Kit (association football)
In association football, kit is the standard equipment and attire worn by players. The sport's Laws of the Game specify the minimum kit which a player must use, prohibit the use of anything, dangerous to either the player or another participant. Individual competitions may stipulate further restrictions, such as regulating the size of logos displayed on shirts and stating that, in the event of a match between teams with identical or similar colours, the away team must change to different coloured attire. Footballers wear identifying numbers on the backs of their shirts. A team of players wore numbers from 1 to 11, corresponding to their playing positions, but at the professional level this has been superseded by squad numbering, whereby each player in a squad is allocated a fixed number for the duration of a season. Professional clubs usually display players' surnames or nicknames on their shirts, above their squad numbers. Football kit has evolved since the early days of the sport when players wore thick cotton shirts and heavy rigid leather boots.
In the twentieth century, boots became lighter and softer, shorts were worn at a shorter length, advances in clothing manufacture and printing allowed shirts to be made in lighter synthetic fibres with colourful and complex designs. With the rise of advertising in the 20th century, sponsors' logos began to appear on shirts, replica strips were made available for fans to purchase, generating significant amounts of revenue for clubs; the Laws of the Game set out the basic equipment which must be worn by all players in Law 4: The Players' Equipment. Five separate items are specified: shirt, socks and shin pads. Goalkeepers are allowed to wear tracksuit bottoms instead of shorts. While most players wear studded football boots, the Laws do not specify. Shirts must have sleeves, goalkeepers must wear shirts which are distinguishable from all other players and the match officials. Thermal undershorts must be the same colour as the shorts themselves. Shin pads must be covered by the stockings, be made of rubber, plastic or a similar material, "provide a reasonable degree of protection".
The only other restriction on equipment defined in the Laws of the Game is the requirement that a player "must not use equipment or wear anything, dangerous to himself or another player". It is normal for individual competitions to specify that all outfield players on a team must wear the same colours, though the Law states only "The two teams must wear colours that distinguish them from each other and the referee and the assistant referees". In the event of a match between teams who would wear identical or similar colours the away team must change to a different colour; because of this requirement a team's second-choice is referred to as its "away kit" or "away colours", although it is not unknown at international level, for teams to opt to wear their away colours when not required to by a clash of colours, or to wear them at home. The England national team sometimes plays in red shirts when it is not required, as this was the strip worn when the team won the 1966 FIFA World Cup. In some cases both teams have been forced to wear their second choice away kits.
Many professional clubs have a "third kit", ostensibly to be used if both their first-choice and away colours are deemed too similar to those of an opponent. Most professional clubs have retained the same basic colour scheme for several decades, the colours themselves form an integral part of a club's culture. Teams representing countries in international competition wear national colours in common with other sporting teams of the same nation; these are based on the colours of the country's national flag, although there are exceptions—the Italian national team, for example, wear blue as it was the colour of the House of Savoy, the Australian team like most Australian sporting teams wear the Australian National Colours of green and gold, neither of which appear on the flag, the Dutch national team wear orange, the colour of the Dutch Royal House. Shirts are made of a polyester mesh, which does not trap the sweat and body heat in the same way as a shirt made of a natural fibre. Most professional clubs have sponsors' logos on the front of their shirts, which can generate significant levels of income, some offer sponsors the chance to place their logos on the back of their shirts.
Depending on local rules, there may be restrictions on how large these logos may be or on what logos may be displayed. Competitions such as the Premier League may require players to wear patches on their sleeves depicting the logo of the competition. A player's number is printed on the back of the shirt, although international teams also place numbers on the front, professional teams print a player's surname above their number; the captain of each team is required to wear an elasticated armband around the left sleeve to identify them as the captain to the referee and supporters. Most current players wear specialist football boots, which can be made either of
The Netherlands is a country located in Northwestern Europe. The European portion of the Netherlands consists of twelve separate provinces that border Germany to the east, Belgium to the south, the North Sea to the northwest, with maritime borders in the North Sea with Belgium and the United Kingdom. Together with three island territories in the Caribbean Sea—Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba— it forms a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands; the official language is Dutch, but a secondary official language in the province of Friesland is West Frisian. The six largest cities in the Netherlands are Amsterdam, The Hague, Utrecht and Tilburg. Amsterdam is the country's capital, while The Hague holds the seat of the States General and Supreme Court; the Port of Rotterdam is the largest port in Europe, the largest in any country outside Asia. The country is a founding member of the EU, Eurozone, G10, NATO, OECD and WTO, as well as a part of the Schengen Area and the trilateral Benelux Union.
