Royal Library Garden, Copenhagen
The Royal Library Garden referred to as the Library Garden, is a small, somewhat hidden garden between the Royal Library, the Tøjhus Museum, ChristianIV's Supply Depot and Christiansborg Palace on Slotsholmen in central Copenhagen, Denmark. It has a reputation for being one of the most tranquil spots in the city centre; the garden has a shallow water basin with a water feature in the middle, blooming flower beds and large shady trees. It is accessible from the courtyard at Christiansborg's show grounds; the Library Garden is located on top of the former site of Christian IVs old Naval Harbour. The harbour was flanked by an arsenal—now housing the Tøjhus Museum—and a supply depot, both completed in 1694, was connected to the main harbour by a narrow canal; the Navy was moved to Holmens Kanal and the old harbour was filled in 1867. The garden was designed in 1920 by landscape gardener Jens Peder Andersen and Christiansborg's architect Thorvald Jørgensen; as a reminder of its maritime past, a small pond has been retained in the middle of the gardens and an old mooring ring of the type used by ships in the 17th and 18th centuries has been built into the masonry at the end of the gardens.
The garden has a shallow pool at its centre. In the middle of it stands an eight-metre-high copper sculpture which spouts out cascades of water on the hour. Designed by scultpror Mogens Møller, it was a gift from the Ny Carlsberg Foundation to the Royal Library on the occasion of the opening of its extension, the Black Diamond, located on the waterfront on the other side of the old library building. A 1918 bronze statue of Søren Kierkegaard by sculptor Louis Hasselriis is located in the middle of the gardens. Kierkegaard appears absorbed in his own thoughts with his gaze directed towards a point on the other side of the wall where his fiancée, Regine Olsen, is said to have lived; the wide variety of flowers in the gardens change with the seasons. Visitors can enjoy the view from rows of benches in the shade of the trees or from others out in the sun along the wall between the gardens and the yard to the Danish National Archives. Column plinths from the old Christiansborg serve as epergnes in the four grassy corner pieces and the principal axis through the gardens creates a link between the yard to the Danish National Archives and the main entrance to the Royal Library.
Parks and open spaces in Copenhagen
John Christmas Møller
Guido Leo John Christmas Møller known as Christmas Møller was a Danish politician representing the Conservative People's Party. Møller was elected as a Conservative member of the Folketing and in 1928 became leader of his party, a role he still held at the beginning of the Second World War. After the German occupation of Denmark, he joined a coalition cabinet, but in October 1940, following German pressure, he was forced to resign from the government, as the German authorities felt he was too negative towards them. Three months in 1941, he was forced to abandon his seat in parliament altogether for the same reason, he was instrumental in founding the underground newspaper Frit Danmark. In 1942, Møller fled with his family to England, where he hoped to become part of a Danish government in exile. However, his most important role in London proved to be as a broadcaster for BBC Radio's Danish language service aimed at occupied Denmark, he spoke out against the Danish government's collaborative stance towards the Germans and encouraged sabotage and other resistance activities, becoming enormously popular as a result.
On 2 October 1943, an article by Christmas Møller appeared in Frit Danmark which urged all Danes to do what they could to help their Jewish fellow citizens who had gone into hiding from the Nazis' planned roundup. In April 1945 Møller's son was killed in action while serving in the British Army's Grenadier Guards. After the war Møller became foreign minister in the provisional government of May to November 1945. After the election of 1945 he resumed his old role as leader of the Conservative Party, he lost the election in 1947 and resigned as party leader because of the Southern Schleswig issue. He died the following a week after resigning his membership of the Conservative Party, his great niece, Pia Christmas-Møller, was a member of parliament between 1987 and 2011. "Hr. Christmas Moller"; the Times. 1948-04-15. Harold Flender, Rescue in Denmark and Schuster, New York, 1963 Wilhelm Christmas-Møller. Christmas, 1-2. København: Gyldendal. ISBN 87-00-14186-0
Kløvermarken is a large green space in the Amager East district of Copenhagen, Denmark. A military area, it has been home to both Copenhagen's first air field and a camp for German refugees after World War II, it now sports other sports facilities as well as a nature centre for children. Kløvermarken is bounded by Raffinaderivej and Kløvermarksvej; the area between the park and Stadsgraven, the canal which separates Amager from Christianshavn, is dominated by allotments. Kløvermarken is the last undeveloped section of Christianshavns Fælled, which used to serve as a military training area; the name Kløvermarken is first seen in 1847. At that time the area reached all the way to the Øresund coast where the Stricker Battery had been constructed in 1801 as the most southernly point on Copenhagen's fortifications, it was decommissioned in 1914 and removed in 1965 to make way for. Kløvermarken has a central place in early Danish aviation history after it came into use as an air field in 1909. On 5 January 1910, Robert Svendsen set a Danish record when he reached a height of 84 during a flight at Kløvermarken.
