the hottest regions, record high temperatures as high as 50 °C are possible during summer. The annual average high temperature is around 35 °C and more.
During "winter" months, the average high temperatures stay above 25 °C and hover around 30 °C. The annual precipitation amount is low—one of the lowest annual rainfall amounts found on Earth—around 10 mm to 15 mm, several years may pass without seeing any rainfall at all. Water is notoriously difficult to find underground, wells may be hundreds of miles apart; the sunshine duration is one of the highest results on the planet at around 4,000 hours, about 91% of the daylight hours between sunrise and sunset. Fair weather is nearly non-stop in this bone-dry region; this part of the Sahara Desert has one of the harshest climates in the world. According to a NASA study, the sunniest spot in the world would be a ruined fort in Agadem in the southeastern Ténéré where the solar energy productivity would be unmatched, as this desert area sees fewer clouds than the rest of the world; the Ténéré, as well as the rest of the Great Desert, is among the most extreme environments on Earth. Most of the Ténéré is a flat basin, once the bed of the prehistoric Lake Chad.
In the north, the Ténéré is a vast sand sheet - the true, featureless'Ténéré' of legend reaching up to the low hills of the Tassili du Hoggar along the Algerian border. In the centre, the Bilma Erg forms rows of navigable low dunes whose corridors make regular byways for the azelai or salt caravans. To the west, the Aïr Mountains rise up. To the southeast, the Ténéré is bordered by the Kaouar cliffs running 100 km north to south. At the base, lies a string of oases including the famous Bilma. Periodic outcrops, such as the unusual marble Blue Mountains in the northwest near Adrar Chiriet, or the Agram hills near the oasis of Fachi and Adrar Madet to the north, are rare but notable landmarks. During the Carboniferous period, the region was beneath the sea. A major dinosaur cemetery lies southeast of Agadez at Gadoufaoua. An complete specimen of the crocodile-like reptile Sarcosuchus imperator, nicknamed the SuperCroc, was discovered there by paleontologists. During early human history, this was a fertile land much more congenial to human life than it is now.
The region was inhabited by modern humans as long ago as the Paleolithic period some 60,000 years ago. They hunted wild animals and left evidence of their presence in the form of stone tools including tiny, finely carved arrow heads. During the Neolithic period about 10,000 years ago, ancient hunters, the early Holocene Kiffian people, created rock engravings and cave paintings that can still be found across the region; the Neolithic Subpluvial was an extended meteorological period, from about 7,500-7,000 BC to about 3,500-3,000 BC, of wet and rainy conditions in the climate history of northern Africa. It was both followed by much drier periods. Several archaeological sites that date from this time identified as part of the Tenerian culture, are dotted across the deserts along the borders of Niger and Libya; the human population dwindled as the Sahara dried out, by 2500 BC, it had become as dry as it is today. In recent times, Ténéré has been a crossing route for African migrants looking to immigrate to Europe.
The Ténéré is sparsely populated. Fachi and Bilma are the only settlements that are not on the edge of the Tenéré. While the well-known Tuareg occupy the Aïr Mountains and Agadez to the west, still operate the salt caravans for Hausa merchants, other inhabitants of the Ténéré, found from oases like Fachi eastwards, are the non-Berber Kanuri and Toubou, the latter thought to be descended from among the original inhabitants of the Sahara. In 1960, the Tuareg territory became part of the independent republic of Niger, it has been divided into seven départments. The central part of the Ténéré is a protected area, under the auspices of the Aïr and Ténéré Natural Reserve; the administrative centre of the Ténéré is the town of Agadez, south of the Aïr Mountains and west of the Tenere. There are various oasis settlements, some like Bilma and Seguedine based on salt production. Settlements and villages of Ténéré: Fachi Achegour Bilma Dirkou Chirfa Agadem Seguedine The desert is known for the celebrated Tree of Ténéré, once thought to be among the most remote in the world.
Situated by the last well before entering the Grand Erg du Bilma on the way to Fachi, salt caravans relied on the tree as a landmark until it was knocked down by
For the main article that includes the Sand Sea and the Mount Semeru area, see Bromo Tengger Semeru National Park. Mount Bromo, is an active part of the Tengger massif, in East Java, Indonesia. At 2,329 meters it is the most well known; the massif area is one of the most visited tourist attractions in Indonesia. The volcano belongs to the Bromo Tengger Semeru National Park; the name of Bromo derived from Javanese pronunciation of the Hindu creator god. Mount Bromo sits in the middle of a plain called the "Sea of Sand", a protected nature reserve since 1919; the typical way to visit Mount Bromo is from the nearby mountain village of Cemoro Lawang. From there it is possible to walk to the volcano in about 45 minutes, but it is possible to take an organised jeep tour, which includes a stop at the viewpoint on Mount Penanjakan; the viewpoint on Mount Penanjakan can be reached on foot in about two hours. Depending on the degree of volcanic activity, the Indonesian Centre for Volcanology and Disaster Hazard Mitigation sometimes issues warnings against visiting Mount Bromo.