It hosts several intergovernmental organisations and international courts, many of which are centered in The Hague, dubbed'the world's legal capital'. Netherlands means'lower countries' in reference to its low elevation and flat topography, with only about 50% of its land exceeding 1 metre above sea level, nearly 17% falling below sea level. Most of the areas below sea level, known as polders, are the result of land reclamation that began in the 16th century. With a population of 17.30 million people, all living within a total area of 41,500 square kilometres —of which the land area is 33,700 square kilometres —the Netherlands is one of the most densely populated countries in the world. It is the world's second-largest exporter of food and agricultural products, owing to its fertile soil, mild climate, intensive agriculture; the Netherlands was the third country in the world to have representative government, it has been a parliamentary constitutional monarchy with a unitary structure since 1848.
The country has a tradition of pillarisation and a long record of social tolerance, having legalised abortion and human euthanasia, along with maintaining a progressive drug policy. The Netherlands abolished the death penalty in 1870, allowed women's suffrage in 1917, became the world's first country to legalise same-sex marriage in 2001, its mixed-market advanced economy had the thirteenth-highest per capita income globally. The Netherlands ranks among the highest in international indexes of press freedom, economic freedom, human development, quality of life, as well as happiness; the Netherlands' turbulent history and shifts of power resulted in exceptionally many and varying names in different languages. There is diversity within languages; this holds for English, where Dutch is the adjective form and the misnomer Holland a synonym for the country "Netherlands". Dutch comes from Theodiscus and in the past centuries, the hub of Dutch culture is found in its most populous region, home to the capital city of Amsterdam.
Referring to the Netherlands as Holland in the English language is similar to calling the United Kingdom "Britain" by people outside the UK. The term is so pervasive among potential investors and tourists, that the Dutch government's international websites for tourism and trade are "holland.com" and "hollandtradeandinvest.com". The region of Holland consists of North and South Holland, two of the nation's twelve provinces a single province, earlier still, the County of Holland, a remnant of the dissolved Frisian Kingdom. Following the decline of the Duchy of Brabant and the County of Flanders, Holland became the most economically and politically important county in the Low Countries region; the emphasis on Holland during the formation of the Dutch Republic, the Eighty Years' War and the Anglo-Dutch Wars in the 16th, 17th and 18th century, made Holland serve as a pars pro toto for the entire country, now considered either incorrect, informal, or, depending on context, opprobrious. Nonetheless, Holland is used in reference to the Netherlands national football team.
The region called the Low Countries and the Country of the Netherlands. Place names with Neder, Nieder and Nedre and Bas or Inferior are in use in places all over Europe, they are sometimes used in a deictic relation to a higher ground that consecutively is indicated as Upper, Oben, Superior or Haut. In the case of the Low Countries / Netherlands the geographical location of the lower region has been more or less downstream and near the sea; the geographical location of the upper region, changed tremendously over time, depending on the location of the economic and military power governing the Low Countries area. The Romans made a distinction between the Roman provinces of downstream Germania Inferior and upstream Germania Superior; the designation'Low' to refer to the region returns again in the 10th century Duchy of Lower Lorraine, that covered much of the Low Countries. But this time the corresponding Upper region is Upper Lorraine, in nowadays Northern France; the Dukes of Burgundy, who ruled the Low Countries in the 15th century, used the term les pays de par deçà for the Low Countries as opposed to les pays de par delà for their original
Iceland is a Nordic island country in the North Atlantic, with a population of 348,580 and an area of 103,000 km2, making it the most sparsely populated country in Europe. The capital and largest city is Reykjavík, with Reykjavík and the surrounding areas in the southwest of the country being home to over two-thirds of the population. Iceland is geologically active; the interior consists of a plateau characterised by sand and lava fields and glaciers, many glacial rivers flow to the sea through the lowlands. Iceland is warmed by the Gulf Stream and has a temperate climate, despite a high latitude just outside the Arctic Circle, its high latitude and marine influence keep summers chilly, with most of the archipelago having a tundra climate. According to the ancient manuscript Landnámabók, the settlement of Iceland began in 874 AD when the Norwegian chieftain Ingólfr Arnarson became the first permanent settler on the island. In the following centuries, to a lesser extent other Scandinavians, emigrated to Iceland, bringing with them thralls of Gaelic origin.
