Pratap Malla, of Malla dynasty of the Indian subcontinent, present-day Nepal, was the ninth king of Kantipur after the division of the Kathmandu Valley into three kingdoms. He attempted to unify Kathmandu Valley by conquering Lalitpur and Bhaktapur, but failed in the effort, he was successful in extending and securing the borders of Kantipur and was responsible for the monopoly over trade with Tibet. The resulting prosperity was responsible for the construction of majority of the buildings around Durbar Square during his reign, his reign is seen as a economical high point of the Malla dynasty. A statue of Pratap Malla is found standing on a column facing the palace in the square, his image can be seen in the niche above the Hanuman Dhoka Palace gate. The niche above the gate is Krishna in his feocious tantric aspect, flanked by more gentle, amorous Krishna surrounded by gopinis, by King Pratap Malla playing a lute, his queen, he was born to a Malla origin father Lakshmi Narasinha Malla. When his father was alive, Pratap Malla had the experience of administration.
He imprisoned his father on the grounds of insanity and sat on the throne in 1641. He was a ambitious king. Pratap Malla was married to a Maithali lady of Southern Nepal; some modern historians have given him the reputation for maintaining a harem. He is alleged to have raped a virgin girl, which resulted in her death. Pratap Malla is said to have repented this act so much so that he wanted to absolve himself of his sins and consulted the wise and learned men on the matter. Acting on their suggestions, he set up hundreds of Lingas at Pashupati and installed a statue of his own with his two queens, he performed Koti Hom, weighed gold on one scale and himself on the other and gave it away in charity. In order to commemorate the occasion, he raised a pillar on the southern gate of Pashupati, established a grazing ground near the area. Pratap Malla had five sons: Bhupendra Malla, Nripendra and Parthibendra, he wanted his sons to have experience in the administration of the country during his own lifetime.
With this aim in view, he made them rule over the country for one year in turn. But his second son Chakrabartendra Malla died the day after he took over the administration of the country, he fought with Lalitpur and Bhaktapur to annex them to his kingdom but could not succeed. He tried to play the kings of Bhaktapur against each other. Sometimes he posed a menace to Lalitpur. Sometimes he fell upon Bhaktapur, his main aim was to annex Lalitpur to Kathmandu. But his aim was not fulfilled as the king of Lalitpur had the king of Ram Shah, as his ally. Moreover, Shree Nivas, son of Siddhi Nara Singha was no less inferior to Pratap Malla in courage and diplomacy. In 1634 A. D. when Siddhi Nara Singha Malla was engaged in performing Koti Hom, Pratap Malla availing himself of the opportunity, made a surprise attack on Patan and conquered some of the places important from the strategic point of view. Dambar Shah, son of Ram Shah had come with a contingent to help Siddhi Nara Singh Malla, but his troops were waylaid and put to rout.
Pratap Malla gave a lot of trouble to Narendra Malla, King of Bhaktapur. He made. Again he sided with Shree Niwas Malla and laid a siege on Bhaktapur, he carried away many valuables. But when Lalitpur sided with Bhaktapur, Pratap Malla signed a treaty with Bhaktapur. Pratap Malla was a lover of literature, he himself was a poet. He gave himself the title of "Kavindra." Kavindra means "the King of poets". He was tolerant of all religions, he was fond of building temples. He set up an image of Hanuman beside his palace. Since the palace is called "Hanuman Dhoka". Besides this, he built a temple of Krishna with the image of Kala Bhairav in front of Hanuman Dhoka and a temple of Guheshwari, he offered a gold umbrella to Pashupatinath temple. He had great respect for Buddhism, he introduced Seto Machchhindranath Jatra. Pratap Malla died a sudden death. While he was watching the religious dance of Harisiddhi, he died. After ruling for 33 years, he died in 1674. During his reign for thirty-three years there was peace and prosperity at home and no danger from outside.
