click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Environmental issues in Syria

Major environmental issues in Syria include deforestation, soil erosion, water pollution from the dumping of raw sewage and wastes from petroleum refining, inadequate supplies of potable water. Water shortages, exacerbated by population growth, industrial expansion, water pollution, are a significant long-term constraint on economic development; the water shortages in Syria turned into five successive years of drought, prolonging the environmental issues that Syria had. The Assad government came into power in Syria in 1970. Hafez al-Assad ruled as President from 1971 to 2000, following his death the presidency passed to his son, Bashar al-Assad; the lack of change in environmental policies contributed to the five successive years of drought. The continuous ‘stability and peace’ movement for four decades, instilled by the Assad government transformed into institutionalizing fear and violence amongst its own people had a contribution in the 2011 Arab spring; the 2011 Arab Spring, which began as a civil uprising transformed into the Syrian Civil War.

The outbreak of the Civil War in Syria has been detrimental to environment. The toxicity of weapons used during the war such as mortar bombs, artillery shells, barrel bombs, aircraft bombs and missiles have been the leading cause for the damage to Syria's oil production, industrial areas and waste management. Therefore, the Ministry of Environmental Affairs in Syria has participated in the United Nations Conference to create the Sustainable Development Plan; this plan was created as an effort to combat desertification and climate change. At the General Assembly, it was declared that the plan had failed in terms of the setbacks that were found within the degrading land and eroding development gains; these environmental issues were related to the Syrian war. The Syrian government under the Ba'ath party has been around since 1970, has managed to stay in power until the present day by instilling an authoritarian rule on Syria and its people; the ideology of fear and violence against Syria's people was perpetuated by former President Hafez al Assad.

Upon Hafez al-Assad's death, his son – Bashar al-Assad – was named head of the Arab Socialist Ba’ath Party, is the current President of Syria. Syria has various ethnic and religious cleavages that divided but instilled a sense of loyalty amongst certain parts of the country; the main minorities in Syria include the Alawites, the Greek Orthodox Christians and other Christian sects, the Kurds, the Druze. The Sunni religious group is considered to be the majority amongst the Syrian population; the ethnic and religious diversity in Syria has caused an unequal distribution of power. The Sunni Muslims dominated politically, ensured that the Alawites were denied any political input; the Alawites – a minority – wanted to have an input in their country, causing them to claim the armed forces and the Ba’ath Party. This created a unstable Syria; the lack of stability in the country originated from the formation of the Ba’ath party in 1963. The Ba’ath party was led by ex-peasant military officers who took power with a radical point of view creating quite a few oppositions such as the old oligarchs, the Muslim Brotherhood, Nasserists.

The Ba’ath Party wanted to become “the most important and successful of the radical movements that arose in post independence Syria”, which meant that they were less to prevail if they mobilized from below, more to succeed if they launched a “revolution from above”. When the Ba’ath Party gained control of the economy, they created instability between the government and the opposition. In 1970, when Hafez al-Assad came to power, it was insured that he would leave behind the radical Ba’athist ideology that the leaders before him had held on to, leading him to opt for a more monarchical presidency, his presidency was the beginning of a façade presidential republic. There were no real oppositions. If opposition were to happen, Hafez had run a patronage-based community which allowed him to control any form of chaos that were to happen in Syria; the government used coercion to keep Syria under control. There were various coercive tactics that were used such as the Massacre of the Muslim brotherhood in Hama in 1982, the ‘incommunicado’ detention centers and military prisons where they mistreated and dehumanized the prisoners.

Hafez was sure to make an example out of those who opposed him to keep the control within the hands of his government. The various ethnic and religious cleavages were used to maintain control over the party and police forces, government institutions. Since Hafez and the armed forces were both Alawite, he was able to ensure loyalty; the loyalty, given by the military and police forces allowed him to keep any opposition from rising against his government. After ensuring his authority, Hafez was able to begin his transition towards a market economy through institutionalizing a “social contract”; the state would provide the people of Syria subsidized food and public employment with the exception of surrendering their political rights. To reinforce the economic liberalization, he would go on to creating a cross-sectarian coalition between the Sunni bourgeoisie and the Alawite military elites – helping him gain power and instil a stable Syria. In 2000, Hafez al-Assad died, the power was passed on to his eldest son – Bashar al-Assad.

He was not involved in political affairs and was not exp

Black Eagle Brewery

The Black Eagle Brewery is the former brewing plant of Truman's Brewery located around Brick Lane in the Spitalfields area, in the London Borough of Tower Hamlets. Truman's subsequently became Truman and Buxton. By 1853, the Black Eagle Brewery was the largest in the world, with an annual production of 400,000 barrels; the former buildings and yards were redeveloped by The Zeloof Partnership as the "Old Truman Brewery" and now house over 250 businesses, ranging from cultural venues to art galleries and retail shops. The Director's House and former Brew House are listed buildings; the original brewery was established by the Bucknall family, who leased the site in the seventeenth century. The site's first associations with brewing can be traced back to 1666 when a Joseph Truman is recorded as joining William Bucknall's Brewhouse in Brick Lane. Part of the site was located on Black Eagle Street, hence the brewery's name. Truman appears to have acquired the lease of the brewery in 1679, upon the death of William Bucknell.

Through the Truman family's efforts – not least those of Sir Benjamin Truman – the business expanded over the following 200 years. By 1748 the Black Eagle Brewery was the third largest brewery in London, the world, with 40,000 barrels produced annually. In the mid-18th century Huguenot immigrants introduced a new beverage flavoured with hops, which proved popular. Truman's imported hops from Belgium, but Kent farmers were soon encouraged to grow hops to help the brewery meet growing demand. Sir Benjamin died in March 1780 and, without a son to take on the business, it passed to his grandsons. In 1789, the brewery was taken over by Sampson Hanbury. Hanbury's nephew, Thomas Fowell Buxton, joined the company in 1808, improved the brewing process, converted the works to steam power and, with the rapid expansion and improvement of Britain's road and rail transport networks, the Black Eagle label soon became famous across Britain; the Brick Lane brewery – now known as Truman, Buxton & Co – took on new partners in 1816, the Pryor brothers.

By 1853 the brewery was the largest in the world, producing 400,000 barrels of beer each year, with a site covering six acres. However, the company faced competition from breweries based outside London – notably in Burton upon Trent, where the water was suitable for brewing – and in 1873 the company acquired a brewery in Burton and began to build a major new brewery, named the Black Eagle after the original London site. In 1888, Hanbury, Buxton & Co became a public company with shareholders, but the balance of production was now shifting to Burton; the Brick Lane brewery site covered six acres by 1898. The Brick Lane facility remained active through a take-over by the Grand Metropolitan Group in 1971 and a merger with Watney Mann in 1972, but it was in terminal decline, it closed in 1989. In Charles Dickens’ novel David Copperfield, the character Mrs Micawber makes specific reference to Messrs Truman and Buxton):... I have long felt the brewing business to be adapted to Mr Micawber. Look at Barclay and Perkins!

Look at Truman and Buxton! It is on that extensive footing that Mr Micawber, I know from my own knowledge of him, is calculated to shine, but if Mr Micawber cannot get into those firms—which decline to answer his letters, when he offers his services in an inferior capacity—what is the use of dwelling upon that idea? In 2014/15 the Black Eagle Brewery featured in the fifth episode of the third series of the fictional BBC TV period drama Ripper Street, where protective employees harassed and killed London publicans who had changed supplier and were buying wares from breweries in Burton-upon-Trent. While a fictional account, the storyline reflected the real concerns that the London breweries had in late Victorian times, as rival product was brought from the north of England by the expanding railway network; the old brewery buildings have become home to an arts and events centre and various shops and bars and it is now owned by The Zeloof Partnership. Business and leisure share the regenerated 11-acre site for restaurants, shops, events spaces, offices and two weekly fashion markets.

The buildings were expected to undergo significant changes as part of the Tower Hamlets Council's 2007'City Fringe Area Action Plan'. The site was the location for the second Summer of Sonic event, a convention for Sonic the Hedgehog fans, which took place on 29 August 2009.'Industries: Brewing', A History of the County of Middlesex: Volume 2: General. Date accessed: 27 March 2010.'Plate 53: Truman's Brewery, Brick Lane.', Survey of London: volume 27: Spitalfields and Mile End New Town, pp. 53. Date accessed: 27 March 2010.'The Black Eagle Brewery, Brick Lane', Survey of London: volume 27: Spitalfields and Mile End New Town, pp. 116-22 Date accessed: 23 February 2007 Old Truman Brewery website

Apostolic Christian Church

The Apostolic Christian Church is a worldwide Christian denomination from the anabaptist tradition that practices credobaptism, closed communion, greeting other believers with a holy kiss, a capella worship in some branches, the headcovering of women during services. The Apostolic Christian Church only ordains men, who are authorized to administer baptism, the Lord's Supper, the laying on of hands. Not every Apostolic Christian Church practices the women's headcovering; the origins of the Apostolic Christian Church are found in the conversion experience of Samuel Heinrich Froehlich of Switzerland. Froehlich soon founded the Evangelical Baptist Church; the first American church was formed in Lewis County, New York, in 1847 by Benedict Weyeneth, sent by Froehlich at the request of Joseph Virkler, a Lewis County minister in an Alsatian Amish-Mennonite church. In 1848 a church was formed in Ohio; the church experienced primary growth in the Midwest, where many congregations gained membership from local Amish and Mennonite churches.

Though sometimes referred to as the New Amish, these believers called themselves Evangelical Baptist. In 1917, the church adopted a uniform name: Apostolic Christian Church. There are at least five main divisions of this church in America. In the early 1900s a disagreement arose over the practice of some European customs and the church split into two bodies. In 1932 a second schism originated from a letter sent by elders in Europe asking for greater adherence to traditional teachings and practices; those adhering to the request of the letter separated themselves from the Apostolic Christian Church of America and became known as the Christian Apostolic Church. The Apostolic Christian Church of America did not retain German language preaching, it is a common misconception. The Apostolic Christian Church of America has about 93 congregations in 22 states, including 1 church in Canada, 5 in Mexico, 2 in Japan; the total number of members is 11,500. This church has a national missionary committee/humanitarian aid program called HarvestCall, eleven retirement communities/nursing homes for the elderly, a home for people with developmental disabilities in Morton, Apostolic Christian Counseling & Family Services in Morton, IL, a children's home in Leo, Indiana.

The Apostolic Christian Church has 50 congregations in the United States, with 2756 members, 14 congregations in Canada with about 850 members, 6 congregations in Australia with 200 members, 16 congregations in Argentina with about 1200 members, one congregation the Republic of Hungary with 1,000–2,000 members as well as congregations in Brazil and Mexico. They have mission work in New Guinea, Argentina and Paraguay. Though the minority of the split, this body remained in fellowship with the European churches. There is a small congregation of Nazareans in Israel; the Nazarene Christian Congregation is the result of a split during World War II which had to do with disagreements in caving to Communist demands in Yugoslavia. This church split into two sides during the early 2000s; the NCC has churches in former Yugoslavia, United States, Canada, with more members in Yugoslavia than anywhere else. In North America the church has shrunk considerably; the German Apostolic Christian Church has several congregations in the United States and Europe.

There are about 150 members in the United States in Illinois and Oregon. This German Apostolic Christian Church is the result of a small group splitting away from the Apostolic Christian Church in 1932 and 1933 with four congregations: Cissna Park, IL, it had a congregation in Sabetha, KS, this became one of the Christian Apostolic Churches after 1955. Until 1955 this church was known as Christian Apostolic Church, afterwards it named itself German Apostolic Christian Church; the German language is still predominantly used in worship services, but not anymore as the internal group's language or mother language. The Christian Apostolic Church has three churches in Forrest, IL. Quite a number of other Christian Apostolic groups existed for a while beside this bigger group, some still do today as home gatherings; this new group retained its old church name in opposition to its mother group. Members have retained traditional teaching on divorce and remarriage, birth control, higher education, whereas the Apostolic Christian Church of America and Apostolic Christian Church have departed somewhat from earlier practice in these areas.

The Christian Apostolic Church was the result of a 1955 schism from the German Apostolic Christian Church. The Apostolic Christian Faith Church has two churches in Canada, about 25 churches in the United States with 1,100 members. Members have retained what they believe are doctrine, their manner of worship and fellowship is very similar to the church they withdrew from. However, they reject the New Evangelical thinking that they believe has influenced a portion of the Apostolic Christian Church of America, they reject the thought that believers "sin daily". The European German language bodies have faced divisio

Sturgeon-Weir River

The Sturgeon-Weir River is a river in east-central Saskatchewan, Canada. It flows about 130 km south-southeast to join the Saskatchewan River at Cumberland House, Saskatchewan, it was on the main voyageur route from eastern Canada northeast to the Mackenzie River basin. The river is a popular wilderness canoe route in Canada; the river's source is Corneille Lake, near the community of Pelican Narrows. It travels in a southeast direction, it continues southeasterly to Sturgeon Landing and Namew Lake. It runs through the Churchill River Uplands ecoregion, located along the southern edge of the Precambrian Shield; the area contains continuous coniferous and boreal forest, consisting of closed stands of black spruce and jack pine and a ground cover of mosses and lichens. Local relief exceeds 25 m, but there are ridged steeply sloping rocky uplands and lowlands with exposed bedrock throughout. Wildlife includes barren-ground caribou, black bear, wolf, muskrat, snowshoe hare and red-backed vole. Bird species include raven, common loon, spruce grouse, bald eagle, Canada jay, hawk owl, waterfowl, including ducks and geese.

Trapping, hunting and tourism are occasional uses of land in this region. The river is a important route connecting the Saskatchewan and Churchill River systems, it has been used since prehistoric times and archeological digs have uncovered pottery dating to 1100 CE. The first European to explore the river may have been Hudson's Bay Company fur trader Isaac Batt in the winter of 1766–67. In 1776, Alexander Henry with Joseph Frobisher, Thomas Frobisher, J. B. Cadotte travelled up the river from Cumberland House and established a fort at the river's outlet from Amisk Lake, called Fort Beaver Lake; this became the preferred fur trade route connecting the Saskatchewan River system to northern Canada. It linked the important trading posts of Cumberland House to the Frog Portage, Île à la Crosse and Lake Athabasca. However, its steep gradient led voyageurs to call it the Rivière Bad River. A traveller in the early 19th century recorded "This river is most appropriately named by the Canadians; the explorer Sir Alexander Mackenzie described it as "an continual rapid".

In 1779 Philip Turnor was the first to note it on a map as a "river leading northward and upon the back of the Churchill]]. Its route was first recorded on an Aaron Arrowsmith map published in 1802. David Thompson recorded its length and named it "Sturgeon Weir River" in his 1814 map of the North-West Territory. Amisk Lake List of rivers of Saskatchewan

Luciano Angeloni

Luciano Angeloni was an Italian prelate of the Catholic Church who spent his career in the diplomatic service of the Holy See. Luciano Angeloni was born in Imperia, Italy, on 2 December 1917, he was ordained a priest on 18 August 1940. To prepare for a diplomatic career he entered the Pontifical Ecclesiastical Academy in 1953. On 24 December 1970, Pope Paul VI appointed him a titular archbishop and Apostolic Pro-Nuncio to Malawi and to Zambia, his received his episcopal consecration on 7 February 1971 from Cardinal Paolo Bertoli. On 25 November 1978, Pope John Paul II named him Apostolic Pro-Nuncio to Korea. On 21 August 1982, he was appointed Apostolic Nuncio to Lebanon. On 31 July 1989, he was appointed Apostolic Nuncio to Portugal, his service as nuncio ended with the appointment of his successor on 15 March 1993. On 29 November 1993 he was named a consultor to the Secretariat of State and on 25 January 1994 he was appointed to a 5-year term as a member of the Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples.

He died on 9 May 1996. Catholic Hierarchy: Archbishop Luciano Angeloni