The island was governed as an independent commonwealth under the Althing, one of the world's oldest functioning legislative assemblies. Following a period of civil strife, Iceland acceded to Norwegian rule in the 13th century; the establishment of the Kalmar Union in 1397 united the kingdoms of Norway and Sweden. Iceland thus followed Norway's integration into that union, coming under Danish rule after Sweden's secession from the union in 1523. Although the Danish kingdom introduced Lutheranism forcefully in 1550, Iceland remained a distant semi-colonial territory in which Danish institutions and infrastructures were conspicuous by their absence. In the wake of the French Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars, Iceland's struggle for independence took form and culminated in independence in 1918 and the founding of a republic in 1944; until the 20th century, Iceland relied on subsistence fishing and agriculture. Industrialisation of the fisheries and Marshall Plan aid following World War II brought prosperity and Iceland became one of the wealthiest and most developed nations in the world.
In 1994, it became a part of the European Economic Area, which further diversified the economy into sectors such as finance and manufacturing. Iceland has a market economy with low taxes, compared to other OECD countries, it maintains a Nordic social welfare system that provides universal health care and tertiary education for its citizens. Iceland ranks high in economic, social stability, equality ranking first in the world by median wealth per adult. In 2018, it was ranked as the sixth most developed country in the world by the United Nations' Human Development Index, it ranks first on the Global Peace Index. Iceland runs completely on renewable energy. Hit hard by the worldwide financial crisis, the nation's entire banking system systemically failed in October 2008, leading to a severe depression, substantial political unrest, the Icesave dispute, the institution of capital controls; some bankers were jailed. Since the economy has made a significant recovery, in large part due to a surge in tourism.
A law that took effect in 2018 makes it illegal in Iceland for women to be paid less than men. Icelandic culture is founded upon the nation's Scandinavian heritage. Most Icelanders are descendants of Gaelic settlers. Icelandic, a North Germanic language, is descended from Old West Norse and is related to Faroese and West Norwegian dialects; the country's cultural heritage includes traditional Icelandic cuisine, Icelandic literature, medieval sagas. Iceland has the smallest population of any NATO member and is the only one with no standing army, with a armed coast guard; the Sagas of Icelanders say that a Norwegian named Naddodd was the first Norseman to reach Iceland, in the 9th century he named it Snæland or "snow land" because it was snowing. Following Naddodd, the Swede Garðar Svavarsson arrived, so the island was called Garðarshólmur which means "Garðar's Isle". Came a Viking named Flóki Vilgerðarson; the sagas say that the rather despondent Flóki climbed a mountain and saw a fjord full of icebergs, which led him to give the island its new and present name.
The notion that Iceland's Viking settlers chose that name to discourage oversettlement of their verdant isle is a myth. According to both Landnámabók and Íslendingabók, monks known as the Papar lived in Iceland before Scandinavian settlers arrived members of a Hiberno-Scottish mission. Recent archaeological excavations have revealed the ruins of a cabin in Hafnir on the Reykjanes peninsula. Carbon dating indicates that it was abandoned sometime between 770 and 880. In 2016, archeologists uncovered a longhouse in Stöðvarfjörður, dated to as early as 800. Swedish Viking explorer Garðar Svavarsson was the first to circumnavigate Iceland in 870 and establish that it was an island, he built a house in Húsavík. Garðar departed the following summer but one of his men, Náttfari, decided to stay behind with two slaves. Náttfari settled in what is now known as Náttfaravík and he and his slaves became the first permanent residents of Iceland; the Norwegian-Norse chieftain Ingólfr Arnarson built his homestead in present-day Reykjavík in 874.