Trade with India and China made Nepal prosperous. Art and literature flourished. Kings of Bhaktapur and other neighbouring kingdoms did not dare to invade Kantipur. Just as Muslim culture reached its height in the time of Shah Jahan, so Nepalese culture reached its height in the time of Pratap Malla; the 16th and 17th centuries were a crucial period in the relations between Tibet. By 1600, Tibet was in a state of near chaos as a result of the struggle between competing Buddhist sects and the more basic regional conflict between the two central Tibetan provinces, of which Lhasa and Shigatse are the political centers; the powerful figure of the Fifth Dalai Lama, the head of the Gelugpa sect of Tibetan Buddhism gained control, both spiritual and temporal, over Tibet in the first half of the 17th century, with the valuable assistance of the Khoshote Mongols. During this critical period, two ambitious kings, Ram Shah of Gorkha and Pratap Malla of Kantipur, took advantage of Tibetan weakness to seize control of the vital border-pass areas through which most of the trans-Himalayan trade passed.
Ram Shah's incursions into Tibet occurred toward the end of his reign from 1625 to 1630, after he had conquered the intervening territory between Gorkha and Kirong district in Tibet. T
Halloween costumes are costumes worn on or around Halloween, a festival which falls on October 31. An early reference to wearing costumes at Halloween comes from Scotland in 1585, but they may pre-date this. There are many references to the custom during the 18th and 19th centuries in the Celtic countries of Scotland, Ireland and Wales, it has been suggested that the custom comes from the Celtic festivals of Samhain and Calan Gaeaf, or from the practise of "souling" during the Christian observance of Allhallowtide. Wearing costumes and mumming has long been associated with festivals at other times of the year, such as on Christmas. Halloween costumes are traditionally based on frightening folkloric beings. However, by the 1930s costumes based on characters in mass media such as film and radio were popular. Halloween costumes have tended to be worn by young people, but since the mid-20th century they have been worn by adults also; the wearing of costumes at Halloween may come from the belief that supernatural beings, or the souls of the dead, roamed the earth at this time.
The practice may have originated in a Celtic festival, held on 31 October–1 November, to mark the beginning of winter. It was called Samhain in Ireland and the Isle of Man, Calan Gaeaf in Wales and Brittany; the festival is believed to have pre-Christian roots. After the Christianization of Ireland in the 5th century, some of these customs may have been retained in the Christian observance of All Hallows' Eve in that region—which continued to be called Samhain/Calan Gaeaf—blending the traditions of their ancestors with Christian ones, it was seen as a liminal time, when the spirits or fairies, the souls of the dead, could more come into our world. It was believed that the Aos Sí needed to be propitiated to ensure that the people and their livestock survived the winter. From at least the 16th century, the festival included mumming and guising, which involved people going house-to-house in costume reciting verses or songs in exchange for food, it may have been a tradition whereby people impersonated the Aos Sí, or the souls of the dead, received offerings on their behalf.
Impersonating these beings, or wearing a disguise, was believed to protect oneself from them. It is suggested that the mummers and guisers "personify the old spirits of the winter, who demanded reward in exchange for good fortune". F. Marian McNeill suggests the ancient pagan festival included people wearing masks or costumes to represent the spirits, that faces were marked with ashes taken from the sacred bonfire. In parts of southern Ireland, a man dressed as a Láir Bhán led youths house-to-house reciting verses—some of which had pagan overtones—in exchange for food. If the household donated food it could expect good fortune from the'Muck Olla'. In 19th century Scotland, youths went house-to-house with masked, painted or blackened faces threatening to do mischief if they were not welcomed. In parts of Wales, men went about dressed as fearsome beings called gwrachod, while in some places, young people cross-dressed. Elsewhere in Europe and costumes were part of other yearly festivals. However, in the Celtic-speaking regions they were "particularly appropriate to a night upon which supernatural beings were said to be abroad and could be imitated or warded off by human wanderers".
