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S├ębastien Le Prestre de Vauban

Sébastien Le Prestre de Vauban, Seigneur de Vauban Marquis de Vauban referred to as Vauban, was a French military engineer, who participated in each of the wars fought by France during the reign of Louis XIV. Considered the expert in his field, rivaled only by his Dutch contemporary Menno van Coehoorn, his design principles served as the dominant model of fortification for nearly 100 years, while his offensive tactics remained in use until the early twentieth century, he made a number of innovations in the use of siege artillery and founded the Corps royal des ingénieurs militaires, originator of combat engineering units in the French military. He worked on many of France's major ports and harbours, as well as civilian infrastructure projects like the Canal de la Bruche. In addition to publications on engineering design and training, shortly before his death in 1707 he produced an economic tract entitled La Dîme royale destroyed by Royal decree, it contained radical proposals for a more distribution of the tax burden and the use of statistics to support his arguments makes it a precursor of modern economics.

His application of rational and scientific methods to problem-solving, whether engineering or social, anticipated an approach that became common in the Age of Enlightenment. One of the most significant and enduring aspects of Vauban's legacy was his view of France as a geographical and economic entity. Unusually for the time, Vauban advocated destroying fortifications and giving up territory as part of establishing a more coherent and defensible border; the boundaries established in the north and east as a result have changed little in the four centuries since. Sébastien le Prestre de Vauban was born 4 May 1633, in Saint-Léger-de-Foucheret, in the Nièvre, now part of Bourgogne-Franche-Comté, his birthplace was renamed Saint-Léger-Vauban by Napoleon III in 1867. His parents, Urbain le Prestre and Edmée de Comignolle, were members of the minor nobility, from Vauban in Bazoches, his grandfather Jacques acquired Château de Bazoches in 1570 when he married Françoise de la Perrière, an illegitimate daughter of the Comte de Bazouches, who died intestate.

The resulting 30 year legal battle by the Le Pestre family to retain the property proved financially ruinous. Urbain became a forestry-worker, which he combined with the design and maintenance of gardens for the local gentry; this included the Château de Ruère, owned by the Huguenot De Bricquemaut family, where Vauban spent his early years. In 1660, Vauban married Jeanne d'Aunay d'Epiry, he had a long-term relationship with Marie-Antoinette de Puy-Montbrun, daughter of an exiled Huguenot officer, referred to as la Belle Mademoiselle de Villefranche. His only sister Charlotte died young but he had a large number of relatives. Three of Paul's sons served in the army, two of whom were killed in action in 1676 and 1677; the third, became Vauban's assistant and a Lieutenant-General. Vauban was buried near his home in Bazoches; the grave was destroyed during the French Revolution and in 1808, Napoléon Bonaparte ordered his heart reburied in Les Invalides, resting place for many of France's most famous soldiers.

The first half of the 17th century in France was one of intense military strife. The religious wars that ended in 1598 restarted in the 1620s, French support for the Dutch Republic led to the 1635–1659 Franco-Spanish War followed by a 1648-1653 civil war known as the Fronde. Like many others, Vauban was impacted by these events. At the age of ten, Vauban was sent to the Carmelite college in Semur-en-Auxois, where he was taught the basics of mathematics and geometry, his father's work was relevant, since neo-classical garden design and the layout of fortifications were linked. Many worked on both, including Marlborough's military engineer John Armstrong, who designed the lake and gardens at Blenheim Palace. In 1650, Vauban joined the household of his local magnate, Condé, where he met Charles, Comte de Montal, a close neighbour from Nièvre. Colleagues for many years, Louis XIV remarked sieges should ideally be conducted by Vauban and defended by de Montal, but could only happen once, since they would kill each other.

