Baldr is a god in Norse mythology, a son of the god Odin and the goddess Frigg. He has numerous brothers, such as Váli. In the 12th century, Danish accounts by Saxo Grammaticus and other Danish Latin chroniclers recorded a euhemerized account of his story. Compiled in Iceland in the 13th century, but based on much older Old Norse poetry, the Poetic Edda and the Prose Edda contain numerous references to the death of Baldr as both a great tragedy to the Æsir and a harbinger of Ragnarök. According to Gylfaginning, a book of Snorri Sturluson's Prose Edda, Baldr's wife is Nanna and their son is Forseti. In Gylfaginning, Snorri relates that Baldr had the greatest ship built and that there is no place more beautiful than his hall, Breidablik. Jacob Grimm in his Teutonic Mythology identifies Old Norse Baldr with the Old High German Baldere, Palter and with Old English bealdor, baldor "lord, king". Old Norse shows this usage of the word as an honorific in a few cases, as in baldur î brynju and herbaldr, both epithets of heroes in general.
Grimm traces the etymology of the name to *balþaz, whence Gothic balþs, Old English bald, Old High German pald, all meaning "bold, brave". But the interpretation of Baldr as "the brave god" may be secondary. Baltic has a word meaning "the white, the good", Grimm speculates that the name may originate as a Baltic loan into Proto-Germanic. In continental Saxon and Anglo-Saxon tradition, the son of Woden is called not Bealdor but Baldag and Bældæg, which shows association with "day" with Day personified as a deity. This, as Grimm points out, would agree with the meaning "shining one, white one, a god" derived from the meaning of Baltic baltas, further adducing Slavic Belobog and German Berhta. Grimm's etymology is endorsed by modern research. According to Rudolf Simek, the original name for Baldr must be understood as'shining day'. One of the two Merseburg Incantations names Baldere, but mentions a figure named Phol, considered to be a byname for Baldr. In the Poetic Edda the tale of Baldr's death is referred to rather than recounted at length.
Among the visions which the Völva sees and describes in the prophecy known as the Völuspá is one of the fatal mistletoe, the birth of Váli and the weeping of Frigg. Yet looking far into the future the Völva sees a brighter vision of a new world, when both Höðr and Baldr will come back; the Eddic poem Baldr's Dreams mentions that Baldr has bad dreams which the gods discuss. Odin rides to Hel and awakens a seeress, who tells him Höðr will kill Baldr but Vali will avenge him. In Gylfaginning, Baldur is described as follows: Apart from this description, Baldr is known for the story of his death, his death is seen as the first in the chain of events which will lead to the destruction of the gods at Ragnarök. Baldr will be reborn in the new world, according to Völuspá, he had a dream of his own death and his mother had the same dreams. Since dreams were prophetic, this depressed him, so his mother Frigg made every object on earth vow never to hurt Baldr. All objects made this vow except mistletoe—a detail which has traditionally been explained with the idea that it was too unimportant and nonthreatening to bother asking it to make the vow, but which Merrill Kaplan has instead argued echoes the fact that young people were not eligible to swear legal oaths, which could make them a threat in life.
When Loki, the mischief-maker, heard of this, he made a magical spear from this plant. He hurried to the place where the gods were indulging in their new pastime of hurling objects at Baldr, which would bounce off without harming him. Loki gave the spear to Baldr's brother, the blind god Höðr, who inadvertently killed his brother with it. For this act and the giantess Rindr gave birth to Váli who grew to adulthood within a day and slew Höðr. Baldr was ceremonially burnt upon his ship, the largest of all ships; as he was carried to the ship, Odin whispered in his ear. This was to be a key riddle asked by Odin of the giant Vafthrudnir in the poem Vafthrudnismal; the riddle appears in the riddles of Gestumblindi in Hervarar saga. The dwarf Litr was burnt alive. Nanna, Baldr's wife threw herself on the funeral fire to await Ragnarök when she would be reunited with her husband. Baldr's horse with all its trappings was burned on the pyre; the ship was set to sea by Hyrrokin, a giantess, who came riding on a wolf and gave the ship such a push that fire flashed from the rollers and all the earth shook.
Upon Frigg's entreaties, delivered through the messenger Hermod, Hel promised to release Baldr from the underworld if all objects alive and dead would weep for him. All did, except Þökk, who refused to mourn the slain god, thus Baldr had to remain in the underworld, not to emerge until after Ragnarök, when he and his brother Höðr would be reconciled and rule the new earth together with Thor's sons. Writing during the end of the 12th century, the Danish historian Saxo Grammaticus tells the story of Baldr in a form that professes to be historical. According to him, Balderus and Høtherus were rival suitors fo
In Germanic mythology, Frija and Frige is a goddess. In nearly all sources, she is described as the wife of the god Odin. In Old High German and Old Norse sources, she is connected with the goddess Fulla; the English weekday name Friday bears her name. Frigg is described as a goddess associated with foresight and wisdom in Norse mythology, the northernmost branch of Germanic mythology and most extensively attested. Frigg is the wife of the major god Odin and dwells in the wetland halls of Fensalir, is famous for her foreknowledge, is associated with the goddesses Fulla, Lofn, Hlín, Gná, is ambiguously associated with the Earth, otherwise personified as an separate entity Jörð; the children of Frigg and Odin include the gleaming god Baldr. Due to the significant thematic overlap, scholars have proposed a particular connection to the goddess Freyja. After Christianization, the mention of Frigg continued to occur in Scandinavian folklore. During modern times, Frigg has appeared in popular culture, has been the subject of art and receives veneration in Germanic Neopaganism.
The theonyms Frigg and Frija are cognate forms—linguistic siblings of the same origin—that descend from a substantivized feminine of Proto-Germanic *frijaz. *frijaz descends from the same source as the feminine Sanskrit noun priyā and the feminine Avestan noun fryā. In the modern period, an -a suffix is sometimes applied to denote femininity, resulting in the form Frigga; this spelling serves the purpose of distancing the goddess from the English word frig. The connection with and possible earlier identification of the goddess Freyja with Frigg in the Proto-Germanic period is a matter of scholarly debate. Like the name of the group of gods to which Freyja belongs, the Vanir, the name Freyja is not attested outside of Scandinavia; this is in contrast to the name of the goddess Frigg, attested as a goddess common among the Germanic peoples, whose name is reconstructed as Proto-Germanic *Frijjō. Evidence does not exist for the existence of a common Germanic goddess from which Old Norse Freyja descends, but scholars have commented that this may be due to the scarcity of surviving sources.
Regarding a Freyja–Frigg common origin hypothesis, scholar Stephan Grundy comments that "the problem of whether Frigg or Freyja may have been a single goddess is a difficult one, made more so by the scantiness of pre-Viking Age references to Germanic goddesses, the diverse quality of the sources. The best that can be done is to survey the arguments for and against their identity, to see how well each can be supported."The English weekday name Friday comes from Old English Frīġedæġ, meaning'day of Frig'. It is cognate with Old High German frîatac. Several place names refer to Frigg in what are now Norway and Sweden, although her name is altogether absent in recorded place names in Denmark; the 7th-century Origo Gentis Langobardorum, Paul the Deacon's 8th-century Historia Langobardorum derived from it, recount a founding myth of the Langobards, a Germanic people who ruled a region of what is now Italy. According to this legend, a "small people" known as the Winnili were ruled by a woman named Gambara who had two sons and Agio.
The Vandals, ruled by Ambri and Assi, came to the Winnili with their army and demanded that they pay them tribute or prepare for war. Ybor and their mother Gambara rejected their demands for tribute. Ambra and Assi asked the god Godan for victory over the Winnili, to which Godan responded: "Whom I shall first see when at sunrise, to them will I give the victory."Meanwhile and Agio called upon Frea, Godan's wife. Frea counseled them that "at sunrise the Winnil should come, that their women, with their hair let down around the face in the likeness of a beard should come with their husbands". At sunrise, Frea woke him. Godan saw the Winnili, including their whiskered women, asked "who are those Long-beards?" Frea responded to Godan, "As you have given them a name, give them the victory". Godan did so, "so that they should defend themselves according to his counsel and obtain the victory". Thenceforth the Winnili were known as the Langobards. A 10th-century manuscript found in what is now Merseburg, features an invocation known as the Second Merseburg Incantation.
The incantation calls upon various continental Germanic gods, including Old High German Frija and a goddess associated with her—Volla, to assist in healing a horse: In the Poetic Edda, compiled in the 13th century from earlier traditional material, Frigg is mentioned in the poems Völuspá, Vafþrúðnismál, the prose of Grímnismál, Oddrúnargrátr. Frigg receives three mentions in the Poetic Edda poem Völuspá. In the first mention, the poem recounts. In the poem, when the future death of Odin is foretold, Odin himself is referred to as the "beloved of Frigg" and his future death is referred to as the "second grief of Frigg". Like the reference to Frigg weeping in Fensalir earlier in the poem, the implied "first grief" is a reference to the grief she felt upon the death of her son, Baldr. In the prose introduction to the poem Grímnismál, Frigg plays a prominent role; the prose introduction recounts that two sons of king Hrauðungr and Geirröðr, once sailed out with a trailing line to catch small fish.
However, wind drove them out into the ocean and, d
Þorgerðr Hölgabrúðr and Irpa
Þorgerðr Hǫlgabrúðr and Irpa are divine figures in Norse mythology. They appear together in Jómsvíkinga saga, Njáls saga, Þorleifs þáttr jarlsskálds. Irpa’s name does not appear outside of these four attestations, but Þorgerðr appears in the Prose Edda book Skáldskaparmál, Færeyinga saga, Harðar saga ok Hólmverja and is mentioned in Ketils saga hœngs. Þorgerðr Hǫlgabrúðr is associated with Haakon Sigurdsson, and, in Jómsvíkinga saga and Þorleifs þáttr jarlsskálds, Þorgerðr and Irpa are described as sisters. The roles of the Þorgerðr Hǫlgabrúðr and Irpa in these sources and the implications of their names has been the topic of some scholarly discourse and conjecture; the name Þorgerðr Hǫlgabrúðr is Old Norse and means "Þorgerðr, Hǫlgi's bride." According to Skáldskaparmál chapter 42, Hǫlgi is Þorgerðr's father. The first name Þorgerðr is a compound of two names: the god name Þor and gerðr – the latter name meaning "fenced in"; the figure's second name sometimes appears in sources featuring -brúðr replaced with -troll, and, in place of Hǫlg-, the prefixes Hǫrða-, Hǫrga-, Hǫlda- appear.
It has been suggested that name Þorgerðr derives from the name of the jǫtunn Gerðr, as Þorgerðr is described at times as a troll or giantess. Alternatively, Gerðr may be an abbreviated version of the name Þorgerðr. Þorgerðr is referred to as Gerðr in Tindr Hallkelsson’s 10th century drápa on Haakon, quoted in chapter 43 of Óláfs saga Tryggvasonar, found in the Heimskringla. John McKinnell states that the name of Þorgerðr's father is a addition used to explain the origins of the name of Hålogaland, that "Hǫlgabrúðr" means "bride of the Hålogaland" and that Hǫrðabrúðr may mean "bride of the Hörðaland." Hǫrðabrúðr as "bride of the heathen shrines," and hǫldabrúðr as either "bride of the people of Holde" or "bride of noblemen." McKinnell says that the variety of stories and names suggest that the tradition of Þorgerðr Hǫlgabrúðr was wide spread, that she was venerated in more than one area. The name Irpa may derive from the Old Norse term jarpr "dark brown", which has led to a number of theories about the goddess.
Jarpr is thought to derive from the earlier Proto-Germanic word *erpa-. Þorgerðr and/or Irpa are attested in the following works: Irpa appears in chapter 21 of the Jómsvíkinga saga, which focuses on the late 10th century Battle of Hjörungavágr between the fleet of the Jomsvikings under Sigvaldi Strut-Haraldsson and the fleet of Haakon Sigurdsson and Sweyn Haakonsson. Haakon calls a meeting during a lull in the fighting, says that he feels that the tide of the battle is going against his allies and him. Haakon goes to an island called Primsigned, north of Hjórunga Bay. On the island, Haakon falls to his knees, while looking northward, prays to what is described as his patron goddess, Þorgerðr Hǫlgabrúðr. According to the saga, Þorgerðr refuses his offers, but accepts the blót of his 7 year-old son. Haakon's slave, slaughters the boy. Haakon returns to his fleet and presses his men to engage in an attack, commends his men to: Press the attack all the more vigorously, because I have invoked for victory both the sisters and Irpa.
Haakon enters his ship, the fleet rows forward for the attack, battle ensues. The weather becomes thick in the north, the clouds cover the sky, daylight becomes sparse and lightning ring out, it begins to rain; the Jomvikings fleet fights facing the storm and cold, they have trouble standing due to the heavy wind. The Jomsvikings throw weapons and stones at Haakon's fleet but the winds turn their projectiles back at them. Hávard the Hewing, in the fleet of Haakon, first spots Þorgerðr there and many others see her; the wind wanes and the men witness arrows flying from the fingertips of Þorgerðr, each arrow killing a man of the Jomsviking fleet. The Jomsvikings tell Sigvaldi that although they are no longer fighting men alone, they will still do their best; the storm lessens once again Haakon invokes Þorgerðr. The saga describes this attack: And it grew dark again with a squall, this time stronger and worse than before, and right at the beginning of the squall Hávard the Hewing saw that two women were standing on the earl's ship, both were doing the same thing that Thorgerd had done before.
Sigvaldi tells his men to retreat, reasons that this is not what he vowed to fight since there are now two women, whom he refers to as "ogresses" and "trolls." After the Jomvikings fleet has been defeated, Haakon's men weigh the hailstones that had fallen during the storm, to detect "what power" Þorgerðr and Irpa had, they find that the hailstones weigh an ounce each. Þorgerðr and Irpa are again mentioned together in chapter 88 of Njáls saga, set in the 10th and 11th centuries. Here, Hrapp breaks into the temple owned by Haakon and Gudbrand while Haakon is at a feast at Gudbrand's home. Hrapp plunders a seated depiction of Þorgerðr. Next, Hrapp spots Thor's wain, he takes a gold ring from the depiction of Thor too, thirdly, he takes a ring from a depiction of Irpa there. Hrapp takes all of the images from the temple, strips them of their items, burns the temple until leaving at dawn. Þorgerðr is mentioned in the Prose Edda book Skáldskaparmál. Here, Hålogaland is described as named after king Hǫlgi, that he was Þorgerðr's father.
According to Skáldskaparmál, blót were made to them both that included money, a tumulus was made for Hǫlgi, built with layers of
Sól or Sunna is the Sun personified in Norse mythology. One of the two Old High German Merseburg Incantations, written in the 9th or 10th century CE, attests that Sunna is the sister of Sinthgunt. In Norse mythology, Sól is attested in the Poetic Edda, compiled in the 13th century from earlier traditional sources, the Prose Edda, written in the 13th century by Snorri Sturluson. In both the Poetic Edda and the Prose Edda she is described as the sister of the personified moon, Máni, is the daughter of Mundilfari, is at times referred to as Álfröðull, is foretold to be killed by a monstrous wolf during the events of Ragnarök, though beforehand she will have given birth to a daughter who continues her mother's course through the heavens. In the Prose Edda, she is additionally described as the wife of Glenr; as a proper noun, Sól appears throughout Old Norse literature. Scholars have produced theories about the development of the goddess from potential Nordic Bronze Age and Proto-Indo-European roots.
One of the two Merseburg Incantations, recorded in Old High German, mentions Sunna, described as having a sister, Sinthgunt. The incantation describes how Phol and Wodan rode to a wood, there Balder's foal sprained its foot. Sinthgunt sang charms, her sister Sunna sang charms, Friia sang charms, her sister Volla sang charms, Wodan sang charms, followed by a verse describing the healing of the foal's bone. In the poem Völuspá, a dead völva recounts the history of the universe and foretells the future to the disguised god Odin. In doing so, the völva recounts the early days of the universe, in which: In the poem Vafþrúðnismál, the god Odin tasks the jötunn Vafþrúðnir with a question about the origins of the sun and the moon. Vafþrúðnir responds that Mundilfari is the father of both Sól and Máni, that they must pass through the heavens every day to count the years for man: In a stanza Vafþrúðnismál, Odin asks Vafþrúðnir from where another sun will come from once Fenrir has assailed the current sun.
Vafþrúðnir responds in a further stanza, stating that before Álfröðull is assailed by Fenrir, she will bear a daughter who will ride on her mother's paths after the events of Ragnarök. In a stanza of the poem Grímnismál, Odin says that before the sun is a shield named Svalinn, if the shield were to fall from its frontal position and sea "would burn up". In stanza 39 Odin says that both the moon are pursued through the heavens by wolves. In the poem Alvíssmál, the god Thor questions the dwarf Alvíss about the sun, asking him what the sun is called in each of the worlds. Alvíss responds that it is called "sun" by mankind, "sunshine" by the gods, "Dvalinn's deluder" by the dwarves, "everglow" by the jötnar, "the lovely wheel" by the elves, "all-shining" by the "sons of the Æsir". Sól is referenced in the Prose Edda book Gylfaginning, where she is introduced in chapter 8 in a quote from stanza 5 of Völuspá. In chapter 11 of Gylfaginning, Gangleri asks the enthroned figure of High how the sun and moon are steered.
High describes that Sól is one of the two children of Mundilfari, states that the children were so beautiful they were named after the sun and the moon. Mundilfari has Sól married to a man named Glenr. High says that the gods were "angered by this arrogance" and that the gods had the two placed in the heavens. There, the children were made to drive the horses Árvakr and Alsviðr that drew the chariot of the sun. High says that the gods had created the chariot to illuminate the worlds from burning embers flying from the fiery world of Muspelheim. In order to cool the horses, the gods placed two bellows beneath their shoulders, that "according to the same lore" these bellows are called Ísarnkol. In chapter 12 of Gylfaginning, Gangleri tells High that the sun moves almost as if she were moving so that she fears something, that she could not go faster if she were afraid of her own death. High responds; the one chasing her comes close, there is no escape for her except to run." Gangleri asks who chases her, to which High responds that two wolves give chase to Máni.
The first wolf, Sköll, chases Sól, despite her fear, Sköll will catch her. Hati Hróðvitnisson, the second wolf, runs ahead of Sól to chase after Máni, whom Hati Hróðvitnisson will catch. In chapter 35, Sól's status as a goddess is stated by High, along with Bil. In chapter 53, High says that after the events of Ragnarök, Sól's legacy will be continued by a daughter, no less beautiful than she, who will follow the path she once rode, and, in support, Vafþrúðnismál stanza 47 is quoted. In the Prose Edda book Skáldskaparmál, Sól is first presented in chapter 93, where the kennings "daughter of Mundilfæri", "sister of Máni", "wife of Glen", "fire of sky and air" are given for her, followed by an excerpt of a work by the 11th century skald Skúli Þórsteinsson: God-blithe bedfellow of Glen steps to her divine sanctuary with brightness. In chapter 56, additional names for Sól are given. In chapter 58, following a list of horses, the horses Arvakr and Alsviðr are listed as drawing the sun, and, in chapter 75, Sól is again included in a list of goddesses.
Scholars have proposed that Sól, as a goddess, may represe
Norse mythology is the body of myths of the North Germanic peoples, stemming from Norse paganism and continuing after the Christianization of Scandinavia, into the Scandinavian folklore of the modern period. The northernmost extension of Germanic mythology, Norse mythology consists of tales of various deities and heroes derived from numerous sources from both before and after the pagan period, including medieval manuscripts, archaeological representations, folk tradition; the source texts mention numerous gods, such as the hammer-wielding, humanity-protecting thunder-god Thor, who relentlessly fights his foes. Most of the surviving mythology centres on the plights of the gods and their interaction with various other beings, such as humanity and the jötnar, beings who may be friends, foes or family members of the gods; the cosmos in Norse mythology consists of Nine Worlds that flank Yggdrasil. Units of time and elements of the cosmology are personified as beings. Various forms of a creation myth are recounted, where the world is created from the flesh of the primordial being Ymir, the first two humans are Ask and Embla.
These worlds are foretold to be reborn after the events of Ragnarök when an immense battle occurs between the gods and their enemies, the world is enveloped in flames, only to be reborn anew. There the surviving gods will meet, the land will be fertile and green, two humans will repopulate the world. Norse mythology has been the subject of scholarly discourse since the 17th century, when key texts were brought to the attention of the intellectual circles of Europe. By way of comparative mythology and historical linguistics, scholars have identified elements of Germanic mythology reaching as far back as Proto-Indo-European mythology. During the modern period, the Romanticist Viking revival re-awoke an interest in the subject matter, references to Norse mythology may now be found throughout modern popular culture; the myths have further been revived in a religious context among adherents of Germanic Neopaganism. The historical religion of the Norse people is referred to as Norse mythology. In certain literature the terms Scandinavian mythology or Nordic mythology have been used.
Norse mythology is attested in dialects of Old Norse, a North Germanic language spoken by the Scandinavian people during the European Middle Ages, the ancestor of modern Scandinavian languages. The majority of these Old Norse texts were created in Iceland, where the oral tradition stemming from the pre-Christian inhabitants of the island was collected and recorded in manuscripts; this occurred in the 13th century. These texts include the Prose Edda, composed in the 13th century by Snorri Sturluson, the Poetic Edda, a collection of poems from earlier traditional material anonymously compiled in the 13th century; the Prose Edda was composed as a prose manual for producing skaldic poetry—traditional Old Norse poetry composed by skalds. Composed and transmitted orally, skaldic poetry utilizes alliterative verse and various metrical forms; the Prose Edda presents numerous examples of works by various skalds from before and after the Christianization process and frequently refers back to the poems found in the Poetic Edda.
The Poetic Edda consists entirely of poems, with some prose narrative added, this poetry—Eddic poetry—utilizes fewer kennings. In comparison to skaldic poetry, Eddic poetry is unadorned; the Prose Edda features layers of euhemerization, a process in which deities and supernatural beings are presented as having been either actual, magic-wielding human beings who have been deified in time or beings demonized by way of Christian mythology. Texts such as Heimskringla, composed in the 13th century by Snorri and Gesta Danorum, composed in Latin by Saxo Grammaticus in Denmark in the 12th century, are the results of heavy amounts of euhemerization. Numerous further texts, such as the sagas, provide further information; the saga corpus consists of thousands of tales recorded in Old Norse ranging from Icelandic family histories to Migration period tales mentioning historic figures such as Attila the Hun. Objects and monuments such as the Rök Runestone and the Kvinneby amulet feature runic inscriptions—texts written in the runic alphabet, the indigenous alphabet of the Germanic peoples—that mention figures and events from Norse mythology.
Objects from the archaeological record may be interpreted as depictions of subjects from Norse mythology, such as amulets of the god Thor's hammer Mjölnir found among pagan burials and small silver female figures interpreted as valkyries or dísir, beings associated with war, fate or ancestor cults. By way of historical linguistics and comparative mythology, comparisons to other attested branches of Germanic mythology may lend insight. Wider comparisons to the
Sága and Sökkvabekkr
In Norse mythology, Sága is a goddess associated with the wisdom Sökkvabekkr. At Sökkvabekkr, Sága and the god Odin merrily drink. Both Sága and Sökkvabekkr are attested in the Poetic Edda, compiled in the 13th century from earlier traditional sources, in the Prose Edda, written in the 13th century by Snorri Sturluson. Scholars have proposed theories about the implications of the goddess and her associated location, including that the location may be connected to the goddess Frigg's fen residence Fensalir and that Sága may be another name for Frigg; the etymology of the name Sága is held to be connected to the Old Norse verb sjá, meaning "to see". This may mean. Since Frigg is referred to as a seeress in the poem Lokasenna, this etymology has led to theories connecting Sága to Frigg. Rudolf Simek says that this etymology raises vowel problems and that a link to saga and segja is more yet that this identification is problematic. In the Poetic Edda poem Grímnismál, Sökkvabekkr is presented fourth among a series of stanzas describing the residences of various gods.
In the poem, Odin tells the young Agnar that Odin and Sága drink there from golden cups while waves resound: In the Poetic Edda poem Helgakviða Hundingsbana I, the hero Sinfjötli references Sága in the name of a location found in a stanza where Sinfjötli flyts with Guðmundr. The location name, nes Ságu, has been variously translated as "Saga's Headland," "Saga's Cape," and "Saga's ness" Part of the stanza may be missing and, due to this, some editors have joined it with the stanza prior. Sága is mentioned once in both the Prose Edda books Gylfaginning and Skáldskaparmál, while Sokkvabekk is only mentioned once, in Gylfaginning. In chapter 35 of Gylfaginning, High tells Gangleri about the ásynjur. High follows a description of Frigg and her dwelling Fensalir with "Second is Saga, she dwells in Sokkvabekk, and, a big place." In chapter 75 of the book Skáldskaparmál, Sága is present among a list of 27 ásynjur, but no information is provided about her there. John Lindow says that due to similarity between Sökkvabekkr and Fensalir, "Odin's open drinking with Sága", the potential etymological basis for Sága being a seeress has "led most scholars to understand Sága as another name for Frigg."
Stephan Grundy states that the words Sága and Sökkvabekkr may be by-forms of Frigg and Fensalir used for the purpose of composing alliterative verse. Britt-Mari Näsström theorizes that "Frigg's role as a fertility goddess is revealed in the name of her abode, Fensalir ", that Frigg is the same as Sága, that both the names Fensalir and Sökkvabekkr "imply a goddes living in the water and recall the fertility goddess Nerthus". Näsström adds that "Sökkvabekkr, the subterranean water, alludes to the well of Urd, hidden under the roots of Yggdrasil and the chthonic function, manifest in Freyja's character."Rudolf Simek says that Sága should be considered "one of the not closer defined Asyniur" along with Hlín, Sjöfn, Snotra, Vár, Vör, that they "should be seen as female protective goddesses." Simek adds that "these goddesses were all responsible for specific areas of the private sphere, yet clear differences were made between them so that they are in many ways similar to matrons."19th century scholar Jacob Grimm comments that "the gods share their power and influence with goddesses, the heroes and priests with wise women."
Grimm notes that Sökkvabekkr is "described as a place where cool waters rush" and that Odin and Sága "day to day drink gladly out of golden cups." Grimm theorizes that the liquid from these cups is: the drink of immortality, at the same time of poesy. Saga may be taken as daughter of Oðinn. With the Greeks the Musa was a daughter of Zeus, but hear of three or nine Muses, who resemble our wise women and schöpferins, dwell beside springs or wells; the cool flood well befits daughters of Wish. Saga can be no other than our sage, the'mære' personified and deified
Ynglingatal is a Skaldic poem cited by Snorri Sturluson in the Ynglinga saga, the first saga of Snorri's Heimskringla. Snorri quotes from this poem and cites it as one of the sources of the saga; the composition of the poem has variously been dated between the late 9th and the early 12th century. Þjóðólfr of Hvinir, a poet for Harald Fairhair, is traditionally credited with its authorship. The poem lists the mythical and historical ancient Swedish kings; the title Ynglingatal alludes to Yngling, who had the name Yngve-Frey—another name for Frey, the god, worshipped in Svealand. Yngling descended from Frey's son Fjölnir. Snorri portrayed Harald Fairhair as a descendant of the Ynglings; the poem was written on behalf of Ragnvald the Mountain-High, a cousin of King Harald Fairhair, its last stanza is about Ragnvald. Ynglingatal is composed in kviðuháttr. In this form of verse, the lines alternate between three and four syllables—the first line has three syllables, the next has four, the next three, so on.
For example: Ynglingatal has makes extensive use of acquaintance, such as rewriting and metaphors that give life to the poem, which otherwise contains much litany. The Icelandic philologist Finnur Jonsson believed the eight-line stanza defines Ynglingatal's structure, while Walter Akerlund believed the four-line helming—the half-stanza as in the example above—defines the poem's structure. Akerlund has said the bard Thjodolf learned the verse-form kviðuháttr by studying the Rök Runestone in present-day Sweden, which dates from around the year 800. Ynglingatal is preserved in its entirety in Snorri's Ynglinga saga, which Snorri wrote based on the poem. In the saga, Snorri expanded his text by quoting from the poem in addition to his own text. A stanza from Ynglingatal is quoted in Þáttr Ólafs Geirstaða Alfs. Stories that build on the poem are found in the Norwegian history, Historia Norvegiæ, written in Latin in the late 1100s, in the short saga Af Upplendinga konungum. Ynglingtal is indirectly preserved as a list of names in Íslendingabók from the early 1100s.
A few of the characters in Ynglingatal are mentioned in the Old English poem Beowulf. According to Snorri, Ynglingatal was composed by the scald Þjóðólfr of Hvinir, from Kvinesdal in what is now Vest-Agder, Norway. In the preamble to the Heimskringla, Snorri writes that Thjodolf, in addition to composing the poem Ynglingatal, was poet at Harald Fairhair's hird. Thjodolf appears in the Saga of Harald Fairhair, in the mythical story of Harald and the Sami girl Snøfrid Svåsedatter, who cursed Harald to marry her. According to the saga, Harald and Snøfrid had four sons but Harald sent them away when he woke up from the curse. Thjodolf raised one of Gudrod Ljome; when Thjodolf learned Harald had disowned his sons, he sided with the boys and said to Harald, "They would have liked better ancestry, if you had given them that". The saga contains no information about Thjodolf being Harald's scald. In the saga he is only referred as the son whom Godred fostered. Snorri quotes several other poems of Thjodolf in Harald Fairhair's saga.
The historian Claus Krag said the connection between Harald Fairhair and Thjodolf was constructed by Snorri because Thjodolf was an important person in the development of scaldic art, while according to tradition, Harald was Norway's first national king. To create a connection between them would thus enhance both their reputations. According to Finnur Jonsson, Thjodolf was Harald's scald without dwelling much on the subject. Finnur said Thjodolf was not a hird scald, but a scald who stayed home on the farm, where in another saga we meet Thjodolf's grandson. Snorri mentions a man named Torgrim from Kvine, "son" to Thjodolf in the Olav Tryggvasson saga. Beyond this there are no more references to Thjodolf in the sagas in Heimskringla. Snorri wrote the preamble and the saga in the 1220s, over 300 years after Thjodolf should have lived, so any information about him is uncertain. According to Yngling Saga, the first king described in Ynglingatal, was the son of the god Frey and a giantess named Gerd.
The actual poem mentions nothing about this. Frey, the great fertility god in the Nordic countries, entered into a sacred wedding with Gerd, retold in the poem Skirnismål; the mythological purpose of the holy wedding is to bear a child, the child of both the parents but is neither god or giant but something different that will be the first of a "new" species. With effort and tensions from this, the king, who has high status, is valued above all other people; the author of the myth gives the king a special destiny as the main symbol within the ruling ideology in the Norse-thought universe. Both major ruling families in Norway and Ladejarlsætten, legitimized their statuses by using a wedding myth. Just as Yngling had their legitimacy reinterpreted in Ynglingatal, the Ladejarlsætt got its equivalent in the poem Håleygjatal, written by the Norwegian poet Eyvindr skáldaspillir at the end of the 900s. In Håleygjatal it is Odin and the giantess Skade were of mythological origin, their son Sæming is the ancestor of Hákon jarl.
Both poems were thus used as genealogies and served as mythological propaganda and grounds for alliances. According to religious historian Gro Steinsland, the myth has an erotic element and is thus a fertilit