It has been suggested that the wearing of Halloween costumes developed from the custom of souling, practised by Christians in parts of Western Europe from at least the 15th century. At Allhallowtide, groups of poor people would go door-to-door, collecting soul cakes – either as representatives of the dead, or in return for saying prayers for them. One 19th century English writer said it "used to consist of parties of children, dressed up in fantastic costume, who went round to the farm houses and cottages, signing a song, begging for cakes, money, or anything that the goodwives would give them"; the soulers asked for "mercy on all Christian souls for a soul cake". The practice was mentioned by Shakespeare his play The Two Gentlemen of Verona. Christian minister Prince Sorie Conteh wrote on the wearing of costumes: "It was traditionally believed that the souls of the departed wandered the earth until All Saints' Day, All Hallows' Eve provided one last chance for the dead to gain vengeance on their enemies before moving to the next world.
In order to avoid being recognised by any soul that might be seeking such vengeance, people would don masks or costumes to disguise their identities". In the Middle Ages and relics of martyred saints were paraded through the streets at Allhallowtide; some churches who could not afford these things had people dress as saints instead. Some believers continue the practice of dressing as saints, biblical figures, reformers in Halloween celebrations today. Many Christians in continental Europe in France, believed that on Halloween "the dead of the churchyards rose for one wild, hideous carnival," known as the danse macabre, depicted in church decoration. An article published by Christianity Today claimed the danse macabre was enacted at village pageants and at court masques, with people "dressing up as corpses from various strata of society", suggested this was the origin of Halloween costume parties; the custom of guising at Halloween in North America is first recorded in 1911, where a newspaper in Kingston, Ontario reported children going "guising" around the neighborhood.
In 19th century America, Halloween was celebrated with costume parades and "licentious revelries". However, efforts we
Haunted attraction (simulated)
A haunted attraction is a form of live entertainment that simulates the experience of covering haunted locations or envisioning horror fiction. They feature fearsome sets and characters ghosts, demons, serial killers, and/or psychopaths. Humourous characters may be included. Haunted attractions may be set up at many kinds of locations. Built attractions include temporarily constructed simulations of haunted houses, actual abandoned or dilapidated houses, abandoned asylums, defunct prisons, defunct or active amusement parks, defunct or active ships, defunct factories, defunct or active barns, setup parts of shopping malls. Outdoor places hosting such attractions include corn mazes or cornfields, hedge mazes, wooded areas or forests, parks. Haunted attractions use many effects, such as intense lighting, animatronics, CGI, scent dispensers, fog machines, spinning tunnels, air blasters, old antiques, gory images, intense scenes of horror, torment, mischief, or comedy. Visitors encounter various actors dressed up in elaborate and scary costumes and prosthetics.
These actors may perform skits or lurk and come out unexpectedly to frighten, disturb, or amuse the customer. The typical haunted attraction starts operating during the week of late September or early October to the last week in October or first week of November. In particular, they are active during the triduum of Allhallowtide. Additionally, there is a subculture of permanent haunted attractions that are open year-round and of a few that are open during special occasions, such as haunt conventions or Spring Break; some attractions are run by charities as fundraisers. "... People have entertained themselves with spooky stories for centuries", it is not hard to imagine cavemen sitting around a fire telling stories of demons, spirits and their deities. The tradition of this type of storytelling can be traced back to the ancient Greeks and beyond. However, the creation of an actual haunted attraction is a recent phenomenon. According to one source, the first recorded purpose-built haunted attraction was the Orton and Spooner Ghost House, which opened in 1915 in Liphook, England.
This attraction most resembles a carnival fun house, powered by steam. The House still exists, in the Hollycombe Steam Collection; the background for the creation of the Orton and Spooner Ghost House might be seen in 18th- and 19th-century London and Paris, when literature, performances by magicians and psychics, as well as theatrical shows and attractions introduced the public to gruesome entertainment. In 1802, Marie Tussaud scandalized British audiences with an exhibition of wax sculptures of decapitated victims of the French Revolution, including King Louis XVI, Marie Antoinette and Jean-Paul Marat, her exhibits exist today as the Chamber of Horrors in Madam Tussauds in London. In France, from 1897, the Grand Guignol theatre was scaring audiences with graphically staged horror entertainment; the Phantasmagoria show existed earlier, but a well-known version in 1797 Paris was the Fantasmagorie, which made use of magic lantern projections and crude special effects. Halloween-themed haunted houses in America seemed to begin emerging during the Great Depression, about the same time as trick-or-treat.