During the 1650–1653 Fronde des nobles, Condé was arrested by the Regency Council, led by Louis XIV's mother Anne of Austria and Cardinal Mazarin. After being released in 1652, he and many of his followers went into exile in the Spanish Netherlands and allied with the Spanish. One of Condé's possessions included Sainte-Menehould, in 1652, Vauban helped construct its defences, he changed sides after being captured by a Royalist patrol in early 1653, serving in the force led by Louis Nicolas de Clerville that took Sainte-Meenhould in November. Clerville appointed Commissaire general des fortifications, employed him on siege operations, building fortifications, he was appointed Ingénieur du Roi or Royal Engineer in 1655, by the time the war ended in 1659, he was known as a talented engineer of energy and courage. Under the terms of the Treaty of the Pyrenees, Spain ceded much of French Flanders and Vau

The Million Peso Money Drop

The Million Peso Money Drop is a Philippine game show on TV5. Unlike its UK counterpart, this version is pre-recorded and not broadcast live; the show is hosted by Vic Sotto. This is the second Endemol program adapted by TV5 after Extreme Makeover: Home Edition Philippines; the show airs on Sundays, 8:30 pm. This version of the show is based on the American version which in turn is based on The Million Pound Drop Live. At the beginning, a pair of contestants are presented with a million pesos, they must be able to keep their money until the end of the game by answering 8 multiple choice questions by placing their bundles of money on the trapdoor they think is correct in 60 seconds. If they are wrong, the money placed on the trapdoor will fall down the "money drop", they may distribute their money on multiple trapdoors if they are not sure of the answer, one trapdoor must always be left empty. Whatever money they have left is theirs to keep. During the course of the game, a trapdoor is put out of the game, however the same rules of putting all money in the trapdoors and leaving at least one trapdoor clear is still implemented when the game reaches at question 5 where 3 trapdoors are used and at the final question where only 2 trapdoors are used.

The contestants may use one "Quick Change" on any question except the eighth. This feature allows them an extra 30 seconds. List of programs broadcast by TV5

Mary Matz

Mary Matz was a Pennsylvania theologian who became the first woman ordained by the Moravian Church in North America. She served as a vice president of the Moravian National Council of Churches. Mary Jane Dill was born on August 1931 in Havertown, Pennsylvania to Olive and Charles Dill. Dill was raised in the Lutheran church and after completing her basic schooling in Havertown, she attained a bachelor's degree from Grove City College in Pennsylvania in 1953. Upon completion of her degree, Dill moved to Athens, where she became the Director of Christian Education of the First Presbyterian Church. Two years on January 8, 1955, she married William W. Matz, a Moravian pastor; the couple began their first pastorate by founding the Hilltop Community Moravian Church close to Utica, New York. Throughout the next sixteen years, they served together in four congregations in the Palmyra Moravian Church at Cinnaminson, New Jersey, Sharon Moravian Church of Tuscarawas, Lititz Moravian Church in Lititz and Edgeboro Moravian Church at Bethlehem, Pennsylvania.

When William was offered the opportunity to become Vice President of Moravian College and Dean of the Moravian Theological Seminary, Matz took the opportunity to attend Seminary training. She was ordained as a minister, the first ordained woman in the Moravian Church in America, on February 16, 1975 and graduated 3 months with her Master of Divinity degree. Matz served for three years as an assistant pastor in the Central Moravian Church. In 1977, she was appointed as Director of Educational Ministries for the Northern Province of the Moravian Church, a position she held until 1995. Matz earned her doctorate in Ministry from Drew University in Madison, New Jersey in 1982; that same year she published Ministry together: A manual for shared ministry training, a book about pastors and laity working together. To further that goal, she co-founded the Lehigh Valley Lay Academy, a series of spiritual developmental classes for the ministry and laymen, she published a second book in 1990 entitled Choices and values in a changing world, which focused on Bible study choices for the modern world.

Matz held the position of interim pastor with the Lancaster Moravian Church and in the 1990s, shared the interim pastorate in Bethlehem of East Hills Moravian Church with her husband. She was a vice president of the Moravian National Council of Churches and in 1995 was honored with the John Hus Award for outstanding alumni from the Moravian Theological Seminary. Matz died on July 31, 2013, of Bethlehem, Pennsylvania. Matz, Mary D.. Introducing and testing the concept and practice of shared ministry in the East Hills Moravian Church. Drew University. Matz, Mary D.. Ministry together: A manual for shared ministry training. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania: Moravian Church. OCLC 17833701. Matz, Mary D.. Choices and values in a changing world. Winston-Salem, N. C: Interprovincial Woman's Board of the Moravian Church. OCLC 859162499

A Chair for My Mother

A Chair for My Mother is a 1983 Caldecott Honor book by Vera B. Williams. According to the book's inscription, it was written in memory of the author's mother, Rebecca Poringer Baker. In January of 2007, a 25th anniversary edition of the book was released. A Chair for My Mother is told from the first-person point of view of a young girl who watches her mother work hard to bring home money tips to put into a large jar; the little girl says that they are saving up the coins for a new chair, because their old furniture had burned up in a fire at their old house. She tells the events of the fire and how she, her mother, her grandmother had to go stay with her aunt and uncle, her aunt and uncle moved downstairs, so the girl's mother was left to fill the apartment. Everyone in the neighborhood pitched in to help them decorate their new place bringing a rug, new curtains, a kitchen table and more; the story returns to present a year after the fire. The jar is now full, so they count up all the change and put them in rolls.

They tried out lots of different chairs until they found the perfect one, red with pink flowers on it. The story wraps up with the girl, her mother, her grandmother spending time together enjoying their new chair


Ojinaga is a town and seat of the municipality of Ojinaga, in the northern Mexican state of Chihuahua. As of 2015, the town had a total population of 28,040, it is a rural bordertown on the U. S.-Mexico border, with the city of Presidio, directly opposite, on the U. S. side of the border. Ojinaga is situated where the Río Conchos drains into the Río Grande, an area called La Junta de los Rios. Presidio and Ojinaga are connected by the Presidio-Ojinaga International Bridge and the Presidio–Ojinaga International Rail Bridge. Ojinaga was founded around AD 1200 by the Pueblo Native Americans, who were assimilated by Uto-Aztecan speakers. Ojinaga was first visited by Spanish explorers in 1535. During the Mexican Revolution, Ojinaga was the scene of the Battle of Ojinaga, between Pancho Villa's revolutionaries and government troops; the U. S. writer Ambrose Bierce may have died there, although, uncertain. Ojinaga still retains its rural culture and environment, with little pollution and few urban problems.

Some of the most famous norteño-sax artists are from Ojinaga, such as Polo Urías, Adolfo Urías, Los Diamantes de Ojinaga Los Rieleros del Norte, Conjunto Primavera, Los Jilgueros del Arroyo, Los Norteños de Ojinaga. Because of its location on the Río Grande border between Chihuahua and the U. S. state of Texas, Ojinaga is a station for narcotic smuggling and illegal immigration. The creation of the "La Entrada al Pacífico" or "The Entrance to the Pacific", has made Ojinaga and Presidio, into a proposed inland trade corridor between the two countries; the route extends into Texas. Several changes have had to be made to the port of entry in Presidio, Texas, to accommodate the growing amount of traffic crossing the border. Truck lanes for heavy vehicles have been added. Ojinaga serves as a support market community for the surrounding area. Though it is on the border Ojinaga has drawn little benefit in the form of maquiladoras. Selkirk has a plant which makes chimney and air distribution products. Solitaire Homes has established a factory for producing prefabricated homes.

There are about 15,000 acres used for agriculture the largest area is in cattle pasture, the main crops are soy, corn, onions, peanuts and vegetables. There are mineral deposits which consist of lead, coal, manganese and uranium which are found here. Ojinaga Cut

Centronuclear myopathy

Centronuclear myopathies are a group of congenital myopathies where cell nuclei are abnormally located in the center of skeletal muscle cells instead of their normal location at the periphery. Symptoms of CNM include severe hypotonia, hypoxia-requiring breathing assistance, scaphocephaly. Among centronuclear myopathies, the X-linked myotubular myopathy form presents at birth, is thus considered a congenital myopathy. However, some centronuclear myopathies may present in life; as with other myopathies, the clinical manifestations of MTM/CNM are most notably muscle weakness and associated disabilities. Congenital forms present with neonatal low muscle tone, severe weakness, delayed developmental milestones and pulmonary complications. While some patients with centronuclear myopathies remain ambulatory throughout their adult life, others may never crawl or walk and may require wheelchair use for mobility. There is substantial variability in the degree of functional impairment among the various centronuclear myopathies.

