Urbanism is the study of how inhabitants of urban areas, such as towns and cities, interact with the built environment. It is a direct component of disciplines such as urban planning, the profession focusing on the physical design and management of urban structures and urban sociology, the academic field the study of urban life and culture. Many architects, planners and sociologists investigate the way people live in densely populated urban areas. There is a wide variety of different approaches to the study of urbanism. However, in some contexts internationally Urbanism is synonymous with Urban Planning, the Urbanist refers to an Urban Planner. Urbanism's emergence in the early 20th century was associated with the rise of centralized manufacturing, mixed-use neighborhoods, social organizations and networks, what has been described as "the convergence between political and economic citizenship". Urbanism can be understood as placemaking and the creation of place identity at a citywide level, however as early as 1938 Louis Wirth wrote that it is necessary to stop'identify urbanism with the physical entity of the city', go'beyond an arbitrary boundary line' and consider how'technological developments in transportation and communication have enormously extended the urban mode of living beyond the confines of the city itself.'
Gabriel Dupuy applied network theory to the field of urbanism and suggests that the single dominant characteristic of modern urbanism is its networked character, as opposed to segregated conceptions of space. Stephen Graham and Simon Marvin argue that we are witnessing a post-urban environment where decentralized, loosely connected neighborhoods and zones of activity assume the former organizing role played by urban spaces, their theory of splintering urbanism involves the "fragmentation of the social and material fabric of cities" into "cellular clusters of globally connected high-service enclaves and network ghettos" driven by electronic networks that segregate as much as they connect. Dominique Lorrain argues that the process of splintering urbanism began towards the end of the 20th century with the emergence of the gigacity, a new form of a networked city characterised by three-dimensional size, network density and the blurring of city boundaries. Manuel Castells suggested that within a network society, "premium" infrastructure networks selectively connect together the most favored users and places and bypass the less favored.
Graham and Marvin argue that attention to infrastructure networks is reactive to crises or collapse, rather than sustained and systematic, because of a failure to understand the links between urban life and urban infrastructure networks. Douglas Kelbaugh identifies three paradigms within urbanism: New Urbanism, Everyday Urbanism, Post-Urbanism. Paul L. Knox refers to one of many trends in contemporary urbanism as the "aestheticization of everyday life". Alex Krieger states that urban design is less a technical discipline than a mind-set based on a commitment to cities. Ecological urbanism Green urbanism Landscape urbanism, an urbanism modeled on the disciplines of landscape architecture and ecology New urbanism, a response to contemporary problems such as urban sprawl and traffic congestion Feminist Urbanism Unitary urbanism, a critique of urbanism as a technology of power by the situationists Sustainable Urbanism Urban geography Urban design Urban planning Principles of Intelligent Urbanism Urbanate, a living environment envisioned by the Technocracy movement World Urbanism Day International Forum on Urbanism Aseem Inam, Designing Urban Transformation New York and London: Routledge, 2013.
Remment Lucas "Rem" Koolhaas is a Dutch architect, architectural theorist and Professor in Practice of Architecture and Urban Design at the Graduate School of Design at Harvard University. Koolhaas studied at the Architectural Association School of Architecture in London and at Cornell University in Ithaca, New York. Koolhaas is the founding partner of OMA, of its research-oriented counterpart AMO based in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. In 2005, he co-founded Volume Magazine together with Ole Bouman, he is regarded as one of the most important architectural thinkers and urbanists of his generation. In 2000, Rem Koolhaas won the Pritzker Prize. In 2008, Time put him in their top 100 of The World's Most Influential People. Remment Koolhaas abbreviated to Rem Koolhaas, was born on 17 November 1944 in Rotterdam, Netherlands, to Anton Koolhaas and Selinde Pietertje Roosenburg, his father was a novelist and screenwriter. Two documentary films by Bert Haanstra for which his father wrote the scenarios were nominated for an Academy Award for Documentary Feature, one won a Golden Bear for Short Film.