But the haunted house as an American cultural icon can be traced to a single event. The Haunted Mansion opened in Disneyland August 12, 1969; the attraction became a near-instant success. A single-day record of more than 82,000 guests was established soon. In 1973, Knott's Berry Farm began hosting its own Halloween night attraction, Knott's Scary Farm, which soon became the gold standard of Halloween events. Evangelical Christians became early adopters of alternative Halloween attractions. Jerry Falwell and Liberty University introduced one of the first "hell houses" in 1972. During the late 1950s, California was a focus for Halloween haunts. In 1957, the San Mateo Haunted House opened, sponsored by the Children’s Health Home Junior Auxiliary; the San Bernardino Assistance League Haunted House opened in 1958. In 1962 and 1963 home haunts began appearing across the country, including Oregon, Connecticut and several other states. On October 17, 1964, the San Manteo Haunted House opened as a walk-through haunted house.
The Children’s Museum Haunted House in Indianapolis, open every year since 1964, was Indiana’s first haunted house and is the longest running in the nation. Haunted houses spread across the country via charity fundraisers conducted by The United States Junior Chamber and others; the Jaycees encouraged its membership to construct haunted houses in abandoned buildings or fields as charity fundraising events, the organization became known for these houses throughout America. In the late 1960s to early 1970s, haunted attractions were developed in larger American cities like Louisville and Cincinnati, Ohio with the creation of Jaycees haunted houses; these haunted houses are run by local chapters of the Jaycees. There are still many local chapter Jaycees haunted houses in towns such as Illinois; the former Huntington Jaycees Haunted House, now known as the Haunted Hotel-13th Floor, was operated by volunteers in October 1963. The first verifiable Jaycees haunted attraction as recognized by the Jaycees national office was The WSAI Haunted House in Cincinnati, Ohio operated by the Sycamore-Deer Park Jaycees in 1970.
In 1974, The Haunted Schoolhouse, located i
Nepal Sambat is the lunar calendar used by the Nepalese speaking people native to the Indian subcontinent of Nepalese nationality and ethnic Nepalis of Indian nationality. The Calendar era began on 20 October 879 AD, with the year 2013-14 AD corresponding to 1134 in Nepal Sambat. Nepal Sambat appeared on coins and copper plate inscriptions, royal decrees, chronicles and Buddhist manuscripts, legal documents and correspondence. Today, it is used for ceremonial purposes and to determine the dates of religious festivals and death anniversaries; the name Nepal Sambat was used for the calendar for the first time in Nepal Sambat 148. The Nepal Sambat epoch corresponds to 879 AD, which commemorates the payment of all the debts of the Nepalese people by a merchant named Sankhadhar Sakhwa in popular legend. According to the legend, an astrologer from Bhaktapur predicted that the sand at the confluence Bhacha Khushi and Bishnumati River in Kathmandu would transform into gold at a certain moment, so the king sent a team of workers to Kathmandu to collect sand from the spot at the special hour.
A local merchant named Sankhadhar Sakhwa saw them resting with their baskets of sand at a traveler's shelter at Maru near Durbar Square before returning to Bhaktapur. Believing that the sand to be unusual if the workers were gathering it, he convinced them to give it to him instead; the next day, Sakhwa discovered his sand had turned to gold, while the king of Bhaktapur was left with a pile of ordinary sand which his porters had dug up after the auspicious hour had passed. Sankhadhar used the gold to repay the debts of the Nepalese people. Nepal Sambat has been used outside Nepal Mandala in Nepal and in other countries including India and Myanmar. In Gorkha, a stone inscription at the Bhairav Temple at Pokharithok Bazaar contains the date Nepal Sambat 704. An inscription in the Khas language at a rest house in Salyankot is dated Nepal Sambat 912. In east Nepal, an inscription on the Bidyadhari Ajima Temple in Bhojpur recording the donation of a door and tympanum is dated Nepal Sambat 1011; the Bindhyabasini Temple in Bandipur in west Nepal contains an inscription dated Nepal Sambat 950 recording the donation of a tympanum.
