London is the capital and largest city of both England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south-east of England, at the head of its 50-mile estuary leading to the North Sea, London has been a major settlement for two millennia. Londinium was founded by the Romans; the City of London, London's ancient core − an area of just 1.12 square miles and colloquially known as the Square Mile − retains boundaries that follow its medieval limits. The City of Westminster is an Inner London borough holding city status. Greater London is governed by the Mayor of the London Assembly. London is considered to be one of the world's most important global cities and has been termed the world's most powerful, most desirable, most influential, most visited, most expensive, sustainable, most investment friendly, most popular for work, the most vegetarian friendly city in the world. London exerts a considerable impact upon the arts, education, fashion, healthcare, professional services and development, tourism and transportation.
London ranks 26 out of 300 major cities for economic performance. It is one of the largest financial centres and has either the fifth or sixth largest metropolitan area GDP, it is the most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the busiest city airport system as measured by passenger traffic. It is the leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city. London's universities form the largest concentration of higher education institutes in Europe. In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted three modern Summer Olympic Games. London has a diverse range of people and cultures, more than 300 languages are spoken in the region, its estimated mid-2016 municipal population was 8,787,892, the most populous of any city in the European Union and accounting for 13.4% of the UK population. London's urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census.
The population within the London commuter belt is the most populous in the EU with 14,040,163 inhabitants in 2016. London was the world's most populous city from c. 1831 to 1925. London contains four World Heritage Sites: the Tower of London. Other landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Paul's Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square and The Shard. London has numerous museums, galleries and sporting events; these include the British Museum, National Gallery, Natural History Museum, Tate Modern, British Library and West End theatres. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world. "London" is an ancient name, attested in the first century AD in the Latinised form Londinium. Over the years, the name has attracted many mythicising explanations; the earliest attested appears in Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae, written around 1136. This had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had taken over the city and named it Kaerlud.
Modern scientific analyses of the name must account for the origins of the different forms found in early sources Latin, Old English, Welsh, with reference to the known developments over time of sounds in those different languages. It is agreed; this was adapted into Latin as Londinium and borrowed into Old English, the ancestor-language of English. The toponymy of the Common Brythonic form is much debated. A prominent explanation was Richard Coates's 1998 argument that the name derived from pre-Celtic Old European *lowonida, meaning "river too wide to ford". Coates suggested that this was a name given to the part of the River Thames which flows through London. However, most work has accepted a Celtic origin for the name, recent studies have favoured an explanation along the lines of a Celtic derivative of a proto-Indo-European root *lendh-, combined with the Celtic suffix *-injo- or *-onjo-. Peter Schrijver has suggested, on these grounds, that the name meant'place that floods'; until 1889, the name "London" applied to the City of London, but since it has referred to the County of London and Greater London.
"London" is sometimes written informally as "LDN". In 1993, the remains of a Bronze Age bridge were found on the south foreshore, upstream of Vauxhall Bridge; this bridge either reached a now lost island in it. Two of those timbers were radiocarbon dated to between 1750 BC and 1285 BC. In 2010 the foundations of a large timber structure, dated to between 4800 BC and 4500 BC, were found on the Thames's south foreshore, downstream of Vauxhall Bridge; the function of the mesolithic structure is not known. Both structures are on the south bank. Although there is evidence of scattered Brythonic settlements in the area, the first major settlement was founded by the Romans about four years after the invasion
Richmond is a town in Sagadahoc County, United States. The population was 3,411 at the 2010 census, it is Maine metropolitan statistical area. Richmond is the departure point for the state boat service to Swan Island, site of the Steve Powell Refuge and Wildlife Management Area. Swan Island is a major tourist attraction, its landscape and peaceful waters make it a beautiful place to visit in the fall and summer months. Educational tours are offered for children; each year, the Town of Richmond hosts a summer event called "Richmond Days". Everyone is welcome to attend and the activities are family-friendly, they offer tours to Swan Island, fireworks and much more. The tract of land which comprises Richmond and Gardiner was purchased in 1649 from the Abenaki Indians by Christopher Lawson. In 1719, Fort Richmond was built by Massachusetts on the western bank of the Kennebec River at what is today Richmond village. Named for Ludovic Stewart, 1st Duke of Richmond, the fort included a blockhouse, trading post, officers' and soldiers' quarters, all surrounded by a palisade.
During Dummer's War, following the battle at Arrowsic, Fort Richmond was attacked in a three-hour siege by warriors from Norridgewock. Houses were burned and cattle slain. Brunswick and other settlements near the mouth of the Kennebec were destroyed; the defense was enlarged in 1723 during Dummer's War. On August 19, 1724, a militia of 208 soldiers departed Fort Richmond under command of captains Jeremiah Moulton and Johnson Harmon, traveled up the Kennebec in 17 whaleboats and sacked Norridgewock. Fort Richmond would be rebuilt in 1740, attacked by another tribe in 1750 dismantled in 1755 when forts Shirley and Halifax were built upriver. Settled in 1725, the community was part of Bowdoinham when it was incorporated in 1762 by the Massachusetts General Court. In 1790, Revolutionary War veteran John Plummer was awarded a land grant on Plummer Road, where his son built the surviving house about 1810. President Thomas Jefferson's Embargo of 1807 crippled the port's economy, bankrupted merchants and created a recession which lingered through the War of 1812.
The town was incorporated on February 10, 1823, taking its name from the old fort. Farms produced hay and potatoes. With the arrival of steamboats in the 1830s, Richmond boomed as a shipbuilding and trade center on the navigable Kennebec River estuary. Among the more important shipbuilders were T. J. Southard considered one of the town's "founding fathers". A brass foundry was established; the community produced shoes and wood products. Its peak years were between 1835 and 1857, endowing the town with a wealth of fine Greek Revival architecture, which today makes the old river port popular with tourists. Richmond was once the center of the largest Slavic-speaking settlement in the United States. People of Ukrainian and Polish heritage emigrated to the United States during World War II to settle along the Kennebec Valley. In the 1950s and 1960s, there was a large influx of White Russian emigres, who earlier fled the Bolshevik Revolution of 1917 and came to Richmond both from Europe and from major US cities like New York City.
Many of these settlers were retirees, their families chose not to remain there. For this reason, the Richmond White Russian community has now disappeared. One of the churches that they built, the Russian Orthodox Church of St. Alexander Nevsky, continues to function to this day. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 31.56 square miles, of which 30.41 square miles is land and 1.15 square miles is water. Richmond is drained by Abagadasset River and Kennebec River. Peacock Beach State Park, established in May 2010, is a state park located on Pleasant Pond in Richmond. See also: Richmond, Maine As of the census of 2010, there were 3,411 people, 1,420 households, 965 families residing in the town; the population density was 112.2 inhabitants per square mile. There were 1,629 housing units at an average density of 53.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 97.3% White, 0.4% African American, 0.3% Native American, 0.2% Asian, 0.3% from other races, 1.5% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.9% of the population. There were 1,420 households of which 29.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.5% were married couples living together, 11.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.2% had a male householder with no wife present, 32.0% were non-families. 24.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 6.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.39 and the average family size was 2.85. The median age in the town was 42.1 years. 22% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the town was 49.0% male and 51.0% female. At the 2000 census, there were 3,298 people, 1,290 households and 900 families residing in the town; the population density was 108.5 per square mile. There were 1,475 housing units at an average density of 18.7 persons/km². The racial makeup of the town was 98.18% White, 0.42% African American, 0.18% Native American, 0.24% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 0.36% from other races, 0.55% from two or more races.
0.85% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 1,290 households of which 36.0% had children under the age of 18 l
Norridgewock is a town in Somerset County, United States. The population was 3,367 at the 2010 census. Situated on the New England and Acadia border, which New France defined as the Kennebec River, the area was once territory of the Norridgewock Indians, a band of the Abenaki nation, their village was located at Old Point, now part of Madison. English colonists suspected Father Sebastien Rale, the French missionary at the village since 1694, of abetting tribal hostilities against British settlements during the French and Indian Wars. During Father Rale's War, soldiers left Fort Richmond in whaleboats until they reached Taconic Falls marched to Norridgewock Village, arriving on August 23, 1724. Battle of Norridgewock was "sharp and decisive," leaving 26 warriors slain, 14 wounded and 150 survivors fleeing to Quebec, Canada. Father Rale was among the dead; the British settled the area in 1773 called Norridgewock Plantation. In 1775, Benedict Arnold and his troops marched through on their way to the Battle of Quebec.
The town was incorporated on June 18, 1788. It became county seat of Somerset County in 1809, with a courthouse built in 1820 and remodeled in 1847, although the county seat would be moved to Skowhegan in 1871. Wooden logs were floated down the Kennebec River. A sawmill was built to manufacture the region's abundant hardwoods, used in local factories to make carriages and furniture. Norridgewock had a gristmill and granite works. Built in 1849 and replaced in 1929, the 600-foot Norridgewock Covered Bridge across the Kennebec River was the second longest covered bridge in Maine after the 792-foot Bangor Covered Bridge, built in 1846 across the Penobscot River to Brewer; the Eaton School was organized by Hamlin F. Eaton in 1856 and incorporated in 1874 "...for the promotion of literature and morality." Its Second Empire building, designed by architect Charles F. Douglas of Lewiston became Somerset Grange #18. In 1988, it was listed on the National Register of Historic Places. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 51.21 square miles, of which 49.95 square miles is land and 1.26 square miles is water.
Norridgewock is drained by Mill Stream and Kennebec River. The village is located at the junction of U. S. Routes 2 and 201A with Maine State routes 8 and 139. Norridgewock borders the towns of Madison to the north, Skowhegan to the east and Smithfield to the south, Mercer and Starks to the west; as of the census of 2010, there were 3,367 people, 1,378 households, 984 families residing in the town. The population density was 67.4 inhabitants per square mile. There were 1,520 housing units at an average density of 30.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 97.2% White, 0.5% African American, 0.3% Native American, 0.2% Asian, 0.2% from other races, 1.6% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.5% of the population. There were 1,378 households of which 30.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.5% were married couples living together, 10.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 5.8% had a male householder with no wife present, 28.6% were non-families.
21.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.44 and the average family size was 2.78. The median age in the town was 42.7 years. 22.3% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the town was 50.0 % female. As of the census of 2000, there were 3,294 people, 1,285 households, 953 families residing in the town; the population density was 66.1 people per square mile. There were 1,389 housing units at an average density of 27.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 98.36% White, 0.30% Black or African American, 0.46% Native American, 0.12% Asian, 0.18% from other races, 0.58% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.36% of the population. There were 1,285 households out of which 35.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 60.6% were married couples living together, 9.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 25.8% were non-families.
18.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.56 and the average family size was 2.90. In the town, the population was spread out with 26.3% under the age of 18, 6.3% from 18 to 24, 30.1% from 25 to 44, 25.7% from 45 to 64, 11.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 97.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.9 males. The median income for a household in the town was $35,679, the median income for a family was $41,536. Males had a median income of $31,800 versus $20,508 for females; the per capita income for the town was $17,325. About 15.1% of families and 16.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 24.4% of those under age 18 and 12.2% of those age 65 or over. Norridgewock Historical Society & Museum Nathan Abbott, legal scholar, professor Rebecca Sophia Clarke, children's author Nathan Haskell Dole, translator, author Stephen D. Lindsey, US congressman Sebastien Rale, Jesuit missionary Minot Judson Savage, minister Cullen Sawtelle, US congressman Franklin J. Sawtelle, architect Niram Withee, Wisconsin businessman and politician Town of Norridgewock, Maine Norridgewock Free Public Library
Fort George (Brunswick, Maine)
Fort George was a British colonial fort, erected in 1715 - 1737, located in Pejepscot, when Maine was under jurisdiction of the Province of Massachusetts Bay. During King Philip's War in 1676, Wabanakis destroyed a trading post which sat beside the Androscoggin River's Pejepscot Falls. In 1688, Governor Edmund Andros built a fort in view of the falls during King William's War to prevent Wabanakis from fishing or portaging their canoes at the site; this fort was abandoned and destroyed the next year in the upheaval surrounding the Glorious Revolution in New England During the war, in Major Benjamin Church's second expedition, he arrived on 11 September 1690 with 300 men at Casco Bay. He went up the Androscoggin River to the English Fort Pejepscot. From there he attacked a native village. Three or four native men were shot in retreat. A few days in retaliation, the natives attacked Church at Cape Elizabeth on Purpooduc Point, killing 7 of his men and wounding 24 others. After Queen Anne's War, Fort George was built in 1715 by Captain John Gyles in Brunswick.
The fort was 3 feet underground with a 3-foot-thick wall base, standing at least 10 feet high above ground, laid with lime mortar. The barracks housed fifteen men. A large two-story dwelling house, appearing above the walls, made living possible; the range of its cannon protected the dwellings within their reach. During Father Rale's War, the inhabitants of Brunswick were hospitably gathered within the refuge. Many times this hospitality was strained to its most generous capacity as the onslaughts of Indian attacks were incessant; the most significant attack was when the fort was under siege during the early days of Father Rale's War. In 1725, Captain William Woodside took command of Gyles was sent to Fort St. George. In 1736, the Great and General Court of Massachusetts decided to dismantle Fort George, which would leave the town vulnerable to Indian attacks. An earnest supplication, from the people, was sent to Gov. Jonathan Belcher of Massachusetts, begging to have the fort remain. A petition was signed by twenty Brunswick families and twenty Topsham families, at the Brunswick meeting house on April 25, 1737.
All to no avail, the state legislature was deaf to the appeal and proceeded to have the fort dismantled. The order was effective and the property was to revert to the proprietors. During the French and Indian War, at a meeting of the Penobscot proprietors held October 8, 1761, a deed was executed to split the land between Jeremiah Moulton and Captain David Dunning. On November 19, 1761, a written order was given to surrender the fort and buildings to either Moulton or Dunning according to the Penobscot Papers; the ruins of this historical fort were standing until 1802. Province of Maine The New York genealogical and biographical record, Volume 29, The Lithgow Family, 1898 Descendants of John Bridge, The Lithgow Family, 1884, by William Frederick Bridge
Lithography is a method of printing based on the immiscibility of oil and water. The printing is from a metal plate with a smooth surface, it was invented in 1796 by German author and actor Alois Senefelder as a cheap method of publishing theatrical works. Lithography can be used to print artwork onto paper or other suitable material. Lithography used an image drawn with oil, fat, or wax onto the surface of a smooth, level lithographic limestone plate; the stone was treated with a mixture of acid and gum arabic, etching the portions of the stone that were not protected by the grease-based image. When the stone was subsequently moistened, these etched areas retained water; the ink would be transferred to a blank paper sheet, producing a printed page. This traditional technique is still used in some fine art printmaking applications. In modern lithography, the image is made of a polymer coating applied to a flexible plastic or metal plate; the image can be printed directly from the plate, or it can be offset, by transferring the image onto a flexible sheet for printing and publication.
As a printing technology, lithography is different from intaglio printing, wherein a plate is either engraved, etched, or stippled to score cavities to contain the printing ink. Today, most types of high-volume books and magazines when illustrated in colour, are printed with offset lithography, which has become the most common form of printing technology since the 1960s; the related term "photolithography" refers to when photographic images are used in lithographic printing, whether these images are printed directly from a stone or from a metal plate, as in offset printing. "Photolithography" is used synonymously with "offset printing". The technique as well as the term were introduced in Europe in the 1850s. Beginning in the 1960s, photolithography has played an important role in the fabrication and mass production of integrated circuits in the microelectronics industry. Lithography uses simple chemical processes to create an image. For instance, the positive part of an image is a water-repelling substance, while the negative image would be water-retaining.
Thus, when the plate is introduced to a compatible printing ink and water mixture, the ink will adhere to the positive image and the water will clean the negative image. This allows a flat print plate to be used, enabling much longer and more detailed print runs than the older physical methods of printing. Lithography was invented by Alois Senefelder in the Kingdom of Bavaria in 1796. In the early days of lithography, a smooth piece of limestone was used. After the oil-based image was put on the surface, a solution of gum arabic in water was applied, the gum sticking only to the non-oily surface. During printing, water adhered to the gum arabic surfaces and was repelled by the oily parts, while the oily ink used for printing did the opposite. Lithography works because of the mutual repulsion of water; the image is drawn on the surface of the print plate with a fat or oil-based medium such as a wax crayon, which may be pigmented to make the drawing visible. A wide range of oil-based media is available, but the durability of the image on the stone depends on the lipid content of the material being used, its ability to withstand water and acid.
After the drawing of the image, an aqueous solution of gum arabic, weakly acidified with nitric acid HNO3 is applied to the stone. The function of this solution is to create a hydrophilic layer of calcium nitrate salt, Ca2, gum arabic on all non-image surfaces; the gum solution penetrates into the pores of the stone surrounding the original image with a hydrophilic layer that will not accept the printing ink. Using lithographic turpentine, the printer removes any excess of the greasy drawing material, but a hydrophobic molecular film of it remains bonded to the surface of the stone, rejecting the gum arabic and water, but ready to accept the oily ink; when printing, the stone is kept wet with water. The water is attracted to the layer of gum and salt created by the acid wash. Printing ink based on drying oils such as linseed oil and varnish loaded with pigment is rolled over the surface; the water repels the greasy ink but the hydrophobic areas left by the original drawing material accept it.
When the hydrophobic image is loaded with ink, the stone and paper are run through a press that applies pressure over the surface, transferring the ink to the paper and off the stone. Senefelder had experimented during the early 19th century with multicolor lithography. Multi-color printing was introduced by a new process developed by Godefroy Engelmann in 1837 known as chromolithography. A separate stone was used for each color, a print went through the press separately for each stone; the main challenge was to keep the images aligned. This method lent itself to images consisting of large areas of flat color, resulted in the characteristic poster designs of this period. "Lithography, or printing from soft stone took the place of engraving in the production of English
Saint-François-du-Lac is a community in the Nicolet-Yamaska Regional County Municipality of Quebec, Canada. The population as of the Canada 2011 Census was 1,957, it is located at the confluence of the Saint Lawrence and Saint-François rivers, at the edge of Lac Saint-Pierre. Saint-François-du-Lac faces the town of Pierreville across the Saint-François River. Quebec connect it to others. Saint-François-du-Lac was founded as a French Jesuit mission village for converted Abenaki and other native peoples during the colonial years; the community was called St.-Francois-de-Sales, after Odanak, the Abenaki name. Indians in the community included Abenaki and refugees from other tribes and the wars with English colonists in eastern New England. In the aftermath of King Philip's War, which devastated southern coastal tribes, warriors from Odanak participated in retaliation in many raids against English colonial settlements, sometimes in alliance with French military leaders, they brought back English captives women and children, who were sometimes ransomed to raise money, or adopted by the Abenaki or Mohawk in mission villages near Montreal.
This was one name for the armed engagements between New England settlements of English colonists and the Wabanaki Confederacy, who were allied with New France. Indians fought from mission villages established by French priests along the northern border, in dispute between New England and New France through much of the 18th century. During Father Rale's War, on September 10, 1722, some 400 or 500 St. Francis and Mi'kmaq warriors attacked Arrowsic, Maine, in conjunction with Father Rale and Abenaki forces from Norridgewock, Maine. In the summer of 1723, the Norridgewock and 250 Indian allies from St. Francis conducted a second attack against Arrowsic. After Father Rale's War, Abenaki fled to St. Francis from Norridgewock. During the Seven Years' War, the village and buildings of St. Francis were burned in an attack by Rogers' Rangers on October 4, 1759; this irregular British provincial force raided in Quebec. As a result of its defeat by Great Britain in this war, France ceded its territory in New France and east of the Mississippi River to Great Britain.
After the devastation of the warfare, First Nations people settled again in this area. The English referred to the village as St. Francis for many years. Years Canada designated Odanak as an Indian reserve for Abenaki, next to the majority French-Canadian village of Saint-Francois-du-Lac, which historic name was restored. In the late 20th century, the national government made French an official language in the entire nation and further recognized ethnic French and Québecois interests. List of municipalities in Quebec Municipal history of Quebec Gill family residents of St Francis St. Francois de Sales
Philippe de Rigaud, Marquis de Vaudreuil
Philippe de Rigaud, Marquis de Vaudreuil was a French politician, Governor-General of New France from 1703 to 1725, throughout Queen Anne's War and Father Rale's War. Born at the Castle of Vaudreuil, near Castelnaudary, France, he was the second son of Baron de Vaudreuil. As Chevalier de Vaudreuil, he was sent to command French forces in New France before being appointed Governor of Montreal in 1702, Governor-General of New France in 1703, he died at Quebec City. He married Louise Élisabeth de Joybert, a daughter of Pierre de Joybert de Soulanges et de Marson, by his wife Marie-Françoise, daughter of Louis-Théandre Chartier de Lotbinière, they lived at Château Vaudreuil, built in 1723 by Chaussegros de Léry, but was destroyed by a fire in 1803. Their son, Pierre François de Rigaud, Marquis de Vaudreuil-Cavagnal, served as the last French Governor-General of Canada before the British Conquest of New France from 1755 to 1760 during the French and Indian War. Several of his other sons went on to distinguished careers in navy.
His grandson Louis-Philippe de Vaudreuil defeated the English Navy at the Battle of Yorktown on the Septre, was protecting George Washington's army in 1782 in Boston aboard the Triomphant. His grandson brought back the victorious French army of Rochambeau, back to France after the Siege of Yorktown. Château Vaudreuil was constructed in 1723 as his private residence in Montreal. A Squadron of cadets at the Royal Military College Saint-Jean was named in his honour. Vaudreuil is mentioned in a Fort Saint-Jean plaque erected in 1926 by Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada at the Royal Military College Saint-Jean. "Constructed in 1743 by M. de Léry under orders from Governor la Galissonnière. This post was for all the military expeditions towards Lake Champlain. In August 31, 1760, Commandant de Roquemaure had it blown up in accordance with orders from the Governor de Vaudreuil in order to prevent its falling into the hands of the English. Rebuilt by Governor Carleton, in 1773. During the same year, under the command of Major Charles Preston of the 26th Regiment, it withstood a 45-day siege by the American troops commanded by General Montgomery."
Louis-Philippe, rear admiral, knight of the order of Saint-Louis. Jean, Mousquetaire Pierre, governor of Trois-Rivières, governor of French Louisiana, Governor-General of New France. François-Pierre, conquered Fort Massachusetts, governor of Trois-Rivières, governor of Montréal. Joseph Hyacinthe, governor general of Saint-Domingue Canadian Hereditary Peers Jacques Baudry de Lamarche Zoltvany, Yves F.. "Rigaud de Vaudreuil, Philippe de". In Hayne, David. Dictionary of Canadian Biography. II. University of Toronto Press. Maude, Mary MacDougall. "Philippe de Rigaud de Vaudreuil, Marquis de Vaudreuil". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Historica Canada