On 3 June 1910, Politiken-journalist Alfred Nervø made the first flight over downtown Copenhagen when he took off from Kløvermarken in a Voisin biplane, crossed the harbour and flew over Copenhagen Fortress and The Lakes before making a circuit of the City Hall tower and returning to Kløvermarken where he landed safely. That summer, on 17 July, Robert Svendsen made the first flight across the Øresund, from Kløvermarken to Limhamn near Malmö. On 18 September 1912, Count Zeppelin landed his Zeppelin airship Hansa on Kløvermarken, its first destination outside Germany; the Royal Danish Army established the Danish Army Air Corps on 2 July 1912, setting up an aviation school at Kløvermarken. They built a complex of hangars and various other facilities at the site in 1917. Kkøvermarken was used by Danish Air Lines, founded on 29 October 1918. In 1925, the civilian flights moved to the new Copenhagen Airport a little further down the coast, at Kastrup, a couple of years they were joined by the military activities.
During the last months of World War II, large numbers of German refugees arrived in Denmark. They had been evacuated throughout the Operation Hannibal across the Baltic Sea after the Red Army started the East Prussian and East Pomeranian Offensives. Of the 240,000 German refugees who came to Denmark, 92,000 were placed in the Copenhagen area, distributed on 152 sites. After the liberation in May 1945, they were collected in large, guarded camps. A town of hutments was built at Kløvermarken where up to 19,000 refugees women and children were placed. Most of them had been sent back to Germany by August 1947 but a minor section of the camp lingered until it was shut on 14 February 1949; some sources and recent research state that thousands of children at Klövermarken died from hunger because of "a humanitarian catastrophy". In the 1950s, amateur football clubs began to use Kløvermarken. Three wooden buildings from the 1930s, built as a quarantine Station for polio patients were converted into changing rooms in 1955.
From that time on, Kløvermarken has served as an area for amateur sports. The last historic buildings from 1917 were pulled down in 1984. In 2005, in response to Lord Mayor Ritt Bjerregaard's launching of an affordable homes campaign, the architectural firm Plot, founded by Bjarke Ingels and Julien De Smedt, proposed to build a giant 3 km perimeter block around the edge of Kløvermarken to deal with the problem of housing shortage without compromising its role as a recreational space; the block would bend and curve around existing club houses and other buildings while large arches would create connections to the surrounding areas, the height of the building would vary in respect to neighbors and views to the historic skyline of the city, creating a Great Wall of roof gardens and terraces. The proposal which in this way wanted to add 3,000 apartments without sacrificing a single football field won initial support at the City Hall but was met with public protests and given up; the area was preserved in May 2012.
Most of Kløvermarken is covered by lawns used for cricket pitches. There are cricket, weight lifting and tennis facilities. Kløvermarken is home to Naturværkstedet Kløvermarken, a nature centre with recreational and educational activities and theme days for children. Time reservation is required. Hangar H Oksbøl Refugee Camp Kløvermarken sports facilities Kløvermarken Nature Centre Kløvermarkens Café
Sacred architecture is a religious architectural practice concerned with the design and construction of places of worship or sacred or intentional space, such as churches, stupas and temples. Many cultures devoted considerable resources to places of worship. Religious and sacred spaces are amongst the most impressive and permanent monolithic buildings created by humanity. Conversely, sacred architecture as a locale for meta-intimacy may be non-monolithic and intensely private and non-public. Sacred and holy structures evolved over centuries and were the largest buildings in the world, prior to the modern skyscraper. While the various styles employed in sacred architecture sometimes reflected trends in other structures, these styles remained unique from the contemporary architecture used in other structures. With the rise of Abrahamic monotheisms, religious buildings became centres of worship and meditation; the Western scholarly discipline of the history of architecture itself follows the history of religious architecture from ancient times until the Baroque period, at least.
Sacred geometry and the use of sophisticated semiotics such as signs and religious motifs are endemic to sacred architecture. Sacred or religious architecture is sometimes called sacred space. Architect Norman L. Koonce has suggested that the goal of sacred architecture is to make "transparent the boundary between matter and mind and the spirit." In discussing sacred architecture, Protestant minister Robert Schuller suggested that "to be psychologically healthy, human beings need to experience their natural setting—the setting we were designed for, the garden." Meanwhile, Richard Kieckhefer suggests that entering into a religious building is a metaphor for entering into spiritual relationship. Kieckhefer suggests that sacred space can be analyzed by three factors affecting spiritual process: longitudinal space emphasizes the procession and return of sacramental acts, auditorium space is suggestive of proclamation and response, new forms of communal space designed for gathering and return depend to a great degree on minimized scale to enhance intimacy and participation in worship.
Sacred architecture spans a number of ancient architectural styles including Neolithic architecture, ancient Egyptian architecture and Sumerian architecture. Ancient religious buildings temples, were viewed as the dwelling place, the temenos, of the gods and were used as the site of various kinds of sacrifice. Ancient tombs and burial structures are examples of architectural structures reflecting religious beliefs of their various societies; the Temple of Karnak at Thebes, Egypt was constructed across a period of 1300 years and its numerous temples comprise what may be the largest religious structure built. Ancient Egyptian religious architecture has fascinated archaeologists and captured the public imagination for millennia. Around 600 BCE the wooden columns of the Temple of Hera at Olympia were replaced by stone columns. With the spread of this process to other sanctuary structures a few stone buildings have survived through the ages. Greek architecture preceded Roman periods. Since temples are the only buildings which survive in numbers, most of our concept of classical architecture is based on religious structures.
The Parthenon which served as a treasury building as well as a place for veneration of deity, is regarded as the greatest example of classical architecture. Indian architecture is related to the history and religions of the time periods as well as to the geography and geology of the Indian subcontinent. India was crisscrossed by trading routes of merchants from as far away as Siraf and China as well as weathering invasions by foreigners, resulting in multiple influences of foreign elements on native styles; the diversity of Indian culture is represented in its architecture. Indian architecture comprises a blend of ancient and varied native traditions, with building types and technologies from West, Central Asia, Europe. Buddhist architecture developed in South Asia beginning in the third century BCE. Two types of structures are associated with early Buddhism: stupas. Viharas were temporary shelters used by wandering monks during the rainy season, but these structures developed to accommodate the growing and formalized Buddhist monasticism.
An existing example is at Nalanda. The initial function of the stupa was the safe-guarding of the relics of the Buddha; the earliest existing example of a stupa is in Sanchi. In accordance with changes in religious practice, stupas were incorporated into chaitya-grihas; these reached their highpoint in the first century BCE, exemplified by the cave complexes of Ajanta and Ellora. The pagoda is an evolution of the Indian stupa, marked by a tiered tower with multiple eaves common in China, Korea and other parts of Asia. Buddhist temples were developed rather and outside South Asia, where Buddhism declined from the early centuries CE onwards, though an early example is that of the Mahabodhi Temple at Bodh Gaya in Bihar; the architectural structure of the stupa spread across Asia, taking on many diverse forms as details specific to different regions were incorporated into the overall design. It was spread to China and the Asian region by Araniko, a Nepali architect in the early 13th century for Kublai Khan.
Hindu temple architecture is based on Sthapatya Veda and many other ancient religio
Havneparken is a public park located directly on the waterfront in the district of Islands Brygge in central Copenhagen, Denmark. It is one of the most popular places along the Copenhagen harbourfront. Located in a former dockland area, the park has retained a number of features from the area's industrial past, including disused railway tracks and an abandoned railway car used as an exhibition space, while am old ship hull turned upside-down serves as an idiosyncratic bandstand and pavilion; the park is the location of the Islands Brygge Cultural Centre and the Islands Brygge Harbour Bath. The first plans to transform the area into a park was conceived by local grassroots in 1978. In 1983-84, an area of 1 hectare, located just south of Langebro, was put at the disposal of Islands Brygge Local Council. In 1995, the park was extended with an additional 2,8 hectares of waterfront, located to the south of the original area. In 2002 a temporary harbour bath was constructed and the following year, it was replaced by a larger and permanent harbour bath.
Islands Brygge Cultural Centre is a community arts centre, located in the middle of the Harbour Park. It was built in 2000 as a replacement for an earlier cultural centre, demolished as part of the redevelopment of the northernmost part of the Islands Brygge neighbourhood; the centre arranges a multitude of cultural activities. Islandsbrygge Harbour Bath is a public swimming facility, located in the water off the northern part of the park. Built to the design of architects Julien de Smedt and Bjarke Ingels in 2003, it has a total of 5 pools and a capacity of 600 people. There are two pools dedicated to children, two 50 metre pools for swimming and a diving pool with three and five metre springboards. Pinen is a bandstand, constructed by resting; the ship is a former Limfjord ferry, "Pinen", built in 1954. It operated between the island Mors and the Salling Peninsula until 1978, when the Sallingsund Bridge was constructed. Pinen was torn down 2011 after 15 years of neglected repair. In the redevelopment of the area.
A number of existing industrial structures was preserved and incorporated into the design of the park. This was done to create a sense of place; the quayside still features the disused railway tracks and an old railway car contains an exhibition on the local history of the neighbourhood, rusty steel profiles have been left and now serves as pergolas, upon which Honeysuckle and Clematis are trained and bits of wall from now demolished buildings have been left. Havneparken is one of the most popular places in Copenhagen to enjoy good weather and the quayside serves as an esplanade popular with strollers. Apart from swimming at the harbour bath, the park contains facilities for a number of other sports; these include facilities for skateboarding and streetbasket as well as beach volleyball and pétanque. The park has a playground; the park is home to many open-air concerts, either performed at the bandstand or a variety of other locations. Parks and open spaces in Copenhagen
Valdemar Heinrich Nicolaus Irminger was a Danish painter. Born in Copenhagen, Irminger attended the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts from 1867 and 1873, he went to Italy on a scholarship from 1884 to 1887. In 1888, he won the Academy's medal for Motiv fra Børnehospitalet ved Refsnæs and the following year for Fra et Børnehospital, his brightly-coloured open-air paintings at Refsnæs are considered to be among his finest works featuring children painted with revealing sensitivity. In 1908, he married the painter Ingeborg Plockross. Painting in a Realist style, from the 1990s he turned to Romanticism, his works include portraits, religious subjects, soldiers and children. Irminger taught at the Academy's school for women from 1906 where he was a professor from 1908 to 1920. From 1875, Irminger was a regular exhibitor at Charlottenborg and served on the Charlottenborg Exhibition Committee from 1905 to 1908 and on the Procurement Committee from 1911 to 1917. In 1908, Irminger married the Danish sculptor Ingeborg Plockross.
In 1889, Irminger was awarded the Eckersberg Medal. In 1915, he was decorated in 1925 with the Cross of Honour. Illustrated list of works by Valdemar Irminger in Danish museums from Kunstindeks Danmark