The Palanchok Bhagawati Temple situated to the east of Kathmandu contains an inscription recording a land donation dated Nepal Sambat 861. An inscription on a stupa in Panauti is dated Nepal Sambat 866. Nepalese merchants based in Tibet used Nepal Sambat in their official documents and inscriptions recording votive offerings. A copper plate recording the donation of a tympanum at the shrine of Chhwaskamini Ajima in the Jokhang Temple in Lhasa is dated Nepal Sambat 781. Nepal Sambat was replaced as the national calendar in Rana period of the Kingdom of Nepal; the victory of the Gorkha Kingdom resulted in the end of the Malla dynasty and the advent of The Shahs used Saka era. However, Nepal Sambat remained in official use for a time after the coming of the Shahs. For example, the treaty with Tibet signed during the reign of Pratap Singh Shah is dated Nepal Sambat 895. In 1903, Saka Sambat, in turn, was superseded by Bikram Sambat as the official calendar. However, the government continued to use Saka Sambat on gold and silver coins till 1912 when it was replaced by Bikram Sambat.
The campaign to reinstate Nepal Sambat as the national calendar began in the 1920s when Dharmaditya Dharmacharya, a Buddhist and Nepal Bhasa activist based in Kolkata, initiated a campaign to promote it as the national calendar. The movement was continued by language and cultural activists in Nepal with the advent of democracy following the ouster of the autocratic Rana dynasty in 1951; the demand to make Nepal Sambat a national calendar intensified with the establishment of Nepal Bhasa Manka Khala in 1979. It organized rallies and public functions publicizing the importance of the era as a symbol of nationalism. Nepal Sambat has emerged as a symbol to rally people against the suppression of their culture and literature by the politically dominant ruling classes; the Panchayat regime suppressed the movement by imprisoning the activists. In 1987 in Kathmandu, a road running event organized to mark the New Year was broken up by police and the runners thrown in jail; the Nepal Sambat movement achieved its first success on 18 November 1999 when the government declared the founder of the calendar, a trader of Kathmandu named Sankhadhar Sakhwa, a national hero.
On 26 October 2003, the Department of Postal Service issued a commemorative postage stamp depicting his portrait. A statue of Sankhadhar was erected in Tansen, Palpa in western Nepal on 28 January 2012. On 25 October 2011, the government decided to bring Nepal Sambat into use as the country's national calendar following prolonged lobbying by cultural and social organizations, most prominently by Nepal Bhasa Manka Khala, formed a taskforce to make recommendations on its implementation. All major newspapers now print Nepal Sambat along with other dates on their mastheads. New Year's Day celebrations have spread from the Kathmandu Valley to other towns in Nepal as well as abroad. Nepal Sambat is a lunisolar calendar with 354 days in a normal year. An intercalary month named Anālā is added every three years to prevent the calendar from drifting with the seasons. New Year's Day falls on the first day of the waxing moon during the Swanti festival. Traditionally, traders used to close their ledgers and open new account books on the first day of Nepal Sambat.
Newars observe New Year's Day by performing Mha Puja, a ritual to purify and empower the soul for the coming New
A Halloween card is a greeting card associated with Halloween. The concept originated in the 1890s United States, experiencing a peak of popularity there in the early 1900s; until the advent of the common home telephone, Halloween cards occupied a role similar to Christmas cards and birthday cards. Today, many cards from the popular designers of the period are sought after as memorabilia. An early reference to a Halloween card is made in volume 4 of Ingall's Home and Art Magazine published in 1891, in which a sample design is depicted in the article Domestic Helps for the Home by Laura Willis Lathrop. Early Halloween cards depicted the same themes as Easter cards and Christmas cards, as publishers reused images for various holidays, with the caption signifying the specific holiday. From about 1900 to 1915, the United States experienced a Halloween "postcard craze" that continued the commercialization of the holiday that began in the 1800s. By 1909, the Souvenir Post Card Company of New York City produced 12 Halloween card designs.
The popularity of Halloween cards rivaled that of Christmas cards until about 1930, by which time telