Stockholm is the capital of Sweden and the most populous urban area in the Nordic countries. The city stretches across fourteen islands. Just outside the city and along the coast is the island chain of the Stockholm archipelago; the area has been settled since the Stone Age, in the 6th millennium BC, was founded as a city in 1252 by Swedish statesman Birger Jarl. It is the capital of Stockholm County. Stockholm is the cultural, media and economic centre of Sweden; the Stockholm region alone accounts for over a third of the country's GDP, is among the top 10 regions in Europe by GDP per capita. It is an important global city, the main centre for corporate headquarters in the Nordic region; the city is home to some of Europe's top ranking universities, such as the Stockholm School of Economics, Karolinska Institute and Royal Institute of Technology. It hosts the annual Nobel Prize ceremonies and banquet at the Stockholm Concert Hall and Stockholm City Hall. One of the city's most prized museums, the Vasa Museum, is the most visited non-art museum in Scandinavia.
The Stockholm metro, opened in 1950, is well known for the decor of its stations. Sweden's national football arena is located north of the city centre, in Solna. Ericsson Globe, the national indoor arena, is in the southern part of the city; the city was the host of the 1912 Summer Olympics, hosted the equestrian portion of the 1956 Summer Olympics otherwise held in Melbourne, Australia. Stockholm is the seat of the Swedish government and most of its agencies, including the highest courts in the judiciary, the official residencies of the Swedish monarch and the Prime Minister; the government has its seat in the Rosenbad building, the Riksdag is seated in the Parliament House, the Prime Minister's residence is adjacent at Sager House. Stockholm Palace is the official residence and principal workplace of the Swedish monarch, while Drottningholm Palace, a World Heritage Site on the outskirts of Stockholm, serves as the Royal Family's private residence. After the Ice Age, around 8,000 BC, there were many people living in what is today the Stockholm area, but as temperatures dropped, inhabitants moved south.
Thousands of years as the ground thawed, the climate became tolerable and the lands became fertile, people began to migrate back to the North. At the intersection of the Baltic Sea and lake Mälaren is an archipelago site where the Old Town of Stockholm was first built from about 1000 CE by Vikings, they had a positive trade impact on the area because of the trade routes they created. Stockholm's location appears in Norse sagas as Agnafit, in Heimskringla in connection with the legendary king Agne; the earliest written mention of the name Stockholm dates from 1252, by which time the mines in Bergslagen made it an important site in the iron trade. The first part of the name means log in Swedish, although it may be connected to an old German word meaning fortification; the second part of the name means islet, is thought to refer to the islet Helgeandsholmen in central Stockholm. According to Eric Chronicles the city is said to have been founded by Birger Jarl to protect Sweden from sea invasions made by Karelians after the pillage of Sigtuna on Lake Mälaren in the summer of 1187.
Stockholm's core, the present Old Town was built on the central island next to Helgeandsholmen from the mid-13th century onward. The city rose to prominence as a result of the Baltic trade of the Hanseatic League. Stockholm developed strong economic and cultural linkages with Lübeck, Gdańsk, Visby and Riga during this time. Between 1296 and 1478 Stockholm's City Council was made up of 24 members, half of whom were selected from the town's German-speaking burghers; the strategic and economic importance of the city made Stockholm an important factor in relations between the Danish Kings of the Kalmar Union and the national independence movement in the 15th century. The Danish King Christian II was able to enter the city in 1520. On 8 November 1520 a massacre of opposition figures called the Stockholm Bloodbath took place and set off further uprisings that led to the breakup of the Kalmar Union. With the accession of Gustav Vasa in 1523 and the establishment of a royal power, the population of Stockholm began to grow, reaching 10,000 by 1600.
The 17th century saw Sweden grow into a major European power, reflected in the development of the city of Stockholm. From 1610 to 1680 the population multiplied sixfold. In 1634, Stockholm became the official capital of the Swedish empire. Trading rules were created that gave Stockholm an essential monopoly over trade between foreign merchants and other Swedish and Scandinavian territories. In 1697, Tre Kronor was replaced by Stockholm Palace. In 1710, a plague killed about 20,000 of the population. After the end of the Great Northern War the city stagnated. Population growth halted and economic growth slowed; the city was in shock after having lost its place as the capital of a Great power. However, Stockholm maintained its role as the political centre of Sweden and continued to develop culturally under Gustav III. By the second half of the 19th century, Stockholm had regained its leading economic role. New industries emerged and Stockholm was transformed into an important trade and service centre as well as a key gateway point within Sweden.
The population grew during this time through immigration. At the end
Stockholm County Council
The Stockholm County Council, or Stockholms läns landsting, is a County Council, a regional municipal body corresponding to the territory of Stockholm County in Sweden. Its main responsibilities are for the public transport; the Landsting Assembly election results 2014: Karolinska University Hospital Storstockholms Lokaltrafik Stockholm Metro Roslagsbanan Politics of Sweden Elections in Sweden Stockholm City Council Stockholm County Administrative Board List of Stockholm Governors Stockholm County Council - Official site
An Underground Hospital is a building with facilities that can be moved into in order to protect its patients and medical personnel from attack during times of war. They were used during World War II but few now remain operational; the Ceppo Hospital of Pistoia was founded in 1277 in a labyrinth of tunnels under the city and is one of the oldest continuously operating hospitals in the world. “Carriere Suzanne“ was an underground hospital built during the First World War in a limestone quarry the “Carrieres de Montigny”, north of Compiègne. A hospital was built inside tunnels under Arras, named Carrière Wellington, with facilities for 700 beds. Hohlgangsanlage 8 was an artillery storage tunnel build by Organisation Todt workers for the Germans during World War II in St. Lawrence, converted to a hospital to deal with casualties after the Normandy landings on 6 June 1944; the tunnel complex is open to the public during the summer months. Hohlgangsanlage 7/40 two interconnected cave passage installations of 7,000m², were built in 1942-43 by German Fortress Engineer and Organisation Todt workers to store vehicles, food and equipment.
Part of Ho. 7/40 was equipped and used for a short while in 1944 as a hospital, as the planned hospital tunnel had not been built, however patients underground did not recuperate well. The tunnel complex is open to the public during the summer months. During the Second World War, the Mtarfa Hospital was reorganized as the 90th General Hospital and expanded to accommodate a maximum of 1200 beds. An underground hospital was excavated under the military hospital. RAF Little Rissington was believed by locals to have a nuclear-proof underground hospital built by the United States Air Force; this rumour was, never verified. Little Rissington became the largest military contingency hospital in Europe; the aerodrome was cleared for C-5 Galaxies. During the Gulf War, Little Rissington was held on its highest readiness state for several decades as it prepared for casualties; the USAF left Little Rissington in 1993 and it was handed back to the Royal Air Force. Israel has five hospitals dedicated with underground facilities.
2 of the hospitals have underground car parks which can be converted into hospital wards complete with operating rooms and Emergency Rooms at short notice. Two others have dedicated underground bunkers. During the 2006 Lebanon War, Northern Israel was bombarded by rockets in civilian populated areas as well as rockets landing within close proximity to hospitals in the area, during which the Emergency Rooms in Rambam Health Care Campus, continued treating over 7000 routine-emergency patients and war casualties while under fire, it was decided that Israel was in need of hospitals capable of withstanding attack against their facilities, while continuing with Patient Care. Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center is the main hospital serving Israel, it is the third-largest hospital complex in the country. In 2011, a 700-1,000 bed bombproof emergency facility was opened; the building, with 13 stories above ground and four stories underground, provides protection against conventional and biological attack.
Construction began in 2008. The cost of the building was $110 million, with a donation of $45 million from Israeli billionaire Sammy Ofer; the architect was grandson of Arieh Sharon who designed the original facility. Rambam Health Care Campus the largest medical center in northern Israel and fifth largest in Israel, began in October 2010 work on a protected emergency underground hospital designed to withstand conventional and biological attacks; the project included a three-floor parking lot that could be transformed at short notice into a 2,000-bed hospital. The hospital can generate its own power and store enough oxygen, drinking water and medical supplies for up to three days. At the dedication, RHCC Director General Prof. Rafael Beyar said "The ER was filled with badly wounded. I looked at the nurses ignoring the missiles; the need for a modern, protected building was obvious, we at Rambam took it upon ourselves as a national mission." The 90 million shekel fortified emergency room at Beilinson Hospital in Petach Tikvah has gone operational, becoming Israel’s largest ER.
The 5,000 square meter facility is capable of treating 200,000 patients annually. The new facility offers the best medicine has to offer; each patient has his or her own room, unlike standard ERs in which patients are separated by a curtain which adds a measure of patient privacy. There is a trauma center capable of addressing numerous patients simultaneously. Included in the facility is dedicated imaging facilities, including X-ray, CT scan, Ultrasound. Shaare Zedek Medical Center has a three-story underground facility that can be activated in times of war. Hadassah Medical Center Ein Kerem campus has a five-floor underground facility; the hospital Södersjukhuset in Stockholm has an underground complex measuring 4,700 square meters called DEMC, completed and inaugurated on 25 November 1994. In peacetime the complex is used for scientific research. In case of disaster or war the complex is operational as a normal hospital, it has 270 beds in peacetime and 160 in wartime. Doctors and international N.
G. O.s have created an elaborate network of underground hospitals throughout Syria. Installing cameras in intensive-care units, so that doctors abroad can monitor patients by Skype and direct technicians to administer proper treatment. In 2016, because of the number of hospitals that have been damaged or destroyed in the city, hospitals have moved underground
A hospital is a health care institution providing patient treatment with specialized medical and nursing staff and medical equipment. The best-known type of hospital is the general hospital, which has an emergency department to treat urgent health problems ranging from fire and accident victims to a sudden illness. A district hospital is the major health care facility in its region, with a large number of beds for intensive care and additional beds for patients who need long-term care. Specialized hospitals include trauma centers, rehabilitation hospitals, children's hospitals, seniors' hospitals, hospitals for dealing with specific medical needs such as psychiatric treatment and certain disease categories. Specialized hospitals can help reduce health care costs compared to general hospitals. Hospitals are classified as general, specialty, or government depending on the sources of income received. A teaching hospital combines assistance to people with teaching to medical nurses; the medical facility smaller than a hospital is called a clinic.
Hospitals have a range of departments and specialist units such as cardiology. Some hospitals have outpatient departments and some have chronic treatment units. Common support units include a pharmacy and radiology. Hospitals are funded by the public sector, health organisations, health insurance companies, or charities, including direct charitable donations. Hospitals were founded and funded by religious orders, or by charitable individuals and leaders. Hospitals are staffed by professional physicians, surgeons and allied health practitioners, whereas in the past, this work was performed by the members of founding religious orders or by volunteers. However, there are various Catholic religious orders, such as the Alexians and the Bon Secours Sisters that still focus on hospital ministry in the late 1990s, as well as several other Christian denominations, including the Methodists and Lutherans, which run hospitals. In accordance with the original meaning of the word, hospitals were "places of hospitality", this meaning is still preserved in the names of some institutions such as the Royal Hospital Chelsea, established in 1681 as a retirement and nursing home for veteran soldiers.
During the Middle Ages, hospitals served different functions from modern institutions. Middle Ages hospitals were hostels for pilgrims, or hospital schools; the word "hospital" comes from the Latin hospes, signifying a foreigner, hence a guest. Another noun derived from this, hospitium came to signify hospitality, the relation between guest and shelterer, hospitality and hospitable reception. By metonymy the Latin word came to mean a guest-chamber, guest's lodging, an inn. Hospes is thus the root for the English words host hospitality, hospice and hotel; the latter modern word derives from Latin via the ancient French romance word hostel, which developed a silent s, which letter was removed from the word, the loss of, signified by a circumflex in the modern French word hôtel. The German word'Spital' shares similar roots; the grammar of the word differs depending on the dialect. In the United States, hospital requires an article; some patients go to a hospital just for diagnosis, treatment, or therapy and leave without staying overnight.
Hospitals are distinguished from other types of medical facilities by their ability to admit and care for inpatients whilst the others, which are smaller, are described as clinics. The best-known type of hospital is the general hospital known as an acute-care hospital; these facilities handle many kinds of disease and injury, have an emergency department or trauma center to deal with immediate and urgent threats to health. Larger cities may have several hospitals of facilities; some hospitals in the United States and Canada, have their own ambulance service. A district hospital is the major health care facility in its region, with large numbers of beds for intensive care, critical care, long-term care. In California, "district hospital" refers to a class of healthcare facility created shortly after World War II to address a shortage of hospital beds in many local communities. Today, district hospitals are the sole public hospitals in 19 of California's counties, are the sole locally-accessible hospital within nine additional counties in which one or more other hospitals are present at substantial distance from a local community.
Twenty-eight of California's rural hospitals and 20 of its critical-access hospitals are district hospitals. They are formed by local municipalities, have boards that are individually elected by their local communities, exist to serve local needs, they are a important provider of healthcare to uninsured patients and patients with Medi-Cal. In 2012, district hospitals provided $54 million in uncompensated care in California. Types of specialised hospitals incl
Kreuger & Toll
Kreuger & Toll was a company founded May 18, 1908 by the two Swedish engineers, Ivar Kreuger and Paul Toll, with Henrik Kreüger working as a consultant and chief engineer. Early 1908, Ivar and his cousin Henrik Kreüger had planned to found a construction company that would work for the US company Trussed Concrete Steel Co. on the Swedish market, to represent its new building methods based on reinforced concrete. At the same time Henrik Kreüger had introduced Paul Toll to Ivar, it turned out that Ivar formed the company with Paul, who had several years of practical experience in the construction business as an engineer, was site manager for the Swedish construction company Kasper & Höglund AB. The company was founded as a construction company with the name Kreuger & Toll May 18, 1908 by Ivar Kreuger and Paul Toll with a total start capital of 10,000 SEK; the company was set up with a profit split 50/50 between Ivar and Paul. The original capital was raised by the banker Oscar Rydbeck that became Ivar's main bank contact and economic adviser all along until the so-called Kreuger crash in April 1932.
On August 10, 1911 the company changed to AB with the registered name Kreuger & Toll AB. In 1917 Kreuger & Toll AB was divided in two parts. At the same time Swedish Match was founded. In parallel Kreuger started to invest in a number of industrial companies in the Swedish industry. In 1923 Kreuger founded the holding company IMCO together with Lee, Higginson & Co. in New York City. IMCO handled the Kreuger match business in America, South America and other countries outside Europe. During the year 1930, 64% of the entire trade on the Stockholm stock exchange was related to Kreuger companies, which were involved in complicated international financial operations. In April 1932, a month after Ivar Kreuger's suicide, most of the Kreuger empire went bankrupt as well as Ivar Kreuger himself, who left nothing behind for his family. All of Kreuger's personal belongings, including houses, furniture, etc. was sold at several auctions in 1932. Kreuger & Toll Construction AB however survived, as this company did not belong to the holding company, although the financial connections between these companies was never clarified.
The company changed its name to just Toll Construction AB. The company merged with another Swedish construction company in 1968. Swedish Match was reconstructed in 1936 with the help of government guaranteed loans, repaid within a couple of years, but IMCO did not survive; the work with the bankruptcy took nine years, was not completed until 1941. One of the reasons for the long investigation time was that the documentation was insufficient, transactions were difficult to follow and complex cross-ownerships between the companies, impossible to straighten out. Ivar Kreuger had made complex transactions that no one else except himself knew about. Only Kreuger had the full view of. A summary of the economics for the holding company Kreuger & Toll AB, including the American holding company IMCO, excluding the construction business within Kreuger & Toll Construction AB, was carried out in 1943, showing the following figures. Swedish Match and Kreuger & Toll AB holding company headquarters was the Tändstickspalatset with the address Västra Trädgårdsgatan 15 in Stockholm, where Ivar Kreuger had his Swedish office.
The house was built by Kreuger & Toll Construction AB. The main office for the Swedish Match remained in the same building until 1991. Kreuger crash
A military hospital is a hospital, owned and operated by the armed forces. They are reserved for the use of military personnel and their dependents, but in some countries are made available to civilians as well, they may not be located on a military base. In the United Kingdom and Germany, British military hospitals have been closed. Service personnel injured in combat operations are treated at the Royal Centre for Defence Medicine. Former British military hospitals include: West Germany BMH Hanover, Germany - closed and mobilized as 32nd Field Hospital to Saudi Arabia during the Gulf War in 1990 BMH Rinteln, Germany - closed and now home to charity organization BMH Iserlohn, Germany - closed 1990s RAFH Wegberg, Germany BMH Hostert, Germany - 1950s/60s BMH Münster BMH Wuppertal BMH BerlinUnited Kingdom BMH Cowglen Glasgow Cambridge Military Hospital, Aldershot Colchester Military Hospital - Colchester Garrison DKMH Catterick - Friarage Hospital Duke of Connaught Unit Northern Ireland Queen Alexandra's Military Hospital, Millbank Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Woolwich Musgrave Park Hospital Royal Victoria Hospital, Netley Netley Hospital Royal Hospital Chelsea Royal Hospital Haslar, Gosport Royal Herbert Hospital, Woolwich Stoke Military Hospital, Devonport Tidworth Military Hospital Military Hospital Wheatley - now Wheatley Park School Cyprus TPMH RAF Akrotiri BMH Dhekelia BMH NicosiaEgypt BMH AlexandriaChina BMH ShanghaiHong Kong BMH Bowen Road Hong Kong BMH Mount KellettOthers - Asia BMH Singapore - now Alexandra Hospital - part of National University Health System BMH NepalGhana 37 Military Hospital Kumasi Military HospitalAmericas Belize HospitalIndia Command Hospitals only treats military and civilians are not entertained.
They are located in 7 cities. Africa-Middle East King Hussein Medical Center, Amman - Jordan BMH Nairobi BMH Gibraltar BMH Malta Pictures of Israeli military hospital in 1948. Field hospital Military Health System Royal Naval Hospital
Södermalm shortened to “Söder”, is a district and island in central Stockholm. The district covers the large island of the same name. Although Södermalm is considered an island, water to both its north and south does not flow but passes through locks. Södermalm is connected to its surrounding areas by a number of bridges, it connects to Gamla stan to the north by Slussen, a grid of road and rail and a lock that separates the lake Mälaren from the Baltic Sea, to Långholmen to the northwest by one of the city's larger bridges, Västerbron, to the islet Reimersholme to the west, to Liljeholmen to the southwest by the bridge Liljeholmsbron, to Årsta by Årstabron and Skansbron, to Johanneshov by Johanneshovsbron and Skanstullsbron to the south, to Södra Hammarbyhamnen to the east by Danvikstull Bridge. Administratively, Södermalm is part of Stockholm Municipality, it constitutes, together with Gamla stan and some other districts, from 2007 the administrative district Södermalms stadsdelsområde translated as Södermalm borough.
The name Södermalm is first mentioned in 1288 in a letter from Bishop Anund of Strängnäs. Until the early 17th century Södermalm was a rural, agricultural area, its first urban areas were planned and built in the mid 17th century, comprising a mixture of working class housing, such as the little red cottages of which a few can still be seen in northeastern Södermalm, the summer houses and pavilions of wealthier families, such as Emanuel Swedenborg's pavilion, now in the outdoor museum Skansen. During this time, it was the location of the first theatre in Scandinavia, Björngårdsteatern. Södermalm is poetically named “Söders höjder”, which reflects its topography of sheer cliffs and rocky hills. Indeed, the hills of Södermalm provide remarkable views of Stockholm's skyline. In the 18th century, the working-class cottages that clung to Mariaberget, the steep cliffs facing Riddarfjärden, were replaced by the large buildings that are still present today, it was not until the beginning of the 20th century that urbanisation grasped the entire width of Södermalm, today parts of Södermalm have a rural feeling to them, as for instance the landscape of tiny allotments that climb the slopes of Eriksdal.
Södermalm was once known as the "slum" area of Stockholm. However today, Södermalm is known as the home of bohemian, alternative culture and a broad range of cultural amenities. Meanwhile, the growing demand of housing, as well as an increasing gentrification of Stockholm's central parts, makes apartments in Södermalm more and more difficult or expensive to come by, thus what was. There are four parishes of the Church of Sweden on the island: Högalid, partitioned from the parish of Maria Magdalena in 1925. Maria Magdalena, partitioned from the Stockholm Cathedral parish in 1591, subsequently divided into the modern parishes. Katarina, partitioned from Maria Magdalena in 1654. Sofia, partitioned from Katarina in 1917 and includes parts of the mainland south of Södermalm. Södermalm is divided into the following neighbourhoods: Högalid: Bergsund Drakenberg Heleneborg Tantolunden Zinkensdamm Maria Magdalena: Mariaberget Mariatorget Slussen Södra stationsområdet Åsö: Eriksdal Helgalund Medborgarplatsen Rosenlund Skanstull Katarina-Sofia: Blecktornsområdet Danvikstull Ersta Norra Hammarbyhamnen Nytorget Mosebacke Göta LejonHögalid Church Karl Johanslussen Katarina Elevator Katarina Church Maria Magdalena Church Medborgarhuset Stockholm Mosque St. Eric's Cathedral Skatteskrapan Slussen Södra teatern Sofia kyrka Stockholm South Station Söder Torn Nytorget The songs and poems of the popular 18th century poet and songwriter Carl Michael Bellman are filled with recurring references to names of places bars and meadhalls, on Södermalm.
The celebrated first paragraph of August Strindberg's satirical novel The Red Room describes Stockholm as seen from Mosebacke on Södermalm, where much of the story takes place. City of My Dreams, the first in a series of books by Per Anders Fogelström telling the story of several generations of Stockholmers, follows the young worker Henning's life on Södermalm. Lisbeth Salander and other characters in the Millennium Trilogy by Stieg Larsson live and work on Södermalm. Much of the action in those books takes place in that district. Greta Garbo grew up in the area. Mojang, a video game developer and publisher best known for the creation of the popular game Minecraft, has their main offices located on Södermalm. Egalia SoFo Söder tea