Stockholm University is a public university in Stockholm, founded as a college in 1878, with university status since 1960. Stockholm University has two scientific fields: the natural sciences and the humanities/social sciences. With over 34,000 students at four different faculties: law, social sciences, natural sciences, it is one of the largest universities in Scandinavia; the institution is regarded as one of the top 100 universities in the world by the Academic Ranking of World Universities. Stockholm University was granted university status in 1960, making it the fourth oldest Swedish university; as with other public universities in Sweden, Stockholm University's mission includes teaching and research anchored in society at large. The initiative for the formation of Stockholm University was taken by the Stockholm City Council; the process was completed after a decision in December 1865 regarding the establishment of a fund and a committee to "establish a higher education institution in the capital".
The nine members of the Committee were respected and prominent citizens whose work have helped the evolution of science and society. The next important step was taken in October 1869, when the Stockholm University College Association was established. Several members of the committee became members of the association - including Professor Pehr Henrik Malmsten; the association's mission was to establish a university in Stockholm and would "not be dissolved until college came into being and its future could be secured." The memorandum of the Stockholm University College were adopted in May 1877, in the autumn semester of the following year, actual operations began. In 1878, the university college Stockholms högskola started its operations with a series of lectures on natural sciences, open to curious citizens. Notable in the university's early history is the appointment of Sofia Kovalevskaya to hold a chair in mathematics department in 1889, making her the third female professor in Europe. In 1904 the college became an official degree granting institution.
In 1960, the college was granted university status. The university premises were situated in central Stockholm at Observatorielunden but increased enrollment resulted in a lack of space, which required the university campus to be shifted to a bigger facility. Since 1970 most of the university operations are pursued at the main campus at Frescati north of the city center, the former Experimentalfältet used by the Royal Swedish Academy of Agriculture and Forestry. Stockholm University is a state agency and is governed by the decisions coming from the government and parliament; the University has the right, within the limits the government provides, to decide on many issues such as their internal organization, admission of students and other administrative functions of the university. The University Board is the University's highest governing body; the board is responsible for the University as a government agency's mission and for following the requirements of laws and regulations. The board reports to the government.
It consists of eight external members, four business representatives from the university with two group alternates and three student representatives with an alternate. The University board is above the principal, the head of the authority and have operational responsibility for all operations; the principal has a vice president to replace him/her. At the university, there are two area councils, Area board of science and Area board of humanities and social sciences, they are headed by a vice principal. The area boards are responsible for strategic planning of education and research, coordination of faculty teaching and internal and external collaboration. After the district councils, the faculty boards are the highest decision-making bodies at the faculty level; the faculty boards consists of the dean, the assistant dean, other business representatives and student representatives. The deans are appointed by the president after proposal by choice within the faculty. After faculties, decisions are taken on the institutional level, where each department has a department head who manage and make decisions together with the institutional board.
The University administration is the preparation and service organization for the University board and other decision-making bodies, it is led by the executive director. The University administration has a number of administrative units in charge of different parts of the university administration, for example, finance department, IT department, HR department and the student section. There are three staff units: The strategy and communication unit that will help the university management with decision making; the Permanent Secretary is the most senior official at Stockholm University and decide on including university administration's organization and finances. The permanent secretary is titulated University Director. Education and research at Stockholm University is carried out within the natural sciences and the humanities/social sciences. Within these fields, there are four faculties with 65 departments and centers within the humanities, natural sciences and social sciences. Research and training takes place at a number of centers and institutes with a separate governing board, but that organisationally belong to a department.
Stockholm University offers courses at both advanced level. There are 200 Bachelor's programmes, 75 master's programmes taught in English, 1,900 courses to choose from within science, hu
Södertörn is a triangular peninsula and artificial island in eastern Södermanland, bordered by: Lake Mälaren and the inlet of Saltsjön to the north, Himmerfjärden and Hallsfjärden to the west and The Baltic Sea to the east and the south. The Södertälje Canal to the south west; this canal is man-made, so the area isn't separated from the mainland by nature. Since 2005, the whole of Södertörn has been included in Metropolitan Stockholm. Before that, the southern parts of the island, which lie within Nynäshamn Municipality, the western parts, which are in Södertälje Municipality, were – although in Stockholm County – not included in the metropolitan area; the northern areas of Södertörn are to a large extent made up of rift-valley countryside with high ground, either pine forest or bare. The long valleys of the south become level ground; the waters surrounding the area are either brackish water with poor salinity. The bedrock is entirely gneiss, its name derives from the Old Norse dialect word tor, meaning "broken rocky beaches", which cut deep into the coast of Södertörn.
The highest point on Södertörn is Tornberget in Haninge at 110.9 metres above sea level. It is located in Hanveden, a large area of coniferous forest south of Stockholm, whose eastern areas form the Tyresta National Park; the southernmost parts of Södertörn were connected to Stockholm in 1901, when the Nynäs Line was opened. The railway runs between Nynäshamn in the south and Älvsjö in the north, where it joins with the main southern railway. Botkyrka Haninge Huddinge Nacka Nynäshamn Salem Stockholm Södertälje TyresöAll these municipalities are located both in Stockholm County and the province Södermanland. Though incorrect, the two remaining municipalities to fulfil these criteria — Södertälje and Nykvarn — both located west of Södertälje Canal, are sometimes thought of as part of Södertörn. Södertörn University College
Kodjo Akolor is a Swedish TV/radio personality and comedian. He started as a comedian in 2005 and after two years became a regular on contemporary R&B themed radio station The Voice. In 2008 Akolor became a reporter for Vakna med the voice a TV and radio show multi-cast on TV-channel Kanal 5 and The Voice radio network, he hosted the TV-show Kodjos värld on The Voice TV where he combined humor and music videos. During the 2008 spring, he became the co-host of Talang the Swedish version of the Got Talent series; the producers contacted comedian Björn Gustafsson, but his schedule was too busy and recommended his friend Kodjo Akolor. Since 2008, he has been one of the three regular show hosts on Radio P3's popular morning show Morgonpasset, he is featured on Kanal 5's RAW comedy club and high-profile comedy show Parlamentet. In the summer of 2010, Akolor was the host and MC at the largest Twilight Saga fan event in Scandinavia featuring Taylor Lautner and Kristen Stewart. Kodjo has been part of the Musikhjälpen several times.
In the spring of 2012, he co-hosted a Game of Thrones discussion show on SVT. In 2014, he was voted the Best Male Host of the year at the Swedish Radio Awards. In 2015 he was inducted into the Stockholm Hall of Fame On 26 October 2018, SVT announced that Akolor will host all six shows of Melodifestivalen 2019 alongside Eric Saade, Marika Carlsson and Sarah Dawn Finer. Both of Kodjo Akolor's parents were born in Ghana and moved to Sweden in the 1970s thanks to his father getting a scholarship to study business, he says. It was not until high school, he has a university degree in Economics from Södertörns Högskola and lists medieval history as one of his hobbies
Ebba Witt-Brattström is a Swedish scholar in comparative literature. She is Professor of Literature and head of department at Södertörn University outside Stockholm, a well-known feminist. Witt-Brattström completed her Ph. D. with a dissertation on the Swedish author Moa Martinson at Stockholm University in 1988. She has since written a number of texts on St. Bridget of Sweden, Victoria Benedictsson and Edith Södergran, she translated the novel Egalia's Daughters by Gerd Brantenberg into Swedish. In 2010 she published a history of the feminist movement in Sweden,'Å alla kära systrar. Witt-Brattström was the Dag Hammarskjöld Visiting Professor at the Department for Northern European Studies at the Humboldt University of Berlin from 2008. From 2012 she is Professor of Nordic Literature at Helsinki University. In the 1970s she was a member of the feminist organisation Grupp 8, in 2005 she was one of the founders of the feminist political organisation and party Feministiskt Initiativ, although she distanced herself from the organisation and criticized what she saw as its strong left-wing tendencies.
Between 1989 and 2014 Ebba Witt-Brattström was married to Horace Engdahl, permanent secretary of the Swedish Academy. They have three sons, she has an older son from an earlier marriage. Both her parents came to Sweden as refugees during the Second World War, her father was a German anti-Nazi from a affluent family, while her mother was an Estonian from a poor peasant's family. Her parents divorced early, she grew up with her mother
Södertälje is a city and the seat of Södertälje Municipality, Stockholm County, Sweden. As of 2016, it has a population of 71,774 inhabitants; the industrial city, about 30 kilometers southwest of Stockholm, is the home to truck maker Scania AB and one of the manufacturing arms of pharmaceutical company AstraZeneca. Its research and development facility was closed in 2012, its former facility was sold to a consortium of PEAB and Acturum, the acquisition department of the Wallenberg Foundation. More than 40 percent of Södertälje's inhabitants have foreign backgrounds, this proportion increases by 1.5 percent per year. Assyrians/Syriacs are the largest groups of immigrants in Södertälje. Prior to 600 AD, the lake Mälaren was connected to the sea. Due to land elevation, the lake was cut off, boats had to be dragged over land to and from the lake; this demanded labour. The name Tälje or Telge is first attested in the 11th century, it is derived from Old Swedish *talgh with the meaning'indentation', referring to the long and narrow inlets connecting the city with the Baltic Sea and Mälaren.
To resolve a name conflict with another town, founded north of Stockholm in the 17th century, Söder was added to create Södertälje. In the 18th century Södertälje had a charter. Due to the Great Northern War and a series of plague epidemics, the population of the city dipped to above 200. In its December 2015 and 2017 reports, Police in Sweden placed the Ronna/Geneta/Lina district in the most severe category of urban areas with high crime rates; the first Aramaic-speaking immigrants arrived in 1967 as refugees from Turkey and were invited to settle here as workers for the understaffed factories in the area. However, the small community skyrocketed within a decade due to the PKK insurgency against the Turkish State during the 1980s which displaced tens of thousands of Aramaic-speaking immigrants because it made the region they lived in, known as Tur Abdin, unsafe for them. In more recent times, the Iraqi insurgency, the Syrian Civil War have caused the Aramaic-speaking immigrant community to grow larger.
In the city, Aramaic-speaking immigrants have five churches, two bishops, two soccer teams, several shops, an Assyrian/Syriac Aramean association and the headquarters of the Syriac language TV Channels Suroyo TV and Suryoyo Sat. Outside of the Aramaic-speaking immigrant community, other immigrant groups are from Finland and former Yugoslavia. During the Iraq war 1,500 Mandaeans fled to Södertälje, now make up one of the largest communities of Mandaeans in the world. However, not many Muslim immigrants live in Södertälje, as they suffer hate crimes by the Arameans of the city, who were oppressed by Muslims in the Middle East; the most spoken languages in Södertälje besides Swedish, the national language, are Turoyo, Neo-Aramaic and Arabic. To a lesser extent and Serbian are relatively common second languages. In the 2011-13 period, about 58% of the population in the Hovsjö district originated outside the EU and the Nordic Countries, at the time the highest share of all districts in Sweden along with Herrgården district in Malmö.
In 2017, Södertälje was one of three municipalities in Sweden with a population majority of foreign background. Foreign background is defined as being either born abroad or having both parents born abroad. Truck manufacturer Scania AB has its main location in Södertälje, it is one of the main sites for pharmaceutical company AstraZeneca. The port of Södertälje is the second in the Stockholm region. Volkswagen Group has its Swedish headquarters located in Södertälje, Lantmännen Axa Foodservice AB is located in Järna 10 km south of Södertälje. In basketball, Södertälje BBK, SBBK is one of the best in the country, Södertalje KINGS became Swedish Champions in 2013, 2014 and 2015. In total SBBK has got 10 Gold for the male team Södertalje KINGS and 12 Gold for the female team Telge Basket. SBBK has in total 132 Swedish Championships since the star in 1968. Täljehallen is the home for SBBK; the city is home to Södertälje SK, a classic and successful ice hockey team playing in Sweden's second highest league – HockeyAllsvenskan with Scaniarinken as their home arena.
Assyriska FF and Syrianska FC are two successful football clubs started in 1974 and 1977. They play in Södertälje Fotbollsarena. Södertälje Storm Rugby League club are a pioneering Rugby league team, playing in the Swedish National Rugby League, formed in 2015. There is an indoor swimming arena. It's called "Sydpoolen"; the town is situated on a bay of Lake Mälaren, here connected with the Baltic Sea by the Södertälje Canal, 35 miles in length, with a minimum depth of 20 ft. This is on the route followed by the Göta Canal steamboats between Gothenburg, it was opened in 1819 and much enlarged in 1924, though a canal was begun here in the first half of the 15th century at the instigation of the patriot Engelbrekt Engelbrektsson. Södertälje, the rest of Stockholm region has a humid continental climate and displays four distinct seasons. Due to the city's high northerly latitude, daylight varies from more than 18 hours around midsummer, to only around 6 hours in midwinter. Södertälje has much warmer and sunnier weather than other locations at the same latitude because of the influence of Gulf Stream.
The city enjoys 1,981 hours of sunshine annually. Summers have an average daytime high temperatures of 20–23 °C and lows of around 15 °C
Archive.today is an archive site which stores snapshots of web pages. It retrieves one page at a time similar to WebCite, smaller than 50MB each, but with support for modern sites such as Google Maps and Twitter. Archive.is uses headless browsing to record what embedded resources need to be captured to provide a high-quality memento, creates a PNG image to provide a static and non-interactive visualization of the representation. Archive.today can capture individual pages in response to explicit user requests. Since July 2013, archive.is supports the Memento Project application programming interface. Archive.today was founded in 2012. The site branded itself as archive.today, but in May 2015 changed the primary mirror to archive.is. In January 2019, it began to deprecate the archive.is domain in favor of the archive.today mirror. In March 2019 the site was blocked by several Australian internet providers in the aftermath of the Christchurch mosque shootings in an attempt to limit distribution of the footage of the attack.
According to GreatFire.org, archive.is has been blocked in China since March 2016, archive.li since September 2017, archive.fo since July 2018. On July 21, 2015, the operators blocked access to the service from all Finnish IP addresses, stating on Twitter that they did this in order to avoid escalating a dispute they had with the Finnish government. In Russia, only HTTP access is possible. CloudFlare's 18.104.22.168 does not resolve archive.is domains. Archive.is records only text and images, excluding video, xml and other non-static content. It keeps track of the history of snapshots saved, returning to the user a request for confirmation before adding a new snapshot of an saved Internet address; the research toolbar enables advanced keywords operators. A couple of quotation marks address the search to an exact sequence of keywords present in the title or in the body of the webpage, whereas the insite operator restricts it to a specific Internet domain. Once a web page is archived, it cannot be deleted directly by any Internet user.
Nevertherless, archive.is controls or deletes web pages saved some days before, without any policy or right of discussion and appeal. While saving a dynamic list, archive.is searchbox shows only a result that links the previous and the following section of the list. The other web pages saved are filtered, sometimes may be found by one of their occurrences. Digital preservation Internet Archive Link rot Perma.cc Wayback Machine Web archiving WebCite WP:Link rot Official website "Offline blog"
University of Oxford
The University of Oxford is a collegiate research university in Oxford, England. There is evidence of teaching as early as 1096, making it the oldest university in the English-speaking world and the world's second-oldest university in continuous operation, it grew from 1167 when Henry II banned English students from attending the University of Paris. After disputes between students and Oxford townsfolk in 1209, some academics fled north-east to Cambridge where they established what became the University of Cambridge; the two'ancient universities' are jointly called'Oxbridge'. The history and influence of the University of Oxford has made it one of the most prestigious universities in the world; the university is made up of 38 constituent colleges, a range of academic departments, which are organised into four divisions. All the colleges are self-governing institutions within the university, each controlling its own membership and with its own internal structure and activities, it does not have a main campus, its buildings and facilities are scattered throughout the city centre.
Undergraduate teaching at Oxford is organised around weekly tutorials at the colleges and halls, supported by classes, lectures and laboratory work provided by university faculties and departments. It operates the world's oldest university museum, as well as the largest university press in the world and the largest academic library system nationwide. In the fiscal year ending 31 July 2018, the university had a total income of £2.237 billion, of which £579.1 million was from research grants and contracts. The university is ranked first globally by the Times Higher Education World University Rankings as of 2019 and is ranked as among the world's top ten universities, it is ranked second in all major national league tables, behind Cambridge. Oxford has educated many notable alumni, including 27 prime ministers of the United Kingdom and many heads of state and government around the world; as of 2019, 69 Nobel Prize winners, 3 Fields Medalists, 6 Turing Award winners have studied, worked, or held visiting fellowships at the University of Oxford, while its alumni have won 160 Olympic medals.
Oxford is the home of numerous scholarships, including the Rhodes Scholarship, one of the oldest international graduate scholarship programmes. The University of Oxford has no known foundation date. Teaching at Oxford existed in some form as early as 1096, but it is unclear when a university came into being, it grew from 1167 when English students returned from the University of Paris. The historian Gerald of Wales lectured to such scholars in 1188 and the first known foreign scholar, Emo of Friesland, arrived in 1190; the head of the university had the title of chancellor from at least 1201, the masters were recognised as a universitas or corporation in 1231. The university was granted a royal charter in 1248 during the reign of King Henry III. After disputes between students and Oxford townsfolk in 1209, some academics fled from the violence to Cambridge forming the University of Cambridge; the students associated together on the basis of geographical origins, into two'nations', representing the North and the South.
In centuries, geographical origins continued to influence many students' affiliations when membership of a college or hall became customary in Oxford. In addition, members of many religious orders, including Dominicans, Franciscans and Augustinians, settled in Oxford in the mid-13th century, gained influence and maintained houses or halls for students. At about the same time, private benefactors established colleges as self-contained scholarly communities. Among the earliest such founders were William of Durham, who in 1249 endowed University College, John Balliol, father of a future King of Scots. Another founder, Walter de Merton, a Lord Chancellor of England and afterwards Bishop of Rochester, devised a series of regulations for college life. Thereafter, an increasing number of students lived in colleges rather than in halls and religious houses. In 1333–34, an attempt by some dissatisfied Oxford scholars to found a new university at Stamford, was blocked by the universities of Oxford and Cambridge petitioning King Edward III.
Thereafter, until the 1820s, no new universities were allowed to be founded in England in London. The new learning of the Renaissance influenced Oxford from the late 15th century onwards. Among university scholars of the period were William Grocyn, who contributed to the revival of Greek language studies, John Colet, the noted biblical scholar. With the English Reformation and the breaking of communion with the Roman Catholic Church, recusant scholars from Oxford fled to continental Europe, settling at the University of Douai; the method of teaching at Oxford was transformed from the medieval scholastic method to Renaissance education, although institutions associated with the university suffered losses of land and revenues. As a centre of learning and scholarship, Oxford's reputation declined in the Age of Enlightenment. In 1636 William Laud, the chancellor and Archbishop of Canterbury, codified the university's statutes. These, to a large extent, remained its gove