Sweden the Kingdom of Sweden, is a Scandinavian Nordic country in Northern Europe. It borders Norway to the west and north and Finland to the east, is connected to Denmark in the southwest by a bridge-tunnel across the Öresund, a strait at the Swedish-Danish border. At 450,295 square kilometres, Sweden is the largest country in Northern Europe, the third-largest country in the European Union and the fifth largest country in Europe by area. Sweden has a total population of 10.2 million. It has a low population density of 22 inhabitants per square kilometre; the highest concentration is in the southern half of the country. Germanic peoples have inhabited Sweden since prehistoric times, emerging into history as the Geats and Swedes and constituting the sea peoples known as the Norsemen. Southern Sweden is predominantly agricultural, while the north is forested. Sweden is part of the geographical area of Fennoscandia; the climate is in general mild for its northerly latitude due to significant maritime influence, that in spite of this still retains warm continental summers.
Today, the sovereign state of Sweden is a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary democracy, with a monarch as head of state, like its neighbour Norway. The capital city is Stockholm, the most populous city in the country. Legislative power is vested in the 349-member unicameral Riksdag. Executive power is exercised by the government chaired by the prime minister. Sweden is a unitary state divided into 21 counties and 290 municipalities. An independent Swedish state emerged during the early 12th century. After the Black Death in the middle of the 14th century killed about a third of the Scandinavian population, the Hanseatic League threatened Scandinavia's culture and languages; this led to the forming of the Scandinavian Kalmar Union in 1397, which Sweden left in 1523. When Sweden became involved in the Thirty Years War on the Reformist side, an expansion of its territories began and the Swedish Empire was formed; this became one of the great powers of Europe until the early 18th century. Swedish territories outside the Scandinavian Peninsula were lost during the 18th and 19th centuries, ending with the annexation of present-day Finland by Russia in 1809.
The last war in which Sweden was directly involved was in 1814, when Norway was militarily forced into personal union. Since Sweden has been at peace, maintaining an official policy of neutrality in foreign affairs; the union with Norway was peacefully dissolved in 1905. Sweden was formally neutral through both world wars and the Cold War, albeit Sweden has since 2009 moved towards cooperation with NATO. After the end of the Cold War, Sweden joined the European Union on 1 January 1995, but declined NATO membership, as well as Eurozone membership following a referendum, it is a member of the United Nations, the Nordic Council, the Council of Europe, the World Trade Organization and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Sweden maintains a Nordic social welfare system that provides universal health care and tertiary education for its citizens, it has the world's eleventh-highest per capita income and ranks in numerous metrics of national performance, including quality of life, education, protection of civil liberties, economic competitiveness, equality and human development.
The name Sweden was loaned from Dutch in the 17th century to refer to Sweden as an emerging great power. Before Sweden's imperial expansion, Early Modern English used Swedeland. Sweden is derived through back-formation from Old English Swēoþēod, which meant "people of the Swedes"; this word is derived from Sweon/Sweonas. The Swedish name Sverige means "realm of the Swedes", excluding the Geats in Götaland. Variations of the name Sweden are used in most languages, with the exception of Danish and Norwegian using Sverige, Faroese Svøríki, Icelandic Svíþjóð, the more notable exception of some Finnic languages where Ruotsi and Rootsi are used, names considered as referring to the people from the coastal areas of Roslagen, who were known as the Rus', through them etymologically related to the English name for Russia; the etymology of Swedes, thus Sweden, is not agreed upon but may derive from Proto-Germanic Swihoniz meaning "one's own", referring to one's own Germanic tribe. Sweden's prehistory begins in the Allerød oscillation, a warm period around 12,000 BC, with Late Palaeolithic reindeer-hunting camps of the Bromme culture at the edge of the ice in what is now the country's southernmost province, Scania.
This period was characterised by small bands of hunter-gatherer-fishers using flint technology. Sweden is first described in a written source in Germania by Tacitus in 98 AD. In Germania 44 and 45 he mentions the Swedes as a powerful tribe with ships that had a prow at each end. Which kings ruled these Suiones is unknown, but Norse mythology presents a long line of legendary and semi-legendary kings going back to the last centuries BC; as for literacy in Sweden itself, the runic script was in use among the south Scandinavian elite by at least the 2nd century AD, but all that has come down to the present from the Roman Period is curt inscriptions on artefacts of male names, demonstrating th
This article covers only the area of Nacka's municipal seat. See Nacka Municipality for other parts. Nacka is part of Stockholm urban area in Sweden; the municipality's name harks back to a 16th-century industrial operation established by the Crown at Nacka farmstead where conditions for water mills are good. However, somewhat confusingly, that spot is not densely populated today and the municipal seat is on land that once belonged to Järla farmstead on the other side of Lake Järla. On 9 December 2014, Stockholm police raided a data center in a former bomb shelter under a hill in Nacka municipality. Although it was rumored the raid targeted popular torrent site The Pirate Bay, officials from The Pirate Bay have revealed that this is false. Greenwich, Connecticut Sickla Köpkvarter – a retail park and shopping district in Nacka
European route E4
European route E 4 passes from north to south through Sweden from the border with Finland, with a total length of 1,590 kilometres. The Finnish part lies within Tornio in northern Finland, is only 1 kilometre long; the Swedish part traverses most of Sweden except the extreme north and the west coast region, is considered the highway backbone of Sweden, since it passes in the vicinity of many of its largest cities and through the capital Stockholm. In particular, it is the mainline road used by most vehicle traffic, both personal cars and freight trailers, between the north and southern Sweden or beyond. From Haparanda on the Finnish border, it stretches south along the Gulf of Bothnia to Gävle on a more inland route southwards, it ends at the port for the ferry to Helsingør in Denmark. The route intersects with European route E6 just outside Helsingborg, which continues to Trelleborg on the southern coast of Sweden. Under the new system of European routes it was planned to have been a part of E 55, but it remains in the pre-1992 designation within Sweden, because the expenses connected with re-signing this long road portion would be too large.
Besides the signs along the road, there are thousands of signs in cities, showing how to reach the E 4 road. The road is now authorized as E 4 by the relevant authority, not as E 55. North of Gävle the road is of mixed standard. Depending on the fashion at the time of construction it is either a single standard carriageway road 8–13 metres wide, or a 2+1 road, a 13–14 metres wide road with two lanes in one direction and one in the other with a steel wire barrier in between, or sometimes a motorway with two lanes in each direction. North of Sundsvall, the road passes through several of the larger cities as city streets. South of Gävle, the road becomes an continuous motorway, with the only non-motorway part being a 32 km long section past Ljungby a 2+1 limited-access road. Upgrade to motorway standard will start in 2018. With the exception of the Ljungby bypass, the final stretch of the motorway to be opened was the road between Uppsala and Mehedeby, inaugurated on October 17, 2007. South of Gävle, the speed limit is 120 km/h on 30 % of the road.
North of Gävle there are varying speed limits, with 90 km/h, 100 km/h and 110 km/h as the most common. The speed limits on the main roads in Sweden were changed on many stretches in October 2008, which saw the introduction of the 120 km/h limit; the E 4 is the fastest road to go from Germany/Denmark to areas north of the Arctic Circle, including places in Norway such as Tromsø or the North Cape. The route passes through or nearby the cities Tornio, Luleå, Piteå, Skellefteå, Umeå, Örnsköldsvik, Härnösand, Hudiksvall, Söderhamn, Gävle, Stockholm, Södertälje, Nyköping, Norrköping, Linköping, Jönköping, Värnamo and Helsingborg
A model aircraft is a small sized unmanned aircraft or, in the case of a scale model, a replica of an existing or imaginary aircraft. Model aircraft are divided into two basic groups: flying and non-flying. Non-flying models are termed static, display, or shelf models. Flying models range from simple toy gliders made of card stock or foam polystyrene to powered scale models made from materials such as balsa wood, plastic, carbon fiber, or fiberglass and are skinned with tissue paper or mylar covering; some can be large when used to research the flight properties of a proposed full scale design. Static models range from mass-produced toys in white metal or plastic to accurate and detailed models produced for museum display and requiring thousands of hours of work. Many models are available in kit form made of injection-moulded polystyrene. Aircraft manufacturers and researchers make wind tunnel models not capable of free flight, used for testing and development of new designs. Sometimes only part of the aircraft is modelled.
Static model aircraft are scale models built using plastic, metal, fiberglass or any other suitable material. Some static models are scaled for use in wind tunnels, where the data acquired is used to aid the design of full scale aircraft. Models are available that have been built and painted. Most of the world's airlines allow their fleet aircraft to be modelled as a form of publicity; these include Delta Air Lines, Air France, British Airways, Aerolíneas Argentinas, Aeroméxico, FedEx, Polar Air Cargo, Air New Zealand, China Airlines, Singapore Airlines, South African Airways, American Airlines, United Airlines, Japan Airlines, Royal Jordanian, Korean Airlines, Asiana Airlines. In the early days, airlines would order large models of their aircraft and supply them to travel agencies as a promotional item. In addition and airplane makers hand out desktop model airplanes to airport and government officials as a way of promoting their airline, celebrating a new route or an achievement. Former Puerto Rico governor Alejandro García Padilla, for example, has models of JetBlue, Lufthansa and Seaborne Airlines which were given to him by those airlines after starting or increasing flights to San Juan during his tenure.
Static model aircraft are available commercially in a variety of scales from as large as 1:18 scale to as small as 1:1250 scale. Plastic model kits requiring assembly and painting are available in 1:144, 1:72, 1:50, 1:48, 1:32, 1:24 scale depending on the size of the original subject. Die-cast metal models are available in 1:400, 1:200, 1:72, 1:600, 1:500, 1:300, 1:250, 1:48. A variety of odd scales are available, but less common. Scales are not random, but are based upon simple divisions of either the Imperial system, or the Metric system. For example, 1:48 scale is 1/4" to 1-foot and 1:72 is 1" to 6 feet, while metric scales are simpler, such as 1:100th, which equals 1 centimeter to 1 meter. 1:72 scale was first introduced in the Skybirds wood and metal model aircraft kits in 1932. Skybirds was followed by Frog which produced 1:72 scale aircraft in 1936 under the "Frog Penguin" name. According to Fine Scale Modeler magazine, 1:72 was popularized by the US War Department during the Second World War when it requested models of single engine aircraft at that scale.
The War Department requested models of multi-engine aircraft at a scale of 1:144. The War Department was hoping to educate Americans in the identification of aircraft; these scales provided the best compromise between detail. After WWII, manufacturers continued to favor these scales, however kits are available in 1:48, 1:35, 1:32, 1:24 scales; the French firm Heller SA is one of the few manufacturer to offer models in the scale of 1:125, while 1:50th and 1:100th are more common in Japan and France which both use Metric. Herpa and others produce promotional models for airlines in scales including 1:200, 1:400, 1:500, 1:600, 1:1000 and more. A few First World War aircraft were offered at 1:28 by Revell, such as the Fokker Dr. I and Sopwith Camel. A number of manufacturers have made 1:18th scale aircraft to go with cars of the same scale. Aircraft scales have been different from the scales used for military vehicles, figures and trains. For example, a common scale for early military models was 1:76, whereas companies such as Frog were producing aircraft with a scale of 1:72.
Military vehicles have adapted to the aircraft standards of 1:72. This has resulted in a substantial amount of duplication of the more famous subjects in a large variety of sizes, which while useful for forced perspective box dioramas has limited the number of possible subjects to those that are more well known. Less produced scales include 1:64, 1:96, 1:128. Many older plastic models do not conform to any established scale as they were sized to fit inside standard commercially available boxes, leading to the term "Box Scale" to describe them; when reissued, these kits retain their unusual scales. The most common form of manufacture for kits is injection molded polystyrene plastic, using carbon steel molds. Today, this takes place in China, the Philippines, South Korea, Eastern Europe. Injection molding allows a high degree of precision and automation not available in the other manufacturing processes used for models but the molds are expensive and require large production r
Swedish national road 9
Swedish national road 9, is a Swedish national road in Skåne in southern Sweden between Trelleborg and Nöbbelöv in Kristianstad. The length of the road is 140 km; this is the only national road in Sweden with a single-digit road number. Earlier the road had the road number 10, but in conjunction with the renumbering of the European routes in 1992 the Swedish National Road Administration changed the number of the national roads that would have the number in common with any European routes in Sweden, in this case E10
Autopista de Circunvalación M-30
The M-30 orbital motorway circles the central districts of Madrid, the capital city of Spain. It is the innermost ring road of the Spanish city, the length is 32,5 km. Outer rings are named M-40, M-45 and M-50, it has, at least, three lanes in each direction, supplemented in some parts by two or three lane auxiliary roads. It connects to the main Spanish radial national roads; the M30 is the busiest Spanish road, famous for its traffic jams, surrounded by several landmarks such as Torrespaña, the national headquarters of IBM, passes under the Vicente Calderón Stadium. Its construction started in the 1960s and required the underground canalisation of the Abroñigal river, required to avoid flooding since the road runs through the lowest part of the city. In the 1970s the most important section was open between the junction of Manoteras and the Nudo Sur, that connects to the Avenida de Andalucia and A-4. In the 1990s, the ring road was completed with the construction of the section between Avenida de la Ilustración and the junction of Puerta de Hierro.
From 2005 to 2008, major upgrading works took place, now a significant portion of the southern part runs underground. They are the longest urban motorway tunnels in Europe, with sections of more than 6 km in length and 3 to 6 lanes in each direction, between the south entry of the Avenida de Portugal tunnel and the north exit of the M-30 south by-pass there are close to 10 km of continuous tunnels; the M30 tunnels run between a point 700 meters north of the junction with A5 motorway and continue all the way up to the junction between M30 and A3 motorway
Swedish national road 11
Swedish national road 11, is a Swedish national road in Skåne in southern Sweden between Malmö and Simrishamn. The length of the road is 88 km. Earlier the road had the road number 12, but in conjunction with the renumbering of the European routes in 1992 the Swedish National Road Administration changed the number of the national roads that would have the number in common with any European routes in Sweden, in this case E12