The Coventry Sallet is a 15th-century helmet now on display at Herbert Art Gallery and Museum. English sallets have been considered rare and important. The Sallet is 11 inches in height,12.25 inches from front to back and is 7.75 inches wide and it has a short tail and a jawbone type visor with a brow reinforcing. Stylistically, it is termed a high crowned helmet, different from the usually seen in Italy or Germany. A plume holder was added to the helmet at some time after its manufacture. The helmet was made around 1460, during the period of English civil conflict known as the Wars of the Roses, during the 19th century it was used in Coventry’s Godiva Procession. For a period it was kept on display at St Marys Hall, very few pieces of English-made armour survive from this period, the Coventry Sallet is believed to be the only example of its type in England. This article is about an item held at Herbert Art Gallery and Museum, Coventry
A combat helmet or battle helmet is a type of helmet, a piece of personal armor designed specifically to protect the head during combat. Their materials and construction became more advanced as weapons became more and more powerful, initially constructed from leather and brass, and bronze and iron during the Bronze and Iron Ages, they soon came to be made entirely from forged steel in many societies after about 950 AD. At that time, they were purely military equipment, protecting the head from cutting blows with swords, flying arrows, such helmets offered protection for the head from shrapnel and fragments. Todays militaries often use high quality helmets made of materials such as Kevlar and Aramid. Some helmets have good non-ballistic protective qualities, against threats such as shock waves from explosions. Beginning in the early 20th century, combat helmets have often been equipped with covers to offer greater camouflage. There have been two types of covers, mesh nets were earlier widely used, but most modern combat helmets use camouflage cloth covers instead.
This practice still continues into the 21st century, with advancement and refinements in the fibers used and shape of the helmet. Early helmet systems of new design are the American PASGT, the Spanish MARTE, the Italian SEPT-2 PLUS. See headgear listing within Components of medieval armour, cushioning is used to negate concussive injuries. Researchers at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory published a study in 2011 that concluded that the addition of an eighth of an inch of cushion decreased the impact force to the skull by 24%
Helmet of Iron Gates
The Helmet of Iron Gates is a Geto-Dacian silver helmet dating from the 4th century BC, housed in the Detroit Institute of Arts, United States. It probably comes from Iron Gates area, in the Mehedinţi County, formerly it was in the collection of Franz Tau, Vienna. It is referred to as “Iron Gates” as it was dredged out of the Danube in the Iron Gate gorge in 1913 or 1914. But, there is no record of the Iron Gate material before 1931. It is probably that the so-called Iron Gates material was looted from the Agighiol grave shortly after its opening by local villagers, however, no other grave has been suggested for the Iron Gate helmet. And, In fact, it seems that both Agighiol and Iron Gates helmets had been made by the workshop, or by the same silversmith. Also, it appears that punchmarks on the helmets had been made by the same tool, almost identical in decoration and details of craftsmanship are the two silver beakers, now in Bucharest and New York, that reputedly came from the region of the Iron Gates.
The other designs chased on the helmet are clearly within the Scythian sphere, the helmet type is related to and probably a little earlier in date than the gold helmet in Bucharest which shows some Sarmatian aspects. Lacking evidence of comparable helmets in the Scythian homeland, we may assign this helmet to a development of a helmet type found in Kuban dating in the early years of the fifth century B. C, with the addition of some Greek features, such eyes were considered to be a borrowing from the Greek world where greaves and shields have eyes that have been considered truly apotropaic, serving to divert evil. However, it is argued that the display the feature of doubling of attributes. Besides the eyes, there is the stag depicted with eight legs that is interpreted as “I run twice as fast”, the “apotropaic eyes” could say, I see twice as well. The motif in question is that of a bird with a great round eye. The beakers that reputedly came from the region of the Iron Gates carry the same eagle-hare motif, getae Dacia History of Romania Goldman, Bernard.
DACIAN ART AND THE EAGLE-HARE MOTIF, International Union of Prehistoric and Protohistoric Sciences. Flying stags and power in Thracian art pp. 117-132, the Archaeology of contextual meanings edited by Ian Hodder. DIA helmet page Gold and Silver Armour of the Getian-Dacian Elite
The Boeotian helmet was a type of helmet that was used in Classical Antiquity and the Hellenistic period, it possibly originated in the Greek region of Boeotia. The Boeotian helmet was a helmet, allowing good peripheral vision. It had a domed skull surrounded by a wide, down-sloping brim, a long falling plume was sometimes attached to this type of helmet. The need for unimpeded vision and good hearing was particularly acute for cavalrymen and it was modelled on the shape of a folded-down Boeotian variant of the petasos, a type of Greek sun hat, usually made of felt. This type of helmet was beaten from a sheet of bronze using a helmet-shaped former, one of which. An excellently preserved example of type of helmet, now in the Ashmolean Museum, was recovered from the Tigris River in Iraq. It may have belonged to one of Alexander the Greats cavalrymen, in Late Hellenistic times the Boeotian helmet evolved into a type with a taller, more conical skull and often a reduced brim. The Athenian military expert and author Xenophon particularly recommended the Boeotian helmet for cavalry, for this not only gives the greatest protection to all the parts above the cuirass, but allows free vision.
This piece of advice was taken up by Alexander the Great, both the Alexander sarcophagus and Alexander mosaic show cavalrymen of the Ancient Macedonian army wearing Boeotian helmets. As a specialised cavalry helmet its use was not as widespread as some other ancient helmets, the helmet was used by Roman citizen cavalry in the Republican period. On the Altar of Domitius Ahenobarbus, Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus was consul in 122 BC, the term Boeotian helmet, however, is an exception, it was employed by Xenophon and is therefore of contemporary usage. Anderson, J. K, Ancient Greek Horsemanship, marathon 490 BC, The First Persian Invasion Of Greece
Vienna is the capital and largest city of Austria and one of the nine states of Austria. Vienna is Austrias primary city, with a population of about 1.8 million, and its cultural, economic and it is the 7th-largest city by population within city limits in the European Union. Today, it has the second largest number of German speakers after Berlin, Vienna is host to many major international organizations, including the United Nations and OPEC. The city is located in the part of Austria and is close to the borders of the Czech Republic, Slovakia. These regions work together in a European Centrope border region, along with nearby Bratislava, Vienna forms a metropolitan region with 3 million inhabitants. In 2001, the city centre was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site, apart from being regarded as the City of Music because of its musical legacy, Vienna is said to be The City of Dreams because it was home to the worlds first psycho-analyst – Sigmund Freud. The citys roots lie in early Celtic and Roman settlements that transformed into a Medieval and Baroque city and it is well known for having played an essential role as a leading European music centre, from the great age of Viennese Classicism through the early part of the 20th century.
The historic centre of Vienna is rich in architectural ensembles, including Baroque castles and gardens, Vienna is known for its high quality of life. In a 2005 study of 127 world cities, the Economist Intelligence Unit ranked the city first for the worlds most liveable cities, between 2011 and 2015, Vienna was ranked second, behind Melbourne, Australia. Monocles 2015 Quality of Life Survey ranked Vienna second on a list of the top 25 cities in the world to make a base within, the UN-Habitat has classified Vienna as being the most prosperous city in the world in 2012/2013. Vienna regularly hosts urban planning conferences and is used as a case study by urban planners. Between 2005 and 2010, Vienna was the worlds number-one destination for international congresses and it attracts over 3.7 million tourists a year. The English name Vienna is borrowed from the homonymous Italian version of the name or the French Vienne. The etymology of the name is still subject to scholarly dispute. Some claim that the name comes from Vedunia, meaning forest stream, which produced the Old High German Uuenia.
A variant of this Celtic name could be preserved in the Czech and Slovak names of the city, the name of the city in Hungarian, Serbo-Croatian and Ottoman Turkish has a different, probably Slavonic origin, and originally referred to an Avar fort in the area. Slovene-speakers call the city Dunaj, which in other Central European Slavic languages means the Danube River, evidence has been found of continuous habitation since 500 BC, when the site of Vienna on the Danube River was settled by the Celts. In 15 BC, the Romans fortified the city they called Vindobona to guard the empire against Germanic tribes to the north
The papal tiara is a crown that was worn by popes of the Catholic Church from as early as the 8th century to the mid-20th. It was last used by Pope Paul VI in 1963 and only at the beginning of his reign, from 1143 to 1963, the papal tiara was solemnly placed on the popes head during a papal coronation. The surviving papal tiaras are all in the form, the oldest being of 1572. A representation of the triregnum combined with two crossed keys of Saint Peter continues to be used as a symbol of the papacy and appears on documents, buildings. The papal tiara originated from a conical Phrygian cap or frigium, shaped like a candle-extinguisher, the papal tiara and the episcopal mitre were identical in their early forms. Names used for the tiara in the 8th and 9th centuries include camelaucum, pileus. A circlet of linen or cloth of gold at the base of the tiara developed into a metal crown, the first of these appeared at the base of the traditional white papal headgear in the 9th century. When the popes assumed temporal power in the Papal States, the crown became decorated with jewels to resemble the crowns of princes.
However, a fresco in the Chapel of Saint Sylvester in the church of the Santi Quattro Coronati in Rome seems to represent the Pope wearing a tiara with two bands and with lappets. The addition of a crown is attributed to Pope Benedict XI or Pope Clement V. The first years of the 16th century saw the addition of a little globe, the third crown was added to the papal tiara during the Avignon Papacy, giving rise to the form called the triregnum. After Pope Clement V at Avignon, various versions of the three-crown tiara have been worn by popes in Rome down to Pope Paul VI, who was crowned with one in 1963. The increased length had the meaning of dominion of the una sancta ecclesia over the earth. At the summit was a large ruby. Boniface VIII was succeeded in 1303 by Benedict XI, who took the tiara to Perugia, after his death in 1304 there was a period of eleven months before a new Pope succeeded. The Archbishop of Bordeaux was chosen and took the title of Clement V and he removed the papal seat from Rome to Avignon and the tiara was brought to Lyons from Perugia for his coronation on 14 November 1305.
In the inventory which was taken in 1315–16 Boniface VIIIs tiara is again described and can be identified by the mention of the large ruby and it is described as having three circlets corona quae vocatur, regnum cum tribus circuitis aureis. It therefore must have been between the taking of the two inventories in 1295 and 1315 that the second and third circlets were added to the tiara and it was during this period that the fleur-de-lis was used to decorate the circlets
A Chalcidian helmet or Chalcidian type helmet was a helmet made of bronze and worn by ancient warriors of the Hellenic world, especially popular in Greece in the fifth and fourth centuries BC. The helmet was extensively in the Greek parts of Italy in the same period. The helmet is so-called because it was first, and is most commonly, in fact, it is not known whether the helmet originated in Chalcis, indeed, it is not even known whether the pottery in question was Chalcidian. The helmet appears to have been a development of the Corinthian helmet, its improvements in design giving the wearer better hearing and vision, resulting in a lighter and less bulky helmet. It consisted of a dome, and below that, generally inset from the top dome, a pair of cheek pieces. In the front, between the two pieces, was a small nasal bar to protect the wearers nose. The helmet could be one piece, or the cheek pieces could be attached separately by hinges. In Italy, the helmet with fixed cheek pieces is referred to as Chalcidian, the helmet would commonly have a hole pierced on each cheek piece or elsewhere in order to accept an inner lining which was made of leather.
Adornments such as combs and other protuberances were usually placed on the top of the helmet, by the time of Alexander the Great, the helmet was still worn by armoured soldiers, especially Hoplites, the spear-armed heavy infantrymen. It is likely some of the Macedonian soldiers who ruled the rest of Greece. The helmet is thought to have developed in turn into the Attic helmet which is iconic of classical soldiers, the Cultural Development in North Western Lucania C. Greek Hoplite, 480-323 BC, 480-323 BC
Helmet of Peretu
The Helmet of Peretu is a Geto-Dacian silver helmet dating from the 5th century BC, housed in the National Museum of Romanian History, Bucharest. It comes from Peretu area, in the Teleorman County, there were 50 artifacts having 750g. The helmet is similar to the Helmet of Coţofeneşti and other three Getian gold or silver helmets discovered so far
Belgrade is the capital and largest city of Serbia. It is located at the confluence of the Sava and Danube rivers and its name translates to White city. The urban area of the City of Belgrade has a population of 1.34 million, one of the most important prehistoric cultures of Europe, the Vinča culture, evolved within the Belgrade area in the 6th millennium BC. In antiquity, Thraco-Dacians inhabited the region, and after 279 BC Celts conquered the city and it was conquered by the Romans during the reign of Augustus, and awarded city rights in the mid-2nd century. In 1521, Belgrade was conquered by the Ottoman Empire and became the seat of the Sanjak of Smederevo and it frequently passed from Ottoman to Habsburg rule, which saw the destruction of most of the city during the Austro-Ottoman wars. Belgrade was again named the capital of Serbia in 1841, northern Belgrade remained the southernmost Habsburg post until 1918, when the city was reunited. As a strategic location, the city was battled over in 115 wars, Belgrade was the capital of Yugoslavia from its creation in 1918, to its final dissolution in 2006.
Belgrade has an administrative status within Serbia and it is one of five statistical regions of Serbia. Its metropolitan territory is divided into 17 municipalities, each with its own local council, City of Belgrade covers 3. 6% of Serbias territory, and 22. 5% of the countrys population lives within its administrative limits. It is classified as a Beta- global city, chipped stone tools found at Zemun show that the area around Belgrade was inhabited by nomadic foragers in the Palaeolithic and Mesolithic eras. Some of these belong to the Mousterian industry, which are associated with Neanderthals rather than modern humans. Aurignacian and Gravettian tools have discovered there, indicating occupation between 50,000 and 20,000 years ago. The first farming people to settle in the region are associated with the Neolithic Starčevo culture, there are several Starčevo sites in and around Belgrade, including the eponymous site of Starčevo. The Starčevo culture was succeeded by the Vinča culture, a more sophisticated farming culture that grew out of the earlier Starčevo settlements which is named for a site in the Belgrade region.
Evidence of early knowledge about Belgrades geographical location comes from ancient myths, the rock overlooking the confluence of the Sava and Danube rivers has been identified as one of the place in the story of Jason and the Argonauts. The Paleo-Balkan tribes of Thracians and Dacians ruled this area prior to the Roman conquest, Belgrade was inhabited by a Thraco-Dacian tribe Singi, after the Celtic invasion in 279 BC, the Scordisci took the city, naming it Singidūn. In 34–33 BC the Roman army led by Silanus reached Belgrade, jovian reestablished Christianity as the official religion of the Roman Empire, ending the brief revival of traditional Roman religions under his predecessor Julian the Apostate. In 395 AD, the passed to the Eastern Roman or Byzantine Empire