His maternal grandfather, Dirk Roosenburg, was a modernist architect who worked for Hendrik Petrus Berlage, before opening his own practice. Rem Koolhaas has a brother, a sister, Annabel, his paternal cousin was urban planner Teun Koolhaas. The family lived consecutively in Rotterdam, Amsterdam and Amsterdam, his father supported the Indonesian cause for autonomy from the colonial Dutch in his writing. When the war of independence was won, he was invited over to run a cultural programme for three years and the family moved to Jakarta in 1952. "It was a important age for me," Koolhaas recalls "and I lived as an Asian."In 1969, Koolhaas co-wrote The White Slave, a Dutch film noir, wrote an unproduced script for American soft-porn king Russ Meyer. He was a journalist for the Haagse Post before starting studies, in 1968, in architecture at the Architectural Association School of Architecture in London, followed, in 1972, by further studies with Oswald Mathias Ungers at Cornell University in Ithaca, New York, followed by studies at the Institute for Architecture and Urban Studies in New York City.
Koolhaas first came to public and critical attention with OMA, the office he founded in 1975 together with architects Elia Zenghelis, Zoe Zenghelis and Madelon Vriesendorp in London. They were joined by one of Koolhaas's students, Zaha Hadid – who would soon go on to achieve success in her own right. An early work which would mark their difference from the dominant postmodern classicism of the late 1970s, was their contribution to the Venice Biennale of 1980, curated by Italian architect Paolo Portoghesi, titled "Presence of the Past"; each architect had to design a stage-like "frontage" to a Potemkin-type internal street. Other early critically received projects included the Parc de la Villette and the residence for the Prime Minister of Ireland, as well as the Kunsthal in Rotterdam; these schemes would attempt to put into practice many of the findings Koolhaas made in his book Delirious New York, written while he was a visiting scholar at the Institute for Architecture and Urban Studies in New York, directed by Peter Eisenman.
In September 2006, Rem Koolhaas was commissioned to develop 111 First Street in Jersey City across the Hudson River from Manhattan, working with real estate developer Louis Dubin. In October 2008, Rem Koolhaas was invited for a European "group of the wise" under the chairmanship of former Spanish prime minister Felipe González to help'design' the future European Union. Other members include Nokia chairman Jorma Ollila, former European Commissioner Mario Monti and former president of Poland Lech Wałęsa. Koolhaas's book Delirious. Koolhaas celebrates the "chance-like" nature of city life: "The City is an addictive machine from which there is no escape" "Rem Koolhaas...defined the city as a collection of “red hot spots.”. As Koolhaas himself has acknowledged, this approach had been evident in the Japanese Metabolist Movement in the 1960s and early 1970s. A key aspect of architecture that Koolhaas interrogates is the "Program": with the rise of modernism in the 20th century the "Program" became the key theme of architectural design.
The notion of the Program involves "an act to edit function and human activities" as the pretext of architectural design: epitomised in the maxim Form follows function, first popularised by architect Louis Sullivan at the beginning of the 20th century. The notion was first questioned in Delirious New York, in his analysis of high-rise architecture in Manhattan. An early design method derived from such thinking was "cross-programming", introducing unexpected functions in room programmes, such as running tracks in skyscrapers. More Koolhaas unsuccessfully proposed the inclusion of hospital units for the homeless into the Seattle Public Library project; the next landmark publication by Koolhaas was S,M,L,XL, together with Bruce Mau, Jennifer Sigler, Hans Werlemann, a 1376-page tome combining essays, diaries, fiction and meditations on the contemporary city. The layout of the huge book transformed architectural publishing, such books—full-colour graphics and dense texts—have since become common.
Rotterdam is the second-largest city and a municipality of the Netherlands. It is located in the province of South Holland, at the mouth of the Nieuwe Maas channel leading into the Rhine–Meuse–Scheldt delta at the North Sea, its history goes back to 1270, when a dam was constructed in the Rotte, after which people settled around it for safety. In 1340, Rotterdam was granted city rights by the Count of Holland. A major logistic and economic centre, Rotterdam is Europe's largest port, it has a population of 633,471. Rotterdam is known for its Erasmus University, its riverside setting, lively cultural life and maritime heritage; the near-complete destruction of the city centre in the World War II Rotterdam Blitz has resulted in a varied architectural landscape, including sky-scrapers designed by renowned architects such as Rem Koolhaas, Piet Blom and Ben van Berkel. The Rhine and Scheldt give waterway access into the heart of Western Europe, including the industrialized Ruhr; the extensive distribution system including rail and waterways have earned Rotterdam the nicknames "Gateway to Europe" and "Gateway to the World".
