Barbacena is a municipality in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. As of 2013, the municipality had 132,980 inhabitants; the total area of the municipality is 788 km2. It is in the foothills of the Serra da Mantiqueira south of the state capital Belo Horizonte at an elevation of 1,136 m, making it one of the ten highest cities in Brazil. Located on the important BR-040 highway, which links Brasília to Rio de Janeiro, it is 165 km from the state capital and 97 km Juiz de Fora. Barbacena has a humid tropical climate with cool summers due to the elevation. Summer averages are 24 °C and winter averages 13 °C; the cool climate and abundant rainfall have made Barbacena a center for flower production — the city is the biggest producer of flowers in Minas Gerais, is nicknamed "City of Roses". Cattle raising and the dairy industry are quite developed and the city is a big producer of milk products. Barbacena is the home of the Preparatory School of Air Cadets and of a Medical School, Faculdade de Medicina de Barbacena.
The city is famous for the Hospital Colônia de Barbacena, a mental hospital founded in 1903, known for its abusive treatment of patients. According to sources, 70% of the patients did not have mental illness, 60,000 people died in the hospital, it ceased operations in the mid-1980s. It has been compared to a Nazi concentration camp. Barbacena was the birthplace of the human rights activist and lawyer Heráclito Fontoura Sobral Pinto. Barbacena was a station on a narrow gauge railway. Barbacena was founded on 14 August 1791. In the 19th century, Barbacena was a principal distribution center for the mining districts of Minas Gerais, but this distinction was lost when the railways were extended beyond that point. Barbacena has one sister city, as designated by Sister Cities International: Burlington, Iowa, USA
Lucas Moreira Neves
Lucas Moreira Neves O. P. was Prefect of the Congregation for Bishops. Neves was born in São João del Rei, in Brazil, he was ordained a priest on 9 July 1950. He was appointed Auxiliary Bishop of São Paulo by Pope Paul VI on 9 June 1967 with the titular see of Feradi Maius. On 15 October 1979 he was appointed Secretary of the Congregation for Bishops within the Roman Curia by Pope John Paul II. Cardinal Moreira Neves left the Curia to take up the position of Archbishop of São Salvador da Bahia on 9 July 1987, he was created Cardinal-Priest with the titular of Ss. Bonifacio ed Alessio on 28 June 1988. Cardinal Moreira Neves once again left Brazil for Rome to take up the position as Prefect of the Congregation for Bishops to which he was appointed on 25 June 1998, when he was elevated to the rank of Cardinal Bishop of Sabina-Poggio Mirteto, he resigned his position as Prefect on 16 September 2000 as a result of his failing health. Database of Catholic Information
A minor basilica is a Catholic church building, granted the title of basilica by the Holy See or immemorial custom. Presently, the authorising decree is granted by the Pope through the Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments. In relation to churches, writers on architecture use the term "basilica" to describe a church built in a particular style; the early Christian purpose-built cathedral basilica of the bishop was in this style, constructed on the model of the semi-public secular basilicas, its growth in size and importance signalled the gradual transfer of civic power into episcopal hands, under way in the 5th century. In the 18th century, the term took on a canonical sense, unrelated to this architectural style. Basilicas in this canonical sense are divided into minor basilicas. Today all in Rome, are classified as major basilicas. Privileges attached to the status of basilica included a certain precedence before other churches, the right of the conopaeum and the bell, which were carried side by side in procession at the head of the clergy on state occasions, the wearing of a cappa magna by the canons or secular members of the collegiate chapter when assisting at the Divine Office.
In the case of major basilicas these umbraculae were made of cloth of gold and red velvet, while those of minor basilicas were of yellow and red silk—the colours traditionally associated with both the Papal See and the city of Rome. These external signs, except that of the cappa magna, are sometimes still seen in basilicas, but the latest regulations of the Holy See on the matter, issued in 1989, make no mention of them; the status of being a basilica now confers only two material privileges: the right to include the papal symbol of the crossed keys on a basilica's banners and seal, the right of the rector of the basilica to wear a distinctive mozzetta over his surplice. The other privileges now granted concern the liturgy of the celebration of the concession of the title of basilica, the granting of a plenary indulgence on certain days to those who pray in the basilica; the document imposes on basilicas the obligation to celebrate the liturgy with special care, requires that a church for which a grant of the title is requested should have been liturgically dedicated to God and be outstanding as a center of active and pastoral liturgy, setting an example for others.
It should be sufficiently large and with an ample sanctuary. It should be renowned for history, relics or sacred images, should be served by a sufficient number of priests and other ministers and by an adequate choir. Many basilicas are notable churches, receive significant pilgrimages. In December 2009 the Basilica of Our Lady of Guadalupe in Mexico set a record with 6.1 million pilgrims in two days for the feast of Our Lady of Guadalupe. As of November 15, 2017, there were 1,757 minor basilicas in the world. Of these 1,757 minor basilicas, three have the title of papal minor basilica and four the title of pontifical minor basilica; the three papal minor basilicas are Saint Lawrence outside the Walls and the Basilica of San Francesco d'Assisi and the Basilica of Santa Maria degli Angeli, both in Assisi. The four pontifical minor basilicas are the Basilica of Saint Nicholas in Bari, the Basilica of the Holy House in Loreto, the Basilica of Saint Anthony of Padua, the Shrine of the Virgin of the Rosary of Pompei.
All but the Paduan basilica were for some years jointly under the care of a Cardinalatial Commission for the Pontifical Shrines of Pompei and Bari, suppressed in 1996 to establish the Pontifical Delegation for the Shrine of Our Lady of the Rosary of Pompeii and the Pontifical Delegation for the Shrine of the Holy House of Loreto. All four pontifical minor basilicas now have individual pontifical delegates. For the Bari basilica, a dependency of the Secretariat of State, the pontifical delegate is the local metropolitan archbishop. For the basilicas of Loreto and Pompei, which are within their own territorial prelatures, the pontifical delegate is the local territorial prelate. Only for the Paduan basilica is the pontifical delegate distinct from the local bishop; the remaining 1,750 minor basilicas are all classified as such. In Torre del Greco is the Pontifical Basilica of the Holy Cross, called by that name not only on its own site, which recalls the visits to it of Pope Pius IX in 1849 and Pope John Paul II in 1990, but in the list of the world's minor basilicas, however, calls it a minor basilica.
Another such Italian church, recognized as a minor basilica, but not as a pontifical minor basilica, is the Pontificia Reale Basilica di S. Giacomo degli Spagnoli in Naples; this name, qualifying it as both royal, is confirmed by several other sources. One pontifical basilica in Spain listed not as a pontifical minor basilica, but as a minor basilica, is the Pontifical Basilica of St. Michael, the ownership of, since 1892 vested in the Apostolic Nunciature to the Kingdom of Spain; the description "pontifical basilica" is sometimes given without canonical justification to some churches that, whether pontifical or not, are not in the list of those with a right to the title of basilica. One in the town of Grumo Nevano in the province of Naples is called on the Italian Wikipedia the Pontifical Basilica of Saint Tammaro the Bishop, a designation confirmed by the inscription "Basilica Pontifica" o
Ouro Preto Vila Rica, is a city in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, a former colonial mining town located in the Serra do Espinhaço mountains and designated a World Heritage site by UNESCO because of its outstanding Baroque Portuguese colonial architecture. Ouro Preto is located in one of the main areas of the Brazilian Gold Rush. 800 tons of gold were sent to Portugal in the eighteenth century, not to mention what was circulated in an illegal manner, nor what remained in the colony, such as gold used in the ornamentation of the churches. The municipality became the most populous city of Latin America, counting on about 40 thousand people in 1730 and, decades after, 80 thousand. At that time, the population of New York was less than half of that number of inhabitants and the population of São Paulo did not surpass 8 thousand. Population: Data from the 2010 Census Resident population: 70,227 Urban area: 56,293 Rural area: 9,985 Area of the municipality: 1,245 km² Temperature: between 6 and 28 degrees Celsius.
In June and July the temperature can reach -2 degrees Celsius. Average elevation: 1,116 m; the highest point is Pico de Itacolomi with 1,722 meters. The city has twelve districts: Amarantina, Antônio Pereira, Cachoeira do Campo, Engenheiro Correia, Lavras Novas, Miguel Burnier, Santa Rita, Santo Antônio do Leite, Santo Antônio do Salto, São Bartolomeu and Rodrigo Silva. Rivers: sources for the Velhas, Gualaxo do Norte, Gualaxo do Sul, Mainart e Ribeirão Funil. Per Capita Income: R$23,622 HDI: 0.788 The city is linked by unlit winding roads to highways for: Belo Horizonte 100 km Rio de Janeiro 475 km São Paulo 675 km Brasília 840 kmBordering municipalities are: North: Itabirito and Santa Bárbara South: Ouro Branco, Catas Altas da Noruega and Itaverava East: Mariana West: Belo Vale and Congonhas Located at 1,179 m above sea level, Ouro Preto has a subtropical highland climate, with warm and humid summers and mild, dry winters. Frost occur in June and July. There is a report of snow in the city in the year of 1843.
Founded at the end of the 17th century, Ouro Preto was called Vila Rica, or "rich village", the focal point of the gold rush and Brazil's golden age in the 18th century under Portuguese rule. The city centre contains well-preserved Portuguese colonial architecture, with few signs of modern urban development. New construction must keep with the city's historical aesthetic. 18th- and 19th-century churches decorated with gold and the sculptured works of Aleijadinho make Ouro Preto a tourist destination. The tremendous wealth from gold mining in the 18th century created a city which attracted the intelligentsia of Europe. Philosophy and art flourished, evidence of a baroque revival called the "Barroco Mineiro" is illustrated in architecture as well as by sculptors such as Aleijadinho, painters such as Mestre Athayde, composers such as Lobo de Mesquita, poets such as Tomás António Gonzaga. At that time, Vila Rica was the largest city in Brazil, with 100,000 inhabitants. In 1789, Ouro Preto became the birthplace of the Inconfidência Mineira, a failed attempt to gain independence from Portugal.
The leading figure, was hanged as a threat to any future revolutionaries. In 1876, the Escola de Minas was created; this school established the technological foundation for several of the mineral discoveries in Brazil. Ouro Preto was capital of Minas Gerais from 1720 until 1897, when the needs of government outgrew this town in the valley; the state government was moved to the planned city of Belo Horizonte. Although Ouro Preto now relies on the tourism industry for part of its economy, there are important metallurgic and mining industries located in town, such as Novelis Alcan, the most important aluminum factory in the country, the Companhia Vale do Rio Doce, others. Main economic activities are tourism, transformation industries, mineral riches such as deposits of iron, manganese and marble. Minerals of note are: gold, dolomite, pyrite, muscovite and imperial topaz; the imperial topaz is a stone only found in Ouro Preto. Soapstone handicraft items are a popular souvenir among tourists, can be found in many shops in the town centre and street fairs.
Jewelry made of local precious and semi-precious gemstones can be found in abundance for sale. Ouro Preto is a university town with an intense student life; the Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto has 10,000 students in the city. Many of them live in communal houses that are somewhat similar to fraternity houses as found in North American colleges; these communal or shared houses are called repúblicas, of which 66 belong to the university, called repúblicas federais, 250 are owned. The repúblicas system of Ouro Preto is unique in Brazil. No other university city in the country has the same characteristics of the student lodgings found there, it shares traits with the repúblicas of the Portuguese University of Coimbra, where the tradition originated. Before universities were founded in Brazil, Coimbra was where most of the rich students who could afford an overseas education went to; each república has its own different history. There are repúblicas in which the freshmen known as "bixos", have to undergo a hazing period, called batalha, before being accepted permanently as residents of the houses.
The final choice
Tiradentes, Minas Gerais
Tiradentes is a municipality in the Brazilian state of Minas Gerais. It is located at 21°06′37″S 44°12′41″W, has an area of 83.5 km², a maximum elevation above sea level of 927 m. Tiradentes had an estimated population of 6,364, as of 2004; the original village was established in 1702 and became a city on 19 January 1718. In 1889 the city was renamed from São José del Rey in honour of the national hero, born nearby, it has been acclaimed as an unspoiled example of Portuguese colonial architecture. A section of the Estrada de Ferro Oeste de Minas narrow gauge railway from São João del Rei to Tiradentes has been preserved as a tourist line
Barroso, Minas Gerais
Barroso is a Brazilian municipality located in the south of the state of Minas Gerais. Its population as of 2007 was 19,353 people living in an area of 83 km²; the elevation is 920 meters. The city belongs to the microregion of Barbacena. An important regional center, Barbacena, is located 27 km to the east and is connected by MG-265. List of municipalities in Minas Gerais
Prefect is a magisterial title of varying definition, but which refers to the leader of an administrative area. A prefect's office, department, or area of control is called a prefecture, but in various post-Roman empire cases there is a prefect without a prefecture or vice versa; the words "prefect" and "prefecture" are used, more or less conventionally, to render analogous words in other languages Romance languages. Praefectus with a further qualification, was the formal title of many low to high-ranking, military or civil officials in the Roman Empire, whose authority was not embodied in their person but conferred by delegation from a higher authority, they did have some authority in their prefecture such as controlling prisons and in civil administration. The Praetorian prefect began as the military commander of a general's guard company in the field grew in importance as the Praetorian Guard became a potential kingmaker during the Empire. From the Emperor Diocletian's tetrarchy they became the administrators of the four Praetorian prefectures, the government level above the dioceses and provinces.
Praefectus urbi, or praefectus urbanus: city prefect, in charge of the administration of Rome. Praefectus vigilum: commander of the Vigiles. Praefectus aerarii: nobles appointed guardians of the state treasury. Praefectus aerarii militaris: prefect of the military treasury. Praefectus annonae: official charged with the supervision of the grain supply to the city of Rome. Praefectus alae: commander of a cavalry unit. Praefectus castrorum: camp commandant. Praefectus cohortis: commander of a cohort. Praefectus classis: fleet commander. Praefectus equitatus: cavalry commander. Praefectus equitum: cavalry commander. Praefectus fabrum: officer in charge of fabri, i.e. well-trained engineers and artisans. Praefectus legionis: equestrian legionary commander. Praefectus legionis agens vice legati: equestrian acting legionary commander. Praefectus orae maritimae: official in charge with the control and defense of an important sector of sea coast. Praefectus socium: Roman officer appointed to a command function in an ala sociorum.
For some auxiliary troops, specific titles could refer to their peoples: Praefectus Laetorum Praefectus Sarmatarum gentilium Roman provinces were ruled by high-rank officials. Less important provinces though were entrusted to prefects, military men who would otherwise only govern parts of larger provinces; the most famous example is Pontius Pilate, who governed Judaea at a time when it was administered as an annex of Syria. As Egypt was a special imperial domain, a rich and strategic granary, where the Emperor enjoyed an pharaonic position unlike any other province or diocese, its head was styled uniquely Praefectus Augustalis, indicating that he governed in the personal name of the emperor, the "Augustus". Septimius Severus, after conquering Mesopotamia, introduced the same system there too. After the mid-1st century, as a result of the Pax Romana, the governorship was shifted from the military prefects to civilian fiscal officials called procurators, Egypt remaining the exception. Praefectus urbi: a prefect of the republican era who guarded the city during the annual sacrifice of the Latin: feriae latina on Mount Alban in which the consuls participated.
His former title was "custos urbi". In Medieval Latin, præfectus was used to refer to various officers—administrative, judicial, etc.—usually alongside a more precise term in the vernacular. The term is used by the Roman Catholic Church, which based much of its canon law terminology on Roman law, in several different ways; the Roman Curia has the nine Prefects of all the Congregations as well as the two of the Papal Household and of the Economic Affairs of the Holy See. The title attaches to the heads of some Pontifical Council, who are principally titled president, but in addition there is sometimes an additional ex officio position as a prefect. For example, the president of the Pontifical Council for Interreligious Dialogue is the prefect of the Commission for Religious Relations with Muslims. Traditionally these Curial officials are Cardinals, hence called "Cardinal-Prefect" or "Cardinal-President". There was a custom that those who were not cardinals when they were appointed were titled "Pro-Prefect" or "Pro-President".
These officials would be appointed prefect or president after their elevation to the Sacred College. However, since 1998, this custom has fallen into disuse. A Prefect Apostolic is a cleric in charge of an apostolic prefecture, a type of Roman Catholic territorial jurisdiction fulfilling the functions of a diocese in a missionary area or in a country, anti-religious, such as the People's Republic of China, but, not yet given the status of regular diocese, it is destined to become one in time. In the context of schools, a prefect is a pupil, given certain responsibilities in the school, similar to the responsibilities given to a hall monitor or safety patrol members. In some British and Commonwealth schools, prefects students in fifth to seventh yea