Mount Bromo erupted in 2004. That eruptive episode led to the death of two people, hit by rocks from the explosion. On Tuesday, 23 November 2010, 16.30 WIB, the Indonesian Centre of Vulcanology and Geology Hazard Mitigation confirmed the activity status of Mount Bromo at "alert" due to increasing tremor activity and shallow volcanic earthquakes at the mountain. Concerns were raised that a volcanic eruption might be to occur; as a precaution local residents and tourists were instructed to remain clear of an area within a radius of three kilometers from the caldera and refugee encampments were erected. The area surrounding the Teggera caldera of Bromo remained off-limits for visitors throughout the remainder of 2010. Bromo started to erupt ash on Friday 26 November 2010. On 29 November 2010 Transport Ministry spokesman Bambang Ervan announced that Malang's domestic airport would be closed until 4 December 2010. Malang is a city of about 800,000 people. Abdul Rachman Saleh Airport handles 10 daily domestic flights from the capital Jakarta.
Government volcanologist Surono reported that the volcano was spitting columns of ash some 700 meters into the sky. The Tengger Caldera was still active in late January 2011, the activity being characterised by fluctuating ongoing eruptions. On 23 January 2011 the Indonesian Centre for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation reported that since 19 December 2010 volcanic ash and incandescent material had been thrown up by eruptive activity resulting in a heavy rain of material that fell around the crater. Continuous eruptions on 21 January caused a thin ash fall in the village areas of Ngadirejo and Sukapura Wonokerto in Probolinggo district; the impact of a heavy rain of volcanic ash from eruptions since 19 December 2010 resulted in disruption of normal activities. By early 2011 concerns were being raised about the effect upon the local economy and the potential for long-term environmental and health problems amongst the residents in the locality surrounding Mount Bromo. Due to high seasonal rainfall in January 2011 the potential for lahar and lava flow was raised due to the deposits of volcanic ash and other ejected material that had built up.
Seismic activity was dominated by tremor vibration and reports of visual intensity and sounds of eruption continued to be reported from the mountain monitoring facility, Bromo Observation Post. People living on the banks of the Perahu Ravine, Nganten Ravine and Sukapura River were alerted to the possibility of lava flows when it was raining in the area around Cemorolawang and Ngadirejo. Eruptions and volcanic tremors were reported on 21 January and 22 January with activity subsiding on 23 January 2011. On 23 January 2011 at 6:00 am the alert status at Mount Bromo remained at Level III. On 23 January 2011 an exclusion zone was recommended for communities living around Mount Bromo. Tourists and hikers were advised to not come within a radius of 2 km from the active crater. CVGHM stated that they expected warning signs to be installed stating the limit radius of 2 km from the crater. Operational caution was recommended for flights into and leaving Juanda International Airport IATA:SUB in Surabaya.
CVGHM recommended the establishment of public areas for the provision of face masks and eye protection. CVGHM issued a warning to residents to be cautious of ash buildup on roofs and other places that may give cause for collapse under the burden of ash. Further eruptions and the issuing of aviation ash advisories on 27 January and 28 January 2011 led to concerns being raised regarding a volcanic ash plume, reported to be drifting eastward toward the air corridors used to access the Ngurah Rai International Airport IATA:DPS in Bali. Airport official Sherly Yunita was reported at the time as stating that concerns about visibility had prompted Singapore Airlines, Jetstar-ValueAir, Air France-KLM, Virgin Blue and Cathay Pacific to cancel several flights to Bali, 340 km to the east. SilkAir cancelled flights on the 27 January between Singapore and Lombok, an island to the east of Bali; the Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre in Darwin, Australia released several Code Red Aviation Ash Advisories pertaining to Mount Bromo, on 27 January.