The settlement at the lower end of the fen stream Rotte dates from at least 900 CE. Around 1150, large floods in the area ended development, leading to the construction of protective dikes and dams, including Schielands Hoge Zeedijk along the northern banks of the present-day Nieuwe Maas. A dam on the Rotte was located at the present-day Hoogstraat. On 7 July 1340, Count Willem IV of Holland granted city rights to Rotterdam, whose population was only a few thousand. Around the year 1350, a shipping canal, the Rotterdamse Schie was completed, which provided Rotterdam access to the larger towns in the north, allowing it to become a local trans-shipment centre between the Netherlands and Germany, to urbanize; the port of Rotterdam grew but into a port of importance, becoming the seat of one of the six "chambers" of the Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie, the Dutch East India Company. The greatest spurt of growth, both in port activity and population, followed the completion of the Nieuwe Waterweg in 1872.
The city and harbor started to expand on the south bank of the river. The Witte Huis or White House skyscraper, inspired by American office buildings and built in 1898 in the French Château-style, is evidence of Rotterdam's rapid growth and success; when completed, it was the tallest office building in Europe, with a height of 45 m. During World War I the city was the world's largest spy centre because of Dutch neutrality and its strategic location in between Great-Britain and German-occupied Belgium. Many spies who were arrested and executed in Britain were led by German secret agents operating from Rotterdam. MI6 had its main European office on de Boompjes. From there the British occupied Belgium. During World War I, an average of 25,000 Belgian refugees lived in the city, as well as hundreds of German deserters and escaped Allied prisoners of war. During World War II, the German army invaded the Netherlands on 10 May 1940. Adolf Hitler had hoped to conquer the country in just one day, but his forces met unexpectedly fierce resistance.
The Dutch army was forced to capitulate on 15 May 1940, following the bombing of Rotterdam on 14 May and the threat of bombing of other Dutch cities. The heart of Rotterdam was completely destroyed by the Luftwaffe; some 80,000 civilians were made homeless and 900 were killed. The City Hall survived the bombing. Ossip Zadkine attempted to capture the event with his statue De Verwoeste Stad; the statue stands near the Leuvehaven, not far from the Erasmusbrug in the centre of the city, on the north shore of the river Nieuwe Maas. Rotterdam was rebuilt from the 1950s through to the 1970s, it remained quite windy and open until the city councils from the 1980s on began developing an active architectural policy. Daring and new styles of apartments, office buildings and recreation facilities resulted in a more'livable' city centre with a new skyline. In the 1990s, the Kop van Zuid was built on the south bank of the river as a new business centre. Rotterdam was voted 2015 European City of the Year by the Academy of Urbanism.
A Guardian profile of Rem Koolhaas begins "If you put the last 50 years of architecture in a blender, spat it out in building-sized chunks across the skyline, you would end up with something that looked a bit like Rotterdam."'Rotterdam' is divided into a northern and a southern part by the river Nieuwe Maas, connected by: the Beneluxtunnel. The former railway lift bridge De Hef is preserved as a monument in lifted position between the Noordereiland and the south of Rotterdam; the city centre is located on the northern bank of the Nieuwe Maas, although recent urban development has extended the centre to parts of southern Rotterdam known as De Kop van Zuid. From its inland core, Rotterdam reaches the North Sea by a swathe of predominantly harbour area. Built behind di
Disneyland with the Death Penalty
"Disneyland with the Death Penalty" is a 4,500-word article about Singapore written by William Gibson. His first major piece of non-fiction, it was first published as the cover story for Wired magazine's September/October 1993 issue; the article follows Gibson's observations of the architecture and culture of Singapore, the clean and conformist impression the city-state conveys during his stay. Its title and central metaphor—Singapore as Disneyland with the death penalty—is a reference to the authoritarian artifice the author perceives the city-state to be. Singapore, Gibson details, is lacking any sense of creativity or authenticity, absent of any indication of its history or underground culture, he finds the government to be pervasive and technocratic, the judicial system rigid and draconian. Singaporeans are characterized as consumerists of insipid taste; the article is accentuated by local news reports of criminal trials by which the author illustrates his observations, bracketed by contrasting descriptions of the Southeast Asian airports he arrives and leaves by.
Though Gibson's first major piece of non-fiction, the article had an lasting impact. The Singaporean government banned Wired upon the publication of the issue, the phrase "Disneyland with the death penalty" became a byword for bland authoritarianism that the city-state could not discard; the title "Disneyland with the Death Penalty" refers to the subject of the article, the Southeast Asian city-state of Singapore, whose guarded sterility Gibson describes with horror. After opening the article with the Disneyland metaphor, Gibson cites an observation attributed to Laurie Anderson that virtual reality "would never look real until they learned how to put some dirt in it" in relation to the immaculate state of the Changi Airtropolis, Singapore's international airport. Beyond the airport, he notes that the natural environment has been cultivated into "all-too-perfect examples of itself", such as with the abundance of golf courses. Singaporean society is a "relentlessly G-rated experience", controlled by a government akin to a megacorporation, fixated on conformity and behavioural constraint and with a marked lack of humour and creativity.
Gibson finds it painful to try to connect with the Victorian Singapore, of which few vestiges remained. In an attempt to uncover Singapore's underlying social mechanisms, the author searches fruitlessly for an urban underbelly, rising at dawn for jetlagged walks on several mornings only to discover that the city-state's "physical past... has entirely vanished". He gives an overview of the history of Singapore from the founding of modern Singapore by Sir Stamford Raffles in 1819 to the Japanese occupation and the establishment of the Republic in 1965, he concludes that modern Singapore a one-party state and capitalist technocracy, is a product first and foremost of the vision of three-decade Prime Minister Lee Kuan Yew. As an aside, he quotes a headline from the South China Morning Post detailing the trial of a cadre of economists, a government official and a newspaper editor for divulging a state secret by revealing the Singaporean economic growth rate. Gibson deplores the absence of an authentic metropolitan feeling, something which he blames for the "telling lack of creativity".
He gives a psychogeographic account of the architecture of the city-state, noting the endless parade of young and generically attired middle class through the host of shopping centers, comparing the city-state to the convention district of Atlanta, Georgia. He finds the selection in music stores and bookshops unrelentingly bland, musing whether this is attributable to the efforts of the Undesirable Propagation Unit, one of several state censorship agencies. Amidst the near total absence of bohemianism and counterculture, Gibson finds no trace of dissidence, an underground, or slums. In the place of a sex trade, the author finds government-sanctioned "health centers" – in fact massage parlours – and mandatory dating organized and enforced by government agencies. "here is remarkably little", he writes of the city-state "that is not the result of deliberate and no doubt deliberated social policy."The creative deficit of the city-state is evident to the author in the Singaporeans' obsession with consumerism as a pastime, the homogeneity of the retailers and their fare, in what he characterizes as their other passion: dining.
He returns to the theme of the staid insipidity of the city-state, observing the unsettling cleanliness of the physical environment and the self-policing of the populace. In detailing Singaporean technological advancement and aspirations as an information economy, Gibson casts doubt on the resilience of their controlled and conservative nature in the face of impending mass exposure to digital culture – "the wilds of X-rated cyberspace". "Perhaps", he speculates, "Singapore's destiny will be to become nothing more than a smug, neo-Swiss enclave of order and prosperity, amid a sea of unthinkable... weirdness."Toward the end of the essay, Gibson covers two applications of the death penalty by the Singaporean justice system. He expresses reservations about the justice of capital punishment and describes the Singaporeans as the true bearers of zero tolerance. After h
OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Incorporated d/b/a OCLC is an American nonprofit cooperative organization "dedicated to the public purposes of furthering access to the world's information and reducing information costs". It was founded in 1967 as the Ohio College Library Center. OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat, the largest online public access catalog in the world. OCLC is funded by the fees that libraries have to pay for its services. OCLC maintains the Dewey Decimal Classification system. OCLC began in 1967, as the Ohio College Library Center, through a collaboration of university presidents, vice presidents, library directors who wanted to create a cooperative computerized network for libraries in the state of Ohio; the group first met on July 5, 1967 on the campus of the Ohio State University to sign the articles of incorporation for the nonprofit organization, hired Frederick G. Kilgour, a former Yale University medical school librarian, to design the shared cataloging system.
Kilgour wished to merge the latest information storage and retrieval system of the time, the computer, with the oldest, the library. The plan was to merge the catalogs of Ohio libraries electronically through a computer network and database to streamline operations, control costs, increase efficiency in library management, bringing libraries together to cooperatively keep track of the world's information in order to best serve researchers and scholars; the first library to do online cataloging through OCLC was the Alden Library at Ohio University on August 26, 1971. This was the first online cataloging by any library worldwide. Membership in OCLC is based on use of services and contribution of data. Between 1967 and 1977, OCLC membership was limited to institutions in Ohio, but in 1978, a new governance structure was established that allowed institutions from other states to join. In 2002, the governance structure was again modified to accommodate participation from outside the United States.
As OCLC expanded services in the United States outside Ohio, it relied on establishing strategic partnerships with "networks", organizations that provided training and marketing services. By 2008, there were 15 independent United States regional service providers. OCLC networks played a key role in OCLC governance, with networks electing delegates to serve on the OCLC Members Council. During 2008, OCLC commissioned two studies to look at distribution channels. In early 2009, OCLC negotiated new contracts with the former networks and opened a centralized support center. OCLC provides bibliographic and full-text information to anyone. OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat—the OCLC Online Union Catalog, the largest online public access catalog in the world. WorldCat has holding records from private libraries worldwide; the Open WorldCat program, launched in late 2003, exposed a subset of WorldCat records to Web users via popular Internet search and bookselling sites.
In October 2005, the OCLC technical staff began a wiki project, WikiD, allowing readers to add commentary and structured-field information associated with any WorldCat record. WikiD was phased out; the Online Computer Library Center acquired the trademark and copyrights associated with the Dewey Decimal Classification System when it bought Forest Press in 1988. A browser for books with their Dewey Decimal Classifications was available until July 2013; until August 2009, when it was sold to Backstage Library Works, OCLC owned a preservation microfilm and digitization operation called the OCLC Preservation Service Center, with its principal office in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania. The reference management service QuestionPoint provides libraries with tools to communicate with users; this around-the-clock reference service is provided by a cooperative of participating global libraries. Starting in 1971, OCLC produced catalog cards for members alongside its shared online catalog. OCLC commercially sells software, such as CONTENTdm for managing digital collections.
It offers the bibliographic discovery system WorldCat Discovery, which allows for library patrons to use a single search interface to access an institution's catalog, database subscriptions and more. OCLC has been conducting research for the library community for more than 30 years. In accordance with its mission, OCLC makes its research outcomes known through various publications; these publications, including journal articles, reports and presentations, are available through the organization's website. OCLC Publications – Research articles from various journals including Code4Lib Journal, OCLC Research, Reference & User Services Quarterly, College & Research Libraries News, Art Libraries Journal, National Education Association Newsletter; the most recent publications are displayed first, all archived resources, starting in 1970, are available. Membership Reports – A number of significant reports on topics ranging from virtual reference in libraries to perceptions about library funding. Newsletters – Current and archived newsletters for the library and archive community.
Presentations – Presentations from both guest speakers and OCLC research from conferences and other events. The presentations are organized into five categories: Conference presentations, Dewey presentations, Distinguished Seminar Series, Guest presentations, Research staff
In the field of architecture an architectural plan is a design and planning for a building, can contain architectural drawings, specifications of the design, time planning of the building process, other documentation. The term "Architectural plan" can have multiple related meanings: Plan for an architectural project Documentation of written and graphic descriptions of the architectural elements of a building project including sketches and details; this effort could include both the design of new buildings and other structures, as well as the planning for reconstruction of early historic structures. Architectural design Floor plan Scale drawing of a structure, for example "the architectural plans for City Hall were on file"This article will focus on the general meaning of architectural plan as a plan and documentation for a building project. A building is a man-made structure with a roof and walls standing more or less permanently in one place. Buildings come in a variety of shapes and functions, have been adapted throughout history for a wide number of factors, from building materials available, to weather conditions, to land prices, ground conditions, specific uses and aesthetic reasons.
To better understand the term building compare the list of nonbuilding structures. The gallery below gives an overview of different types of building; the practice of designing and operating buildings is most a collective effort of different groups of professionals and trades. Depending on the size and purpose of a particular building project. A design process may include a series of steps followed by designers. Depending on the product or service, some of these stages may be irrelevant, ignored in real-world situations in order to save time, reduce cost, or because they may be redundant in the situation. Typical stages of the design process include: Pre-production design Design brief - a statement of design goals Analysis - analysis of current design goals Research - investigating similar design solutions in the field or related topics Specification - specifying requirements of a design solution Problem solving - conceptualizing and documenting design solutions Presentation - presenting design solutions Design during production Development - continuation and improvement of a designed solution Testing - in-situ testing a designed solution Post-production design feedback for future designs Implementation - introducing the designed solution into the environment Evaluation and conclusion - summary of process and results, including constructive criticism and suggestions for future improvements Redesign - any or all stages in the design process repeated at any time before, during, or after production.
Architectural drawings are used by architects and others for a number of purposes: to develop a design idea into a coherent proposal, to communicate ideas and concepts, to convince clients of the merits of a design, to enable a building contractor to construct it, as a record of the completed work, to make a record of a building that exists. Architectural drawings are made according to a set of conventions, which include particular views, sheet sizes, units of measurement and scales and cross referencing. Conventionally, drawings were made in ink on paper or a similar material, any copies required had to be laboriously made by hand; the twentieth century saw a shift to drawing on tracing paper, so that mechanical copies could be run off efficiently. Architectural design values make up an important part of what influences architects and designers when they make their design decisions; however and designers are not always influenced by the same values and intentions. Value and intentions differ between different architectural movements.
It differs between different schools of architecture and schools of design as well as among individual architects and designers. One of the major tools in architectural design is the floor plan; this diagram shows the relationships between rooms and other physical features at one level of a structure. Dimensions are drawn between the walls to specify room sizes and wall lengths. Floor plans will include details of fixtures like sinks, water heaters, etc. Floor plans will include notes to specify finishes, construction methods, or symbols for electrical items. Similar to a map in a floor plan the orientation of the view is downward from above, but unlike a conventional map, a plan is understood to be drawn at a particular vertical position. Objects below this level are seen, objects at this level are shown'cut' in plan-section, objects above this vertical position within the structure are omitted or shown dashed. Plan view or "planform" is defined as a vertical orthographic projection of an object on a horizontal plane, like a map.
A plan is any procedure used to achieve an objective. It is a set of intended actions. Plans can be formal or informal: Structured and formal plans, used by multiple people, are more to occur in projects, careers, economic development, military campaigns, combat, or in the conduct of other business. Informal or ad-hoc plans are created by individuals in all of their pursuits. A lack of planning in any discipline may lead to a misallocation of resources, misunderstandings, or irrelevant sections added to Wikipedia articles such as this one. Building construction is the process of forming buildings and building systems. Construction starts with planning and financing and continues until the structure is ready for occupancy. Far from being a single activity, large scale construction is a feat of human m
A sketch is a executed freehand drawing, not intended as a finished work. A sketch may serve a number of purposes: it might record something that the artist sees, it might record or develop an idea for use or it might be used as a quick way of graphically demonstrating an image, idea or principle. Sketches can be made in any drawing medium; the term is most applied to graphic work executed in a dry medium such as silverpoint, pencil, charcoal or pastel. It may apply to drawings executed in pen and ink, digital input such as a digital pen, ballpoint pen, marker pen, water colour and oil paint; the latter two are referred to as "water colour sketches" and "oil sketches". A sculptor might model three-dimensional sketches in plasticine or wax. Sketching is a prescribed part of the studies of art students; this includes making sketches from a live model whose pose changes every few minutes. A "sketch" implies a quick and loosely drawn work, while related terms such as study, modello and "preparatory drawing" refer to more finished and careful works to be used as a basis for a final work in a different medium, but the distinction is imprecise.
Underdrawing is drawing underneath the final work, which may sometimes still be visible, or can be viewed by modern scientific methods such as X-rays. Most visual artists use, to a greater or lesser degree, the sketch as a method of recording or working out ideas; the sketchbooks of some individual artists have become well known, including those of Leonardo da Vinci and Edgar Degas which have become art objects in their own right, with many pages showing finished studies as well as sketches. The term "sketchbook" refers to a book of blank paper; the book might be purchased bound or might comprise loose leaves of sketches assembled or bound together. Sketching is used as a form of communication in areas of product design such as industrial design, it can be used to communicate design intent and is most used in ideation It can be used to map out floor plans of homes. The ability to record impressions through sketching has found varied purposes in today's culture. Courtroom sketches record individuals in law courts.
Sketches drawn to help authorities find or identify wanted. Street artists in popular tourist areas sketch portraits within minutes. Subjects and media Doodle Multi-Sketch Etch A Sketch, a toy List of sketches of notable people by Marguerite Martyn Urban Sketchers Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Sketch". Encyclopædia Britannica. 25. Cambridge University Press. P. 186. Media related to Sketches at Wikimedia Commons