Centre Georges Pompidou
Centre Georges Pompidou shortened to Centre Pompidou and known as the Pompidou Centre in English, is a complex building in the Beaubourg area of the 4th arrondissement of Paris, near Les Halles, rue Montorgueil, the Marais. It was designed in the style of high-tech architecture by the architectural team of Richard Rogers and Renzo Piano, along with Gianfranco Franchini, it houses a vast public library. Because of its location, the Centre is known locally as Beaubourg, it is named after Georges Pompidou, the President of France from 1969 to 1974 who commissioned the building, was opened on 31 January 1977 by President Valéry Giscard d'Estaing. As of 2006, the Centre Pompidou has had over 180 million visitors since 1977 and more than 5,209,678 visitors in 2013, including 3,746,899 for the museum; the sculpture Horizontal by Alexander Calder, a free-standing mobile, 7.6 m tall, was placed in front of the Centre Pompidou in 2012. The idea for a multicultural complex, bringing together in one place different forms of art and literature, developed, in part, from the ideas of France's first Minister of Cultural Affairs, André Malraux, a western proponent of the decentralisation of art and culture by impulse of the political power.
In the 1960s, city planners decided to move the foodmarkets of Les Halles significant structures long prized by Parisians, with the idea that some of the cultural institutes be built in the former market area. Hoping to renew the idea of Paris as a leading city of culture and art, it was proposed to move the Musée d'Art Moderne to this new location. Paris needed a large, free public library, as one did not exist at this time. At first the debate concerned Les Halles, but as the controversy settled, in 1968, President Charles de Gaulle announced the Plateau Beaubourg as the new site for the library. A year in 1969, the new president adopted the Beaubourg project and decided it to be the location of both the new library and a centre for the contemporary arts. In the process of developing the project, the IRCAM was housed in the complex; the Rogers and Piano design was chosen among 681 competition entries. World-renowned architects Oscar Niemeyer, Jean Prouvé and Philip Johnson made up the jury.
It was the first time in France. The selection was announced in 1971 at a "memorable press conference" where the contrast between the sharply-dressed Pompidou and "hairy young crew" of architects represented a "grand bargain between radical architecture and establishment politics." It was the first major example of an'inside-out' building in architectural history, with its structural system, mechanical systems, circulation exposed on the exterior of the building. All of the functional structural elements of the building were colour-coded: green pipes are plumbing, blue ducts are for climate control, electrical wires are encased in yellow, circulation elements and devices for safety are red. According to Piano, the design was meant to be “not a building but a town where you find everything – lunch, great art, a library, great music”. National Geographic described the reaction to the design as "love at second sight." An article in Le Figaro declared "Paris has its own monster, just like the one in Loch Ness."
But two decades while reporting on Rogers' winning the Pritzker Prize in 2007, The New York Times noted that the design of the Centre "turned the architecture world upside down" and that "Mr. Rogers earned a reputation as a high-tech iconoclast with the completion of the 1977 Pompidou Centre, with its exposed skeleton of brightly coloured tubes for mechanical systems; the Pritzker jury said the Pompidou "revolutionised museums, transforming what had once been elite monuments into popular places of social and cultural exchange, woven into the heart of the city." The Centre was built by GTM and completed in 1977. The building cost 993 million French francs. Renovation work conducted from October 1996 to January 2000 was completed on a budget of 576 million francs; the nearby Stravinsky Fountain, on Place Stravinsky, features 16 whimsical moving and water-spraying sculptures by Jean Tinguely and Niki de Saint-Phalle, which represent themes and works by composer Igor Stravinsky. The black-painted mechanical sculptures are by the coloured works by de Saint-Phalle.
The fountain opened in 1983. Video footage of the fountain appeared throughout the French language telecourse, French in Action; the Place Georges Pompidou in front of the museum is noted for the presence of street performers, such as mimes and jugglers. In the spring, miniature carnivals are installed temporarily into the place in front with a wide variety of attractions: bands and sketch artists, tables set up for evening dining, skateboarding competitions. By the mid-1980s, the Centre Pompidou was becoming the victim of its huge and unexpected popularity, its many activities, a complex administrative structure; when Dominique Bozo returned to the Centre in 1981 as Director of the Musée National d'Art Moderne, he re-installed the museum, bringing out the full range of its collections and displayed the many major acquisitions, made. By 1992, the Centre de Création Industrielle was incorporated into the Centre Pompidou; the Centre Pompidou was intended to handle 8,000 visitors a day. In its first two decade
École nationale de l'aviation civile
The École nationale de l'aviation civile is one of the 207 schools that offers engineering degrees in France. ENAC has been classified as a Grande école by the Conférence des Grandes Écoles. Conférence des Grandes Écoles is a non-profit organisation which accredits and delivers the master's degrees of all Grandes écoles; the group of Grandes écoles in France, was founded on August 28, 1949 to provide initial and continuing education in the field of civil aviation. This university is a établissement public à caractère scientifique, culturel et professionnel and functions under the supervision of the Ministry of Ecology, Sustainable Development and Housing, it is member of the following apart from Conférence des Grandes Écoles, University of Toulouse, Aerospace Valley and is one of the five founders of France AEROTECH. ENAC offers 30 engineering degrees in civil aviation/aeronautics; some of the most notable ones include aerospace engineering, aircraft technicians, commercial airline pilots licenses, air traffic control, flight instructors.
The university offers 3 masters of science programmes and 12 Advanced masters degrees for students with industry/relevant experience. In 1945 after the WWII, the French air transport industry witnessed a rapid growth. To ensure safety and compliance to regulations, there was a high demand for qualified staff, as well as a need to harmonise communications between various sectors of the aviation industry. ENAC was founded to address this issue. Among the founders was Max Hymans, the secretary general of civil and commercial aviation at the time, who played a prominent role in ENAC's creation. In the years following the Western Front, there was a distinct lack of unity within the civil aviation industry due to the recruitment of people with various backgrounds. In order to standardize backgrounds, many centers were created to train aeronautic personnel. Airfield commanders were trained in Orly while technical staff for air navigation were trained in Le Bourget. Wireless operators and radio technicians were trained in Orly, although under the Department of Telecommunications and Signaling, not connected directly to the world of aviation.
Technical managers were trained in engineering schools, including Arts et Métiers and the National School of Meteorology. Designers were trained by the École spéciale des travaux aéronautiques while aircrew were trained by other public or private institutions. ENAC's mission was to unify the training of all aviation personnel. Through Decree No. 49-970, the rules of the French public administration were laid down. A complete overhaul of the regulations applying to civil aviation officials was made, affecting the technical staff in particular. Several new bodies of civil servants were established: air traffic engineers, air navigation operation engineers, aerial telecommunication civil engineers, air traffic controllers, telecommunication controllers and air navigation agents; the creation of these new bodies was followed by a ministerial decision on 12 August 1948 that paved the way for the first recruitment by competitive examination. The examinations themselves were organized in October 1948.
Independently of these events, on 14 April 1948, the International Civil Aviation Organization established prerequisite conditions for air crew licensing, notably including a minimum number of flight hours for each category of aircraft pilots. Before adopting the name ENAC, the school was called a "service of education and internships" and was provided by the General secretariat for civil and commercial aviation; that contrasted with that the longstanding tradition of French civil service personnel being trained in higher education institutions called Grande écoles. Jules Moch, the Minister of Works and Tourism at the time, proposed the name: "École nationale de l'aviation marchande", a name, not chosen. ENAC was created on 28 August 1949 in Paris at the initiative of Max Hymans, Secretary General of Civil Aviation, Jules Moch. in order to train all the professionals of civil aeronautics and harmonize all the air transport stakeholders, aircrew or not, commercial or technical, including the civil services of civil aviation.
The university is located at Orly, south of Paris. René Lemaire considers ENAC as "a university of aviation safety"; this priority given to aviation safety is somehow consubstantial with ENAC, being the first reason for the training of future technicians and future airmen in a single university. As noted in a report of the Inspection générale de l'aviation civile, "It was in the minds of the creators of the university, to develop between the aircrew and the ground staff a community of ideas, reciprocal knowledge, esteem, that are essential for the teamwork required by air transport." However, it is doubtful that the "community of ideas" the author of the report wishes could be only expressed by the coexistence of different courses in the same university. Other factors work in opposite directions, including the significant disparity of durations of the training cycles. Thus, air navigation civil engineers of the branch "telecommunications" stays 30 months in the university. To realize the chemistry that, in the m
France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona
Institut supérieur de l'aéronautique et de l'espace
The Institut Supérieur de l'Aéronautique et de l'Espace, translated as "National Higher French Institute of Aeronautics and Space", founded in 1909. It was the world's first dedicated aerospace engineering school and is considered to be one of the best in Europe in that field; the school delivers a range of engineering degree programs. ISAE-SUPAERO is part of University of Toulouse, ISSAT, PEGASUS, GEA, Toulouse Tech, CESAER and Aerospace Valley. ISAE-SUPAERO results from the merger between SUPAERO and ENSICA in the summer of 2007; the aim of this move was to increase the international visibility of SUPAERO and the ENSICA, by sharing their faculty and experimental means. Since its founding in 1909 ISAE-SUPAERO has produced more than 21,500 graduates. ISAE-SUPAERO has the following missions: • To educate engineers in the aeronautics and space fields and in related areas • To engage in scientific research and technological Innovation • To deliver specialized graduate education and continuing education programs • To deliver doctoral programs and national degrees equivalent or superior to the Masters degree.
ISAE was created by decree 2007-1384 of 24 September, 2007. Under the auspices of the Ministry of Defence, overseen by the DGA, the Institute is a public institution with a scientific and professional vocation, it is governed by articles R.3411-1 to R.3411-28 of the Defence Code and is accredited by the Engineering Education Commission. ISAE SUPAERO delivers national Doctorate and Masters degrees and Advanced Masters degrees accredited by la Conférence des Grandes Ecoles, an organization whose members are the most prestigious business and engineering schools in France; the Institute is governed by an Executive Board of 27 members, headed by the President. The Board meets three times a year; the Institute has an educational board, a research board, a continuing education board Members of the advisory boards come from within the Institute and academia and industry. ISAE-SUPAERO has implemented an ISO 9001 quality management system for all of its activities; the historic logo of the former SUPAERO school: the owl, associated with the Greek Goddess, Athena, is a symbol of knowledge.
Today, the owl is still part of the ISAE SUPAERO logo. In 1909, Colonel Jean-Baptiste Roche, a civil engineering officer and a graduate of l’Ecole Polytechnique, had the foresight and vision to anticipate the needs and future scope of the aeronautics industry in the world. Colonel Roche was the founder of l'École supérieure d'aéronautique et de constructions mécaniques, or the Higher School of Aeronautics and Mechanical Construction in Paris. In 1930, the latter became « l’Ecole Nationale Supérieure de l’Aeronautics », under the leadership of the renowned French engineer, Albert Caquot, in 1972 it became l’Ecole nationale supérieure de l’aeronautique et de l’espace, or the Higher School of Aeronautics and Space, better known as “SUPAERO”. In 1930, the School moved to more modern buildings in « la Cité de l’Air », located boulevard Victor in Paris. In 1968, SUPAERO moved to the vast aerospace hub of Toulouse-Lespinet, in the heart of a stimulating higher education and research environment, right near l’Ecole nationale de l’aviation civile, the School of Civil Aviation, transferred to Toulouse the same year.
In 1970, the former Paris premises of the School were home to l'École nationale supérieure de techniques avancées, until the latter moved to new premises on the campus of l'École Polytechnique in Palaiseau. They were transformed into the Conference Center of the Ministry of Defence. Several research laboratories were created in affiliation with the School and regrouped around the Toulouse ONERA center. Today, affiliated with the School, it conducts theoretical and applied research in defence in a wide range of fields including aerodynamics, automatic control, advanced robotics, aerospace electronics, computer systems, aerospace vehicles, aerospace mechanics, propulsive systems. In 1975, SUPAERO was one of the first engineering schools in France to be accredited to deliver the doctoral degree. In 1994, SUPAERO became a public body with legal personality reporting to the Ministry of Defence. In practice, the Institute is overseen by the DGA, Directorate General of Armaments and under the direction of an “ingénieur général de l'armement”.
ENSICA was created in Paris at the time of the Liberation, under the name, « École nationale des travaux aéronautiques », in accordance with article 8 of the law on finance of 1946. The first graduating class included 25 students who would join the military corps of engineers specialized in aeronautics. By decree of June 4th, 1957, the name of the School was changed to “l’École nationale d’ingénieurs des constructions aéronautiques; the degree program was extended to three years with a new focus on industry and a larger share of civilian students. In 1961, ENICA was relocated to Toulouse. Under the leadership of the Director, Émile Blouin, the School acquired its own identity and a new dimension; the geographic link was cut with SUPAERO, which until had housed the school on its premises, Boulevard Victor, in Paris. The building of a new student cen
The ENSTA ParisTech, École nationale supérieure de techniques avancées is a one of the most prestigious French "grande école d'ingénieurs" and every year about 180 engineers graduate from it. Funded in 1741, it is the oldest french "Grande Ecole", it is located in Palaiseau of the Paris-Saclay campus. ENSTA offers its students general engineering training with the aim of enabling them to design and produce complex systems, while meeting strict economic constraints. To this end, the school provides high-level technological training; the teaching is given by research professors at ENSTA with the participation of numerous auxiliary teachers from the economic and industrial world familiar with the latest technical developments in a wide variety of fields. Research, one of the school's primary missions, makes a significant contribution to both fundamental and applied fields, which agrees with the school's pedagogical mission and meets the needs of business. Half is the responsibility of the school's research professors, the other half is carried out by researchers from the CNRS, the INSERM and the École polytechnique working in ENSTA's premises.
The general nature of the training given enables ENSTA graduates to find a career in a large number of sectors such as the automotive or naval industry and telecommunications, space propulsion, robotics and the environment. The school was the brainchild of Henri-Louis Duhamel du Monceau, inspector general of the Navy, he had identified the need to give the Navy's master carpenters a theoretical education in mathematics and physics, which were making quick progress, so that they would have a clearer understanding of their trade. Duhamel du Monceau founded the first school in his home in Paris on the Isle Saint Louis in 1741; this date is recognised as the origin of the institution. In 1748 it was moved to the royal library on rue Richelieu, in 1753 to the Louvre Palace adjacent to the Académie des Sciences, it was closed in 1759 during the Seven Years' War. In 1765, he managed to persuade the duc de Choiseul to reopen it as part of a sweeping overhaul of the navy. Duhamel du Monceau continued to run the school for the rest of his life.
The School of Student Engineer Constructors, as it was known, was closed in 1793 during the French Revolution. It reopened in 1795 as an application school for the Ecole Polytechnique. On, it became known as Ecole nationale supérieure du Génie Maritime. In 1970, the Délégation Générale pour l'Armement merged the school with three of its other establishments: - the École Nationale Supérieure des Poudres - the École Nationale Supérieure de l'Armement - the École des Ingénieurs Hydrographes de la Marine; this formed the École Nationale Supérieure de Techniques Avancées, the role of, to train engineers in the naval, nuclear, chemical and related fields. The scientific skills of each of the founding institutes survives in the broad range of research disciplines covered at ENSTA, as well as in the more general nature of its teaching and the variety of specialities offered to the students. Today, ENSTA's legal status is that of a "public administrative establishment", placed under the supervision of the Ministry of Defence.
It is headed by a general officer of the Corps of Ordnance Ingineers. Some former graduates of École polytechnique attend ENSTA before joining the military Corps of Ordnance Ingineers, which staffs the DGA. Diplôme d'Ingénieur de l'ENSTA ParisTech Master's degree in Nuclear Plant Design Master's degree in Acoustical engineering Master's degree in Maritime engineering: transport systems and offshore energies Master's degree in Operational research Master's degree in Analysis, simulation Master's degree in Consulting in Organization, Strategy Master's degree in Cyber-physical systems design Master's degree in Processes, environment Mastère Spécialisé Maritime Engineering: transport, sustainable development Mastère Spécialisé Architecture and security of information systems Mastère Spécialisé Design and Exploitation of Autonomous Maritime System Mastère Spécialisé Project Manager in charging infrastructure and electric vehicles Mastère Spécialisé Engineering of Localization Systems and Multi-Sensors Louis-Émile Bertin Alain Bouquin, General Commander of the French Foreign Legion Eugène Deloncle Charles Dupin Henri Dupuy de Lôme Ernest Mercier Édouard Jean Baptiste Milhaud Jacques-Noël Sané Léonce Verny Paul Marie Eugène Vieille Gérard Albert Mourou ENSTA ParisTech
A ceramics museum is a museum wholly or devoted to ceramics ceramic art. Its collections may include glass and enamel, but concentrate on pottery, including porcelain. Most national collections are in a more general museum covering all of the arts, or just the decorative arts. However, there are a number of specialized ceramics museums, with some focusing on the ceramics of just one country, region or manufacturer. Others have international collections, which may be centered on ceramics from Europe or East Asia or have a more global emphasis. Outstanding major ceramics collections in general museums include The Palace Museum, with 340,000 pieces, the National Palace Museum in Taipei city, Taiwan. In London, the Victoria and Albert Museum and British Museum have strong international collections; the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York and Freer Gallery of Art in Washington DC have the best of the many fine collections in the large city museums of the United States. The Corning Museum of Glass, in Corning, New York, has more than 45,000 glass objects.
Many of the historic ceramics manufacturers have museums at or near their factories, sometimes owned by the company, sometimes independent institutions. Among the more important ones, with large collections, covered in the articles on the concern, are: Meissen porcelain, Nymphenburg Porcelain Manufactory, Doccia porcelain, Royal Worcester, Royal Crown Derby and Herend Porcelain; some other specialist ceramics museums are: in AustraliaNational Museum of Australian Pottery, New South Wales – Australian domestic pottery, 1500 piecesin BelgiumMusée de la Céramique, Wallonia – tells you all about the famous ceramic from the city of Andennein BrazilMuseu A CASA, São Paulo, São Paulo. Oficina de Cerâmica Francisco Brennand, Pernambuco. 2000 pieces Museu Udo Knoff de Azulejaria e Cerâmica, Bahia. 1200 piecesin CanadaGardiner Museum, with 3,000 pieces. Medalta in the Historic Clay District, Medicine Hat, Alberta, 53,000.in ChinaMumingtang Ancient Porcelain Museum, Beijing Liuwan Museum of Ancient Painted Pottery, 38,000 Chinese archaeological finds The Terracotta Army are on display where they were discovered near Xi'an FLICAM, near Xi'an is a museum for international contemporary ceramics Yixing Ceramics Museum, 30,000 pieces from the Yixing area.in the Czech RepublicMuseum of Czech Porcelain, PragueIn Denmark CLAY Keramikmuseum Danmark, Kongebrovej 42, DK-5500 Middelfart.
Website: http://claymuseum.dk.in FranceSèvres - Cité de la céramique, 50,000 pieces, 5,000 of Sèvres porcelain and contemporary ceramics Musee de la Ceramique, Rouen, 5,000 pieces, 900 displayed local faience. Musée nationale de la porcelaine Adrien Dubouché, Limoges, 15,000 pieces Limoges porcelain rare pieces by Böttger The extensive archaeological excavations at La Graufesenque, one of the major production centres of Ancient Roman pottery, are open to the public with a museum on the potteries. Musée Départemental de la Céramique, Lezoux. Musée de la Céramique de Desvres, Desvres.in GermanyWaechtersbach ceramics in Brachttal, Hesse Zwinger Museum - the Porzellansammlung, or Porcelain Collection, at the Zwinger Museum in Dresden Hetjens-Museum or Deutsches Keramik-Museum in Düsseldorf, 15,000 pieces Terra-Sigillata-Museum Rheinzabern, for Ancient Roman terra sigillata ware made near the townin IranThe Glassware and Ceramic Museum of Iran, Tehranin ItalyMuseo della Ceramica, in the Picture Gallery, Museo delle porcellane, in the Boboli Gardens, Florence International Museum of Ceramics, in Faenza, Montelupo Museum of Tuscan Ceramics, Montelupo FiorentinoJapanclaims to have over 500 ceramics museums and private, including ones at Ibaraki, Kyoto and Tokyo.
The Arita Porcelain Park is the world's only theme park based on ceramics. NGK Museum, specializing in industrial ceramicsin South KoreaGyeonggi Ceramic Museum, Gwanggju Icheon World Ceramic Center,in the NetherlandsPrincessehof Ceramics Museum, Leeuwarden,in PortugalMuseu de Cerâmica, Caldas da Rainha and other ceramics, Museu de Cerâmica de Sacavém, Sacavémin RussiaState Ceramics Museum, Kuskovo Palace, Moscow, 30,000 pieces, Russian and other ceramics from the Sheremetev collection, The Hermitage, Saint Petersburg - includes the Museum of The Imperial Porcelain Factory and the famous Frog service made by Josiah Wedgwood for Catherine the Great. Pottery Museum, Ryazan Oblast, Skopin potteryin SpainMuseu de Ceràmica, in the Museu de les Arts Aplicades, Barcelona Museo Nacional de Cerámica y de las Artes Suntuarias González Martí, with over 5,000 pieces produced in the region.in SwedenGustavsberg Porcelain Museum, the history of the Gustavsberg Porcelain Factory in TaiwanTaipei County Yingge Ceramics Museumin ThailandSoutheast Asian Ceramics Museum, opened 2005, 2,000 pieces of the pottery of Thailand and neighbouring countries.in UkrainePottery Museum, Vinnytsia Oblast Folk Pottery Museum, Poltava Oblastin the United KingdomAberystwyth University Ceramics Collection Coalport China Museum Coalport China Gladstone Pottery Museum - working pottery museum Jackfield Tile Museum Museum of Royal Worcester, at the old Royal Worcester factory site.
Percival David Foundation of Chinese Art, London. 1400 pieces of classic Chinese porcelain from the 10th to 18th centuries. Potteries Museum & Art Gallery Staffordsh
Sèvres is a commune in the southwestern suburbs of Paris, France. It is located 9.9 kilometres from the centre of Paris and is in the department of Hauts-de-Seine in the region of Île-de-France. The commune is known for its famous porcelain production at the Manufacture nationale de Sèvres, where the abortive Treaty of Sèvres was signed, for being the location of the International Bureau of Weights and Measures. Sèvres is a commune in the western suburbs of Paris, 10.5 km to the west of the Cathedral of Notre-Dame de Paris, with an eastern edge by the River Seine. The commune borders the Île Seguin, an island in the River Seine, in the commune of Boulogne-Billancourt, adjoining Sèvres. Situation of Sèvres The area of the commune is 391 hectares; the altitude varies between 27–171 metres. Work at Sèvres, including for the construction of the expressway, permitted an update of interesting fossils in different geological layers. For example, in chalk, some types of sea urchins, belemnite beaks and oysters were found.
The Seine The Ru de Marivel 80 metres upstream of the Pont de Sèvres. The climate of île-de-France is oceanic; the popular observation stations for meteorology at Sèvres are Vélizy-Villacoublay airport. The climate in the departments of the small Parisian crown is characterised by sunshine and low precipitation; the following table allows a comparison of the île-de-France climate with that of some large French cities: The following table shows the monthly averages of temperature and precipitation for the station of Orly collected over the period 1961-1990: Sèvres is traversed from side to side by the RN 10, today downgraded and allowing connection of the city to Boulogne-Billancourt and Chaville. It is the starting point of the RN 118 at the level of the Pont de Sèvres. Sèvres presents a main traffic artery which supports important transit traffic at morning and evening peak hours; this allows preservation of its secondary residential purpose from suffering the negative effects of through traffic, on which the development zone 30 was under study, as early as 2007.
The city hall has, launched a reconsideration on these routes for sharing public spaces in favour of soft links and the use of public transit where they pass. Since November 2011, fifteen streets have two-way cycle lanes, they are the subject of ground markings and installation of specific signaling panels: Avenue de la Cristallerie Rue Brancas, between the Rue de Ville-d'Avray and Rue Bernard-Palissy Grande Rue, between the Rue de Ville-d'Avray and the Place Gabriel-Péri Rue du Docteur Gabriel-Ledermann, between the Rue de Rueil and Rue Jules Sandeau Rue Riocreux, between Place Pierre-Brossolette and Rue de Ville d'Avray Rue Brongniart Rue Léon Journault Rue Victor-Hugo Rue des Bas-Tillets between Rue Benoît Malon and the Rue de la Garenne Rue Albert Dammouse, between Rue Avice and the Stade des Fontaines turn Rue Rouget-de-l'Isle Rue Jules-Ferry Rue du Docteur Roux Rue Charles-Vaillant Rue Jean-Jaurès Rue des Verrières Bus routes 169, 171, 179, 426 of the RATP bus network, route 469 of the Établissement Transdev de Nanterre, route 45 in the Phébus bus network and at night by N61 and N145 of the Noctilien route network.
The city makes one minibus available to people with L'autre Bus. Sèvres is served by Sèvres-Rive-Gauche station on the Transilien Paris – Montparnasse suburban rail line, it is served by Sèvres – Ville d'Avray station on the Transilien Paris – Saint-Lazare suburban rail line. It is served by the Musée de Sèvres and Brimborion stations on Line 2 of the Tramway of Île-de-France which links Paris - Porte de Versailles and La Défense. INSEE has divided the commune into ten islets grouped for statistical information; the commune of Sèvres includes 16 quarters, named as follows: In the project planning and sustainable development approved 10 May 2007, the commune displays an ambition to maintain its population around its situation of early 2005. It has a commitment to offer every household in the commune the opportunity to live and grow in Sèvres, a stake in preserving its fabric of facilities and local businesses. Studies conducted in the context of the PLH show that by 2015, this would involve the construction of 40 homes per year to maintain the communal population.
In 2005, the commune had 24.5% of its total as social housing. These homes are located along the RD 910, around the city centre; the commune displays a desire to preserve this social mix by ensuring a diversity of different types of housing, under the framework of future construction operations. As such, it shows the will to maintain its social housing stock at around 25% of the total stock of main residences. On the other hand, private rental declined between 1990 and 1999. An effort in favour of this type of housing will be always sought in order to maintain the diversity of population profiles; some areas of the city are poorly provided with social housing, the development of this type of housing should allow a better balance across the commune. The main projects are: The reconstruction of the Croix Bosset school The development of links between the banks of the Seine, the city and woodlands by pedestrian openings designed to develop a frame of soft East/West links