Estremoz is a municipality in Portugal. The population in 2011 was 14,318, in an area of 513.80 km². The city Estremoz itself had a population of 7,682 in 2001, it is located in the Alentejo region. The region around Estremoz has been inhabited since pre-historic times. There are vestiges of Roman and Muslim occupation. During the Reconquista, Estremoz was captured in the 12th century by the army of knight Geraldo Sem Pavor, who had conquered neighbouring Évora. However, Estremoz was soon retaken by the Moors and only in the mid-13th century was it reconquered by the Portuguese King Sancho II. An important strategic site between the Kingdoms of Portugal and Castile, Estremoz received a charter in 1258 from Afonso III after the Moors were driven out a second time, which promoted Christian colonization in the area. King Dinis rebuilt the castle as a royal palace, his widow, Dowager Queen Elizabeth of Portugal, died in Estremoz castle on July 4, 1336, shortly after mediating a peace treaty between her son Alfonso IV of Portugal and grandson Alfonso XI of Castile.
Her grandson Pedro I of Portugal died in the Franciscan monastery at Estremoz in 1367. During the 1383–1385 Crisis, Nuno Álvares Pereira established his headquarters in Estremoz defeated the Castilian forces at the Battle of Atoleiros. During the Portuguese Restoration War, Portuguese forces defeated the Castilians in the nearby and decisive Battles of Ameixial and Montes Claros. Administratively, the municipality is divided into 9 civil parishes: Ameixial Arcos Estremoz Évora Monte Glória São Bento do Cortiço e Santo Estêvão São Domingos de Ana Loura São Lourenço de Mamporcão e São Bento de Ana Loura Veiros Together with the two other marble towns and Vila Viçosa, Estremoz is internationally known for its fine to medium marble that occurs in several colours: white, pink, grey or black and streaks with any combination of these colours; the pink marble is in high demand. This marble has been used since Antiquity as a material for architecture; the first exports in Roman times were for the construction of the Circus Maximus of Emerita Augusta, in modern-day Spain.
The Portuguese navigators exported this marble to Africa and Brazil. The marble from this region was used in famed locations such as the Monastery of Jerónimos, the Monastery of Batalha, the Monastery of Alcobaça and the Tower of Belém. There is so much marble around Estremoz; this marble is converted into whitewash for painting the houses. Portugal is the second largest exporter of marble in the world, surpassed only by Italy. About 85% of this marble is produced around Estremoz. In the quarries marble blocks are cut from the rock with a diamond wire saw, a durable steel cable with a series of circular diamond beads; the initial conduit for the wire is made by drilling a horizontal hole and a vertical hole of which the ends meet inside the rock. The wire saw may need a day to cut through the marble; the Estremoz marble has been designated by the International Union of Geological Sciences as a Global Heritage Stone Resource. Atalaia das Casas Novas/Atalaia da Frandina Café Aguias d'Ouro Estremoz Caixa Geral dos Depósitos Estremoz Postal and Telephones Jailhouse of Estremoz Municipal Palace/Hall of Evoramonte Municipal Palace/Hall of Estremoz National Tuberculosos Assistance Dispensary Castle of Estremoz Castle of Evoramonte Castle of Vieros Chapel of Nossa Senhora da Conceição Chapel of Nossa Senhora dos Mártires Chapel of Santa Margarida Convent of the Congregation Convent of Santo António Convent of São Francisco Cross of the Misericórida Cross of São Francisco Hermitage of Nossa Senhora da Conceição Media related to Estremoz at Wikimedia Commons website Photos from Estremoz
Santiago do Cacém
Santiago do Cacém is a municipality in Setúbal District in Portugal. The population in 2011 was 29,749, in an area of 1059.69 km². The present mayor is Vitor Manuel Caro Proença, elected by the Unitarian Democratic Coalition; the municipal holiday is July 25. Harmonia Society Park Rio da Figueira Miróbriga Ruins Castelo de Santiago do Cacém Administratively, the municipality is divided into eight civil parishes: Abela Alvalade Cercal do Alentejo Ermidas-Sado Santiago do Cacém, Santa Cruz e São Bartolomeu da Serra Santo André São Domingos e Vale de Água São Francisco da Serra Santiago do Cacém is twinned with: Santiago de Compostela, Spain Town Hall official website Photos from Santiago do Cacém
São Domingos de Benfica