Ingólfr was followed by many other emigrant settlers Scandinavians and their thralls, many of whom were Irish or Scottish. By 930, most arable land on the island had been claimed. Lack of arable land al
The Danish Superliga is the current Danish football championship tournament, administered by the Danish Football Association. It is the highest football league in Denmark and is contested by 14 teams each year, with 1–3 teams relegated. Founded in 1991, the Danish Superliga replaced the Danish 1st Division as the highest league of football in Denmark. From the start in 1991, 10 teams were participating; the opening Superliga season was played during the spring of 1991, with the ten teams playing each other twice for the championship title. From the summer of 1991, the tournament structure would stretch over two years; the 10 teams would play each other twice in the first half of the tournament. In the following spring, the bottom two teams would be cut off, the points of the teams would be cut in half, the remaining eight teams would once more play each other twice, for a total of 32 games in a season; this practice was abandoned before the 1995–96 season, when the number of teams competing was increased to 12, playing each other thrice for 33 games per Superliga season.
For the first season of this new structure, Coca-Cola became the name sponsor of the league, named Coca-Cola Ligaen. After a single season under that name, Faxe Brewery became sponsors and the league changed its name to Faxe Kondi Ligaen. Before the 2001–02 season, Scandinavian Airlines System became the head sponsor, the name of the tournament changed to SAS Ligaen. From January 2015 the Danish Superliga is known as Alka Superliga, as the Danish insurance company Alka became name sponsor. Logos used for naming rights agreements for the league: From 1996 through 2016, the league included 12 clubs which played each other three times; the two teams with the fewest points at the end of the season were relegated to the Danish 1st Division and replaced by the top two teams of that division. During this era, each team played every other team at least once at home and once away plus once more either at home or away; the top six teams of the previous season played 17 matches at home and 16 away while the teams in 7th to 10th place plus the two newly promoted teams played 16 matches at home and 17 away.
Following the 2015–16 season, the league was expanded to 14 teams, accomplished by relegating only the last-place finisher in that season and promoting the top three teams from the 1st division. The 2016–17 season was the first for the new league structure, it began with the teams playing a full home-and-away schedule, resulting in 26 matches for each team. At that time, the league split into a six-team championship playoff and an eight-team qualifying playoff. All teams' table points and goals carry over into the playoffs. In the championship playoff, each team plays the others away again; the top team at the end of the playoff is Superliga champion and enters the UEFA Champions League in the second qualifying round. The second-place team enters the UEFA Europa League in the first qualifying round; the third-place team advances to a one-off playoff match for another Europa League place. The qualifying playoff is split into two groups, with the teams that finished the regular season in 7th, 10th, 11th, 14th in one group and those finishing 8th, 9th, 12th, 13th in the other.
Each group plays home-and-away within its group. The top two teams from each group enter a knockout tournament, with each match over two legs. If the Danish Cup winner is among the top two finishers in either playoff group, it is withdrawn from the knockout playoff and its opponent automatically advances to the tournament final; the winner of that tournament faces the third-place team from the championship playoff in a one-off match, with the winner entering the Europa League in the first qualifying round. The bottom two teams from each group contest a relegation playoff with several steps, centered on a separate four-team knockout playoff consisting of two-legged matches: The winners of the semifinals advance to the final; the losers of the semifinals play over two legs, with the winner remaining in the Superliga and the loser dropping to the 1st Division. The winner of the final plays the 1st Division runner-up, the loser of the final plays the third-place team from the 1st Division over two legs.
In each case, the winner plays in the next season's Superliga. The 10 most scoring players throughout the history of the Superliga. Latest update 22 May 2018. List of Danish Superliga clubs Sports league attendances Official website Guide to the Danish Superliga
Marco Rodrigo Rojas is a New Zealand professional footballer who plays as a winger or attacking midfielder for Superliga side SønderjyskE and the New Zealand national team. Fans have dubbed Rojas as the Kiwi Messi during his stint in the A-League with Melbourne Victory FC. Rojas attended Aberdeen Primary School and Maeroa Intermediate School during the late 1990s and early-mid-2000s, he is of Chilean descent. Marco Rojas came through Wynton Rufer's Wynrs football academy, he trialled with Caleb Rufer at Werder Bremen, Hannover 96 and B Monchengladbach. Neither player was successful but on Rojas was awarded a trial with the Wellington Phoenix after winning the "Retro Ricki Youth Scholarship" from the Yellow Fever. Rojas impressed Wellington coach Ricki Herbert and put in some good performances in the Phoenix's warm up friendlies resulting in him getting offered a 2-year contract with the A-League side. On 13 September 2009, he made his senior debut in the A-League for the Wellington Phoenix against Melbourne Victory at the age of 17, coming off the bench as a 77th minute substitution for Daniel making him the second youngest player to play for the Phoenix behind Kosta Barbarouses.
Rojas got his second appearance for the Phoenix when he was substituted on for Paul Ifill in the 73rd minute against Central Coast Mariners on 27 September 2009. Rojas scored his first goal on his full debut for the Phoenix on 18 December 2010 in a 4–0 victory over the Newcastle Jets, his second goal was in the 72nd minute on 5 January against Melbourne Victory helping them secure a 2–0 win at Westpac Stadium. Rojas provided the assist for Chris Greenacre's opening goal in a 3–1 win over North Queensland Fury in the Phoenix's final home game of the 2010–11 season. On 18 February 2011, Rojas was awarded the NAB Young Player of the Month. On 22 February 2011, he was awarded the Wellington Phoenix young player of the year. On 27 February 2011, Wellington Phoenix announced that Rojas declined to sign a new contract with the club and wanted to move on. Following this announcement, some media outlets claimed unofficially that Rojas had signed for Melbourne Victory, however Melbourne coach Ernie Merrick denied this.
It was believed at the time that Melbourne Victory, Adelaide United and a South American club were vying for the signature of the rated youngster. On 11 March 2011, Melbourne Victory ended weeks of speculation by confirming that they had indeed signed Rojas, securing him on a two-year deal. On 8 October 2011, Rojas made his debut for Melbourne Victory FC in the A-League season opener against Sydney FC, it would not be until the following 2012–13 season, that he would score his first Melbourne Victory goal. His second Melbourne Victory goal came in the Victory's 2–1 win against Adelaide United two weeks later. Rojas scored goal number 15 for season 2012–13 on 31 March 2013 against Wellington Phoenix in a 2–3 win. At the A-League end of season awards for the 2012–13 season, Rojas won both the Johnny Warren Medal and the A-League Young Footballer of the Year awards. On 18 April 2013, Rojas quit Melbourne Victory to pursue a career in Europe, his contract with Melbourne expired on 30 April 2013. Rojas moved during the 2013–14 season to VfB Stuttgart.
On 8 May 2013, Marco Rojas signed a contract until June 2017 with VfB Stuttgart. He joined the Bundesliga side on a free transfer from Melbourne Victory. On 10 July 2013, Marco started his first game for Die Schwaben in a pre-season friendly match against the local Hohenlohe-Selection at the Schönebürgstadion, Crailsheim. Marco scored his first goal for his new club in this game to give VfB a 4–0 lead just before half time, VfB went on to win the match 5–0. On 17 July 2013, Marco suffered an injury setback during training that sidelined the Kiwi international for between four and six weeks. Media sources revealed. Rojas however continued to swim and perform weight training but he was unable to continue football related activities until after the new 1. Bundesliga season began in early August. On 21 August 2014, Rojas was loaned out to SpVgg Greuther Fürth. In January 2015 the loan deal was terminated, he was loaned out to FC Thun on 3 January 2015 until the end of the 2014–15 season. On 8 February 2015, Rojas scored his first Swiss Super League goal on debut for FC Thun in Thun's 1–1 draw with FC Aarau match.
On 12 June 2015, the loan deal was extended until the end of the 2015–16 season. On 25 August 2016, Rojas returned to the A-League with former club Melbourne Victory, signing a two-year deal, his first goal on return was the sole goal for Victory in a disappointing Melbourne Derby clash. The following week, Rojas scored a match-winner at the last minute of stoppage time against Adelaide United, his performances in the first half of the season, have been voted by Mark Bosnich as the best the A-League has seen. In July 2017, Rojas joined Dutch club SC Heerenveen on a two-year contract with the option of a third year. SønderjyskE confirmed the signing of Rojas on 22 January 2019, he signed a one-year contract with an option to extend it further, got shirt number 17. On 8 March 2011, Rojas was called up to play to a 30-man squad for the upcoming games against China and Japan for New Zealand's national team the All Whites, he made his debut as a second-half substitute in the 1–1 draw with China on 25 March 2011 before he made any appearance for any other junior New Zealand sides.
The scheduled match against Japan was called off due to logistics and safety concerns following the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami. He gained his 2nd International cap against Australia, 5 May 2011 he came on as a second-half substitute. Australia won th
Haderslev is a Danish town in the Region of Southern Denmark with a population of 21,574. It is the main town and the administrative seat of Haderslev Municipality and is situated in the eastern part of Southern Jutland. Haderslev is home of Sønderjyske, an association football team that plays in the Danish Superliga for the 2018-19 season. Haderslev is situated in a valley, leading from Vojens to the Baltic Sea. Haderslev was founded by Vikings at least a century before it was granted status as royal borough in 1292. At that time, it had become one of the main trading centres in Southern Jutland. In 1327, the royal castle, was mentioned for the first time, it was situated east in an area still called Slotsgrunden. In the following centuries the city prospered, building both the Gothic Cathedral and the second castle of Hansborg, similar to Kronborg. Due to the plague in Copenhagen, King Christian IV was married there. In the 16th century, the city became one of the first Scandinavian centres of Lutheranism during the Reformation.
Prior to the Second Schleswig War of 1864, Haderslev was situated in the Duchy of Schleswig, a Danish fief, so its history is properly included in the contentious history of Schleswig-Holstein. From 1864 it was part of Prussia, as such part of the North German Confederation, from 1871 onwards, part of the German Empire. In the 1920 Schleswig Plebiscite that returned Northern Schleswig to Denmark, 38.6% of Haderslev's inhabitants voted for remaining part of Germany and 61.4% voted for the cession to Denmark. It was the capital of the German Kreis Hadersleben and the Danish Haderslev County; the trademark of Haderslev is unquestionably Haderslev Cathedral, which has existed since the middle of the 13th century, since 1922 it was the seat of Haderslev Diocese. The town was an important breeding ground for the reformation in Denmark, as early as 1526 Christian introduced, as the duke of Schleswig-Holstein, the reformation in Haderslev, just eight years before he became King of Denmark. Another noticeable church is the white-chalked Sankt Severin Church, which lies at the banks of the town's inner pond.
Because of a renovation of the town's oldest houses, it means Haderslev offers a unique collection of houses and buildings from 1400 to the beginning of the 20th century, the town center's cobbled streets and alleys is suitable for town strolling. Once the town used to have a castle named "Haderslev Hus", but due to several town fires through the town's history the castle is no longer existent. In the public park "Kløften", near the town's center, Kløften Festival, a three-day annual festival is in the summer; the festival uses one of Haderslev's important trademarks, the red-bricked water tower near the park as its logo. Three branches of University College South can be found in Haderslev. A kommune by the previous name existed 1970–2006, it belonged to South Jutland County and covered an area of 272 square kilometres with a total population of 56,116. Its last mayor was a member of the liberal political party. Neighboring municipalities were Christiansfeld to the north, Vojens to the west, Rødekro to the south, Assens to the East.
Haderslev is twinned with: Eric Christoffersen of Denmark King of Denmark from 1321. In 1325 his father asked him to halt the Counts of Holstein and their allies, but was deserted by his troops, taken prisoner and confined in Haderslev Castle Sophie of Pomerania Queen of Denmark and Norway, mother of John II, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Haderslev Dorothea of Saxe-Lauenburg, consort of Christian III from 1525 and Queen consort of Denmark and Norway. Lived in her own courts in Haderslev John II, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Haderslev was the only Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Haderslev John II, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg was the Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg Jens Hermansson Juel was a Danish nobleman who served as Governor-general of Norway from 1618 to 1629 Frederick III of Denmark king of Denmark and Norway 1648-1670 Georg Nikolaus von Nissen music historian and diplomat, author of one of the first biographies of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart Heinrich Hansen was a Danish architectural painter and State Councillor Anton Eduard Kieldrup was a Danish landscape painter.
Hans Lynge was a Greenlandic author, painter, politician and sculptor Helmuth Ellgaard was a German illustrator and journalist Torben Ebbesen a Danish sculptor and painter Henning Stockfleth was a Norwegian cleric and Bishop of Oslo Marianne Christiansen is a Lutheran bishop of the Diocese of Haderslev Niels Toller merchant, settled in Norway, the wealthiest person in Christiania Arend Friedrich Wiegmann was a German pharmacist and botanist Heinrich Nissen was a German professor of ancient history Christian August Volquardsen was a German classical historian. Julius Langbehn was philosopher. Günter Weitling a Lutheran theologian and author. Svend Wad boxer, the Olympic Bronze Medalist at lightweight in London in 1948 Jørn Krab a Danish rower who competed in the 1968 Summer Olympics Ole Olsen a former international motorcycle speedway rider Preben Krab a Danish rower who competed in the 1968 Summer Olympics
FIFA eligibility rules
As the governing body of association football, FIFA is responsible for maintaining and implementing the rules that determine whether an association football player is eligible to represent a particular country in recognised international competitions and friendly matches. In the 20th century, FIFA allowed a player to represent any national team, as long as the player held citizenship of that country. In 2004, in reaction to the growing trend towards naturalisation of foreign players in some countries, FIFA implemented a significant new ruling that requires a player to demonstrate a "clear connection" to any country they wish to represent. FIFA has used its authority to overturn results of competitive international matches that feature ineligible players. FIFA's eligibility rules demand that in men's competitions, only men are eligible to play, that in women's competitions, only women are eligible to play, it was possible for players to play for different national teams. For example, Alfredo Di Stéfano played for Spain.
Di Stefano's Real Madrid teammate Ferenc Puskás played for Spain after amassing 85 caps for Hungary earlier in his career. A third high-profile instance of a player switching international football nationalities is Jose Altafini, who played for Brazil in the 1958 FIFA World Cup and for Italy in the subsequent 1962 FIFA World Cup. Other 20th-century examples of players representing two or three separate countries are: Joe Gaetjens – László Kubala – Raimundo Orsi – Luis Monti – Michel Platini – José Santamaría – Alberto Spencer – This does not include the hundreds of players whose teams were affected by changes to geopolitical borders e.g. East Germany/Germany, Soviet Union/Ukraine, Yugoslavia/Croatia. Furthermore, some international players have played for another FIFA-recognised country in unofficial international matches, i.e. fixtures not recognised by FIFA as full internationals. This category includes Daniel Brailovsky who played for Uruguay youth teams, was featured in camps for Argentina and years officially represented Israel.
These caps are not recognised due to a dispute between FIFA and the Colombian Football Federation at the time. In January 2004, a new ruling came into effect that permitted a player to represent one country at youth international level and another at senior international level, provided that the player applied before their 21st birthday; the first player to do so was Antar Yahia, who played for the France under-18s before representing Algeria in qualifiers for the 2004 Olympic Games. More recent examples include Sone Aluko, who has caps for the England under-19s and Nigeria, Andrew Driver, a former England under-21 representative, committed to the Scotland national team. In March 2004, FIFA amended its wider policy on international eligibility; this was reported to be in response to a growing trend in some countries, such as Qatar and Togo, to naturalise players born and raised in Brazil that have no apparent ancestral links to their new country of citizenship. An emergency FIFA committee ruling judged that players must be able to demonstrate a "clear connection" to a country that they had not been born in but wished to represent.
This ruling explicitly stated that, in such scenarios, the player must have at least one parent or grandparent, born in that country, or the player must have been resident in that country for at least two years. In November 2007, FIFA President Sepp Blatter told the BBC: "If we don't stop this farce, if we don't take care about the invaders from Brazil towards Europe and Africa in the 2014 or the 2018 World Cup, out of the 32 teams you will have 16 full of Brazilian players."The residency requirement for players lacking birth or ancestral connections with a specific country was extended from two to five years in May 2008 at FIFA's Congress as part of Blatter's efforts to preserve the integrity of competitions involving national teams. The relevant current FIFA statute, Article 7: Acquisition of a new nationality, states: Any player... who assumes a new nationality and who has not played international football shall be eligible to play for the new representative team only if he fulfils one of the following conditions: a) He was born on the territory of the relevant association.
Under the criteria it is possible for a player to have a choice of representing several national teams. It is not uncommon for national team managers and scouts to attempt to persuade players to change their FIFA nationality. Gareth Bale was asked about a possibility to play for England, being of English descent through his grandmother, but opted to represent Wales, his country of birth. In June 2009, FIFA Congress passed a motion that removed the age limit for players who had alre