Although this condition only affects the voluntary muscles, several children have suffered from cardiac arrest due to the additional stress placed on the heart. Other observed features have been long digits, bell shaped chest and long face. Myotubular does not impact intelligence in any shape or form. X-linked myotubular myopathy was traditionally a fatal condition of infancy, with life expectancy of less than two years. There appears to be substantial variability in the clinical severity for different genetic abnormalities at that same MTM1 gene. Further, published cases show significant differences in clinical severity among relatives with the same genetic abnormality at the MTM1 gene. Most truncating mutations of MTM1 cause a severe and early lethal phenotype, while some missense mutations are associated with milder forms and prolonged survival. Centronuclear myopathies have a milder presentation and a better prognosis. Researchers discovered mutations at the gene dynamin 2, responsible for the autosomal dominant form of centronuclear myopathy.

This condition is now known as dynamin 2 centronuclear myopathy. Research has indicated that patients with DNM2-CNM have a progressive muscular weakness beginning in adolescence or early adulthood, with an age range of 12 to 74 years; the genetic abnormality associated with the X-linked form of myotubular myopathy was first localized in 1990 to the X chromosome at site Xq28. MTM1 codes for the myotubularin protein, a conserved lipid phosphatase involved in cellular transport and signalling. 80% of males with myotubular myopathy diagnosed by muscle biopsy have mutations in MTM1, about 7% of these mutations are genetic deletions. Centronuclear myopathies where the genetic abnormality is NOT sex-linked are considered autosomal. Autosomal abnormalities can either be dominant or recessive, are referred to as AD for "autosomal dominant" or AR for "autosomal recessive"). Many researchers use the term "myotubular myopathy" only for cases when the genetic test has come back positive for abnormalities at the MTM1 gene on the X chromosome.

Cases with a centronuclear appearance on muscle biopsy but a normal genetic test for MTM1 would be referred to as centronuclear myopathy until such time as a specific genetic site is identified to give a more detailed sub-classification. The possible combinations of inheritance of myotubular myopathy are as follows: Sporadic cases have been reported where there is no previous family history. On examination of muscle biopsy material, the nuclear material is located predominantly in the center of the muscle cells, is described as having any "myotubular" or "centronuclear" appearance. In terms of describing the muscle biopsy itself, "myotubular" or "centronuclear” are synonymous, both terms point to the similar cellular-appearance among MTM and CNM, thus and treating physicians use those terms interchangeably, although researchers and clinicians are distinguishing between those phrases. In general, a clinical myopathy and a muscle biopsy showing a centronuclear appearance would indicate a centronuclear myopathy.

The most diagnosed CNM is myotubular myopathy. However, muscle biopsy analysis alone cannot reliably distinguish myotubular myopathy from other forms of centronuclear myopathies, thus genetic testing is required. Diagnostic workup is coordinated by a treating neurologist. In the United States, care is coordinated through clinics affiliated with the Muscular Dystrophy Association. Electrodiagnostic testing includes nerve conduction studies which involves stimulating a peripheral motor or sensory nerve and recording the response, needle electromyography, where a thin needle or pin-like electrode is inserted into the muscle tissue to look for abnormal electrical activity. Electrodiagnostic testing can help distinguish myopathies from neuropathies, which can help determine the course of further work-up. Most of the electrodiagnostic abnormalities seen in myopathies are seen in neuropathies. Electrodiagnostic abnormalities common to myopathies and neuropathies include.