São Domingos de Benfica is a Portuguese civil parish, located in the municipality of Lisbon. The population in 2011 was 33,043, in an area of 4.29 km². It is unclear when people began to settle in the region that would become São Domingos, but may have its basis in the 13th century. A rural subregion, it was less important social-economic centre of Lisbon. São Domingos de Benfica had its origins in a legend, it was King John I of Portugal who donated it to the Dominican religious order, under the request of João das Regras. Overtime it was in this lands that a palace was erected known as the Palace of Benfica, a summer residence of many of the sovereigns since Denis of Portugal. Owing to the legend, King John visited the area, underscored its natural beauty, affirming: aqui bem-fica o convento; the settlement of Benfica was a privileged location with access to water and situated in a forested cover, that highlighted the natural characteristics of Lisbon. The administrative borders of the parish of São Domingos de Benfica, were delimited by decree law 42/142 on 7 February 1959.
During the 17th century, the territory of São Domingos de Benfica was sought after by aristocratic families to construct palaces and estates, that included orchards and flower gardens. A new period of evolution occurred in the 18th century, when wetlands were converted into arable land, these lands were apportioned for agriculture. Following the 1755 earthquake many of these estates were permanently occupied by property-owners escaping from the desolation in Lisbon; as a result, many of summer/recreational residences were converted to residences. With the growth in demography, the area of Benfica by the 19th century began to be served by public transport: the creation of the Estrada da Circunvalação in 1852, allowed the establishment of new city limits; the territory of the new parish of São Domingos de Benfica became integrated into the municipality of Belém, until this municipality was extinguished in 1885. The creation of the military road and Lisbon-Sintra railway line in 1885. São Domingos de Benfica is a large urban area and settlement that extends from Sete Rios in the direction of Benfica and to the western edge of the Monsanto Park, along the road from Luz and Laranjeiras.
The parish is delimited by other six civil parishes of Lisbon: Benfica, Lumiar, Avenidas Novas and Campolide. Tourism constitutes the primary industry, with a significant importance in the economic activity of the parish's society. São Domingos de Benfica is one of the more cosmopolitan and most populous parishes of Lisbon, constituting a vital touristic polo that differentiates it from other parishes. São Domingos, owing to its settled age, is characterized by a propensity of historic properties, that have been responsible for attracting tourism to the center of Lisbon. Estate of Alfarrobeira Estate of the Counts of Bonfim Estate of Devisme Estate of Lameiro Fountain of São Domingos, integrated into a long wall, aligned with pilasters, terminated in cornices, the main panel crowned by crowned with backrest and obelisk with two spouts in the shape of dolphins, topped by niche and rectangular cartouche. Navarro de Paiva Institute/Education Centre Palace of Bensaude Palace of Beau-Séjour Palace of the Counts of Farrobo Palace of the Marquess of Fronteira Portuguese Francisco Gentil Martins Institute for Oncology Chapel of the Castros, a Mannerist funeral chapel.
L. Benfica, is located within São Domingos de Benfica. São Domingos de Benfica heraldry
Northwest Zone of São Paulo
The Northwest Zone is an Administrative Zone of São Paulo, Brazil
São Domingos de Rana
São Domingos de Rana is a civil parish of the Portuguese municipality of Cascais, part of the Greater Lisbon subregion. The population in 2011 was 57,502, in an area of 20.36 km². The parish includes the localities Abóboda, Cabeço de Mouro, Matarraque, Outeiro de Polima, Rana, Talaíde, Tires and Zambujal; the settlement of São Domingos de Rana, is associated with the fertility of the soils and the abundance of spring-waters: the number of archaeological vestiges in the parish implies its place in the settlement of the municipality. In many localities of the parish, human occupation has been permanent since the Paleolithic; the archaeological graves in the region attest to agricultural and hunting cultures. This parishes origins date to the settlement of the territory during the Paleolithic to Medieval; the first historical references originated in the Middle Age, one attesting to the existence of locality of Trajouce and the other that mentioned the casal in Freira. The first census referred, in 1527.
At that time, there was a parish of São Domingos de Rana, that extended to Albarraque, expanding in 1758 to São Pedro do Estoril. Until 1838, the area was part of the municipality of Oeiras. For four decades the territory was agricultural, cultivating wheat and vegetables, in addition to vineyards; the region was known for the extraction of stone used in the construction. In 1983, professor José d’Encarnação described São Domingos de Rana as an area known of cereal harvests, but was threatened by the growth of the city, the industrial production of Abóboda. With its accelerated growth, lack of planning, resulted in the growth of illegal barrios. On 3 March 1976, the Ministérios da Habitação, Urbanismo e Construção and Ministério dos Assuntos Sociais created a interministerial group in order to coordinate and develop solutions for the housing ex-colonial Africans and refugees living in emergency housing in Lisbon or along the Algarve; the development of the CAR neighbourhood of Faceiras, in three phases, began on 18 August 1977 with the construction of 81 homes.
The following year this program was integrated with other projects by the commission and the Fundo de Fomento da Habitação to sustain the program. With 20 square kilometres, São Domingos de Rana is one of the four parishes in the municipality of Cascais. In 1970 its resident population included 18,140 inhabitants, expanding to 29,342, 35,938 and 43,991: the 2011, included a population of 57,502 inhabitants; the protected Costa do Sol-Guincho area is situated along the southern margin at the mouth of the Tagus River, east of Lisbon, with the Serra de Sintra to the northwest and Linha de Sintra to the north: it includes the municipalities of Cascais and Oeiras. It includes a portion of the Sintra-Cascais Nature Park, was included in the Natura 2000 designation for the site of Sintra-Cascais. Cascais Municipal Aerodrome, inaugurated on 11 October 1964, by Portuguese President Américo Tomás, the airport developed under the initiative of the Secretário de Estado da Aeronáutica and Direcção-Geral da Aeronáutica Civil, in addition to the Count of Monte Real.
The archaeologist discovered a number of frgaments of cermaics, that date the location to the pre-historic period, but village to about the 4th or 2nd century, that includes mill and quarters. New excavations were carried-out in 1973, under the archeologist Guilherme Cardoso, whom discovered a large quantity of materials. Between 1911 and 1918, the temple was closed and much of its content began to ruin. By August 2001, a new carillon, with 23 bells, 19 constructed in Braga, 3 pre-existing and one from a factory in Belgium, was inaugurated for the church and computerized, but manually operatable; as ruas de São Domingos de Rana, DSA Editores, 1999, ISBN 972-9893918 Histór
Saint Dominic known as Dominic of Osma and Dominic of Caleruega called Dominic de Guzmán and Domingo Félix de Guzmán, was a Castilian priest and founder of the Dominican Order. Dominic is the patron saint of astronomers. Dominic was born in Caleruega, halfway between Aranda de Duero in Old Castile, Spain, he was named after Saint Dominic of Silos. The Benedictine abbey of Santo Domingo de Silos lies a few miles north of Caleruega. In the earliest narrative source, by Jordan of Saxony, Dominic's parents are named Felix Guzman and Juanna of Aza; the story is told that before his birth his barren mother made a pilgrimage to the Abbey at Silos, dreamt that a dog leapt from her womb carrying a flaming torch in its mouth, "seemed to set the earth on fire." This story drew resonance from the fact that his order became known, after his name, as the Dominican order, Dominicanus in Latin which a play on words interpreted as Domini canis: "Dog of the Lord." Jordan adds that Dominic was brought up by his parents and a maternal uncle, an archbishop.
The failure to name his parents is not unusual, since Jordan wrote a history of the Order's early years, rather than a biography of Dominic. A source, still of the 13th century gives their names as Juana and Felix. Nearly a century after Dominic's birth, a local author asserted that Dominic's father was "vir venerabilis et dives in populo suo"; the travel narrative of Pero Tafur, written circa 1439, states that Dominic's father belonged to the family de Guzmán, that his mother belonged to the Aça or Aza family. Dominic's mother, Jane of Aza, was beatified by Pope Leo XII in 1828. Dominic was educated in the schools of Palencia where he devoted six years to the arts and four to theology. In 1191, when Spain was desolated by famine, young Dominic gave away his money and sold his clothes and precious manuscripts to feed the hungry. Dominic told his astonished fellow students, "Would you have me study off these dead skins, when men are dying of hunger?" In 1194, around age twenty-five, Dominic joined the Canons Regular in the canonry in the Cathedral of Osma, following the rule of Saint Augustine.
In 1203 or 1204 he accompanied Diego de Acebo, the Bishop of Osma, on a diplomatic mission for Alfonso VIII, King of Castile, to secure a bride in Denmark for crown prince Ferdinand. The envoys traveled to the south of France; the marriage negotiations ended but the princess died before leaving for Castile. Around 1205, along with Diego de Acebo, began a program in the south of France, to convert the Cathars, a Christian religious sect with gnostic and dualistic beliefs, which the Roman Catholic Church deemed heretical; as part of this, Catholic-Cathar public debates were held at Verfeil, Pamiers, Montréal and elsewhere. Dominic concluded that only preachers who displayed real sanctity and asceticism could win over convinced Cathar believers; however Dominic managed only a few converts among the Cathars. In 1215, Dominic established himself, with six followers, in a house given by Peter Seila, a rich resident of Toulouse. Dominic saw the need for a new type of organization to address the spiritual needs of the growing cities of the era, one that would combine dedication and systematic education, with more organizational flexibility than either monastic orders or the secular clergy.
He his companions to the monastic rules of prayer and penance. In the same year, the year of the Fourth Lateran Council and Foulques went to Rome to secure the approval of the Pope, Innocent III. Dominic returned to Rome a year and was granted written authority in December 1216 and January 1217 by the new pope, Honorius III for an order to be named "The Order of Preachers". Blessed Cecilia Caesarini, received by Dominic into his new order, in her old age described him as "...thin and of middle height. His face was somewhat fair, he had reddish hair and beard and beautiful eyes... His hands were long and fine and his voice pleasingly resonant, he never got bald, though he wore the full tonsure, mingled with a few grey hairs." Although he traveled extensively to maintain contact with his growing brotherhood of friars, Dominic made his headquarters in Rome. In 1219, Pope Honorius III invited Dominic and his companions to take up residence at the ancient Roman basilica of Santa Sabina, which they did by early 1220.
Before that time the friars had only a temporary residence in Rome at the convent of San Sisto Vecchio, which Honorius III had given to Dominic circa 1218, intending it to become a convent for a reformation of nuns at Rome under Dominic's guidance. The official foundation of the Dominican convent at Santa Sabina with its studium conventuale, the first Dominican studium in Rome, occurred with the legal transfer of property from Pope Honorius III to the Order of Preachers on 5 June 1222, though the brethren had taken up residence there in 1220; the studium at Santa Sabina was the forerunner of the studium generale at Santa Maria sopra Minerva. The latter would be transformed in the 16th century into the College of Saint Thomas, in the 20th century into the Pontifical University of Saint Thomas Aquinas, Angelicum sited at the convent of Saints Dominic and Sixtus. In the winter of 1216–1217, at the house of Ugolino de' Conti
Niterói is a municipality of the state of Rio de Janeiro in the southeast region of Brazil. It lies across Guanabara Bay facing the city of Rio de Janeiro and forms part of the Rio de Janeiro Metropolitan Area, it was the state capital, as marked by its golden mural crown, from 1834 to 1894 and again from 1903 to 1975. It has an estimated population of 487,327 inhabitants and an area of 129.375 km, making it the fifth most populous city in the state. It has the highest Human Development Index of the state and the seventh largest among Brazil's municipalities in 2010. Individually, it is the second municipality with the highest average monthly household income per capita in Brazil and appears in 13th place among the municipalities of the country according to social indicators related to education; the city has the nicknames of Nicki City and the Smile City. Studies by the Getulio Vargas Foundation in June 2011 classified Niterói as the richest city of Brazil, with 55.7% of the population included in class A.
Considering the classes A and B, Niterói appears in the first place, with 85.9% of the population in these classes. According to data from the 2010 IBGE, Niterói's nominal gross domestic product was 11.2 billion reais, being the fifth municipality with the highest gross domestic product of the state. The city is the second largest formal employer in the State of Rio de Janeiro, although it occupies the 5th place in terms of the number of inhabitants; the city is one of the main financial and industrial centers of the State of Rio de Janeiro, being the 12th among the 100 best Brazilian cities to do business. The word "Niterói" comes from the Tupi language and means "water that hides", it was founded on 22 November 1573 by the Tupi Amerindian chief Araribóia. It makes Niteroi the only Brazilian city to have been founded by a non-Christian, non-assimilated Brazilian Amerindian; the municipality contains part of the 2,400 hectares Serra da Tiririca State Park, created in 1991. In the year 1555, French navigator Nicolas Durand de Villegaignon allied himself with the Tupinambas indians who dominated the Guanabara Bay and instituted a French colony in the region, France Antarctique.
The region was avoided by the Portuguese because of the hostility of the Tupinamba. The region developed under the command of Villegaignon. After a while, Calvinists who had immigrated from France to the colony returned to France, where they accused Villegaignon of prejudice against Protestants and of maladministration; the French navigator had to return to France to explain himself. Following the absence of the French leader, the Portuguese crown began noticing that the bay of Rio de Janeiro would make a strategic scale for the Atlantic route of ships from Portugal to its colonies in Africa and Asia, as well an important advanced bridgehead for the defense of South Brazil. Fortresses were built and an alliance was formed with nearby native Tupi-Guaraní tribes to defend the settlement against other European invaders. In 1560, the Portuguese leader Mem de Sá attacked and destroyed the French fort, located in Guanabara Bay, Coligny Fort, however, being able to definitively expel the French from the region.
Estacio de Sá, Mem de Sá's nephew, who would continue to command the war, enlisted the help of the head of the Temiminos Indians, Araribóia, who accepted the governor's request to help the Portuguese expel the French from the Guanabara Bay, in the hope to regain the mother island. With the end of the war in 1567, Estácio de Sá invoked Arariboia and the Temininós indians to occupy the right side of the entrance to the Guanabara Bay, opposite the city of São Sebastião do Rio de Janeiro founded by Estácio in 1565, as requested by Araribóia a tract of land. Thus, the entrance to the bay would be protected from intrusion; the place to be occupied by Arariboia was known as "Banda D'Além", in the eastern side of the bay, from River Marui to the Red Barriers between Gragoata and Boa Viagem beaches. This area corresponded to what is nowadays the northwestern part of the municipality of Niterói, which includes the central and northern zones of its urban area. There, in the "Land Beyond", Araribóia founded the Town of Saint Lawrence of the Indians, the embryo for the future city of Niterói, a Tupi name that means "Hidden Waters".
The village was visited by the King of Brazil, John VI, in 1816, who decreed its emancipation from Rio de Janeiro on 10 May 1819 and gave the new-created municipality a new name, Vila Real da Praia Grande. In 1834, the city of Rio de Janeiro, capital of the newly established Empire of Brazil, was detached from the rest of Rio de Janeiro Province. Niterói served the function of capital till the year of 1975 – except for the period between 1894 and 1903 when it was temporarily transferred to the city of Petrópolis. Vila Real da Praia Grande was renamed to Niterói on 6 March 1835 after the Tupi Nictheroy; this old spelling persisted until the mid-20th century, when the current spelling – Niterói – was adopted. The capital condition has brought a number of urban developments such as the steam boat, public lighting to whale oil, water supply and new means of transport to connect the city to the interior of the province. Nine years lat