They indicated that ash was observed at altitudes up to 18,000 ft extending 200 nautical miles to the south east of the caldera. In other ash adviso
The Eastern Desert is the part of the Sahara desert, located east of the Nile river, between the river and the Red Sea. It extends from Egypt in the north to Eritrea in the south, comprises parts of Sudan and Ethiopia; the Eastern Desert is known as the Red Sea Hills and the Arabian Desert because to the east it is bordered by the Red Sea and the Arabian Peninsula, respectively. The Eastern Desert's main geographic features are the western Red Sea coastline—with the "Red Sea Riviera"—and the Eastern Desert mountain range that runs along the coast, the highest peak of, Shaiyb al-Banat. Other notable ecological areas are Wadi Gamal National Park, Gebel Elba and the Wadi Dib ring complex; the Eastern Desert is a popular setting for other excursions. Libyan/Western Desert Geography of Egypt Anthony the Great National Parks of Egypt
A desert is a barren area of landscape where little precipitation occurs and living conditions are hostile for plant and animal life. The lack of vegetation exposes the unprotected surface of the ground to the processes of denudation. About one-third of the land surface of the world is semi-arid; this includes much of the polar regions where little precipitation occurs and which are sometimes called polar deserts or "cold deserts". Deserts can be classified by the amount of precipitation that falls, by the temperature that prevails, by the causes of desertification or by their geographical location. Deserts are formed by weathering processes as large variations in temperature between day and night put strains on the rocks which break in pieces. Although rain occurs in deserts, there are occasional downpours that can result in flash floods. Rain falling on hot rocks can cause them to shatter and the resulting fragments and rubble strewn over the desert floor are further eroded by the wind; this wafts them aloft in sand or dust storms.
Wind-blown sand grains striking any solid object in their path can abrade the surface. Rocks are smoothed down, the wind sorts sand into uniform deposits; the grains are piled high in billowing sand dunes. Other deserts are flat, stony plains where all the fine material has been blown away and the surface consists of a mosaic of smooth stones; these areas are known as desert pavements and little further erosion takes place. Other desert features include rock outcrops, exposed bedrock and clays once deposited by flowing water. Temporary lakes may form and salt pans may be left when waters evaporate. There may be underground sources of water in the form of seepages from aquifers. Where these are found, oases can occur. Plants and animals living in the desert need special adaptations to survive in the harsh environment. Plants tend to be tough and wiry with small or no leaves, water-resistant cuticles and spines to deter herbivory; some annual plants germinate and die in the course of a few weeks after rainfall while other long-lived plants survive for years and have deep root systems able to tap underground moisture.
Animals need to find enough food and water to survive. Many stay in the shade or underground during the heat of the day, they tend to be efficient at conserving water, extracting most of their needs from their food and concentrating their urine. Some animals remain in a state of dormancy for long periods, ready to become active again during the rare rainfall, they reproduce while conditions are favorable before returning to dormancy. People have struggled to live in the surrounding semi-arid lands for millennia. Nomads have moved their flocks and herds to wherever grazing is available and oases have provided opportunities for a more settled way of life; the cultivation of semi-arid regions encourages erosion of soil and is one of the causes of increased desertification. Desert farming is possible with the aid of irrigation, the Imperial Valley in California provides an example of how barren land can be made productive by the import of water from an outside source. Many trade routes have been forged across deserts across the Sahara Desert, traditionally were used by caravans of camels carrying salt, gold and other goods.
Large numbers of slaves were taken northwards across the Sahara. Some mineral extraction takes place in deserts, the uninterrupted sunlight gives potential for the capture of large quantities of solar energy. English desert and its Romance cognates all come from the ecclesiastical Latin dēsertum, a participle of dēserere, "to abandon"; the correlation between aridity and sparse population is complex and dynamic, varying by culture and technologies. In English before the 20th century, desert was used in the sense of "unpopulated area", without specific reference to aridity. Phrases such as "desert island" and "Great American Desert", or Shakespeare's "deserts of Bohemia" in previous centuries did not imply sand or aridity. A desert is a region of land, dry because it receives low amounts of precipitation has little coverage by plants, in which streams dry up unless they are supplied by water from outside the area. Deserts receive less than 250 mm of precipitation each year; the potential evapotranspiration may be large but the actual evapotranspiration may be close to zero.
Semideserts are regions which receive between 250 and 500 mm and when clad in grass, these are known as steppes. Deserts have been defined and classified in a number of ways combining total precipitation, number of days on which this falls and humidity, sometimes additional factors. For example, Arizona, receives less than 250 mm of precipitation per year, is recognized as being located in a desert because of its aridity-adapted plants; the North Slope of Alaska's Brooks Range receives less than 250 mm of precipitation per year and is classified as a cold desert. Other regions of the world have cold deserts, including areas of the Himalayas and other high-altitude areas in other parts of the world. Polar deserts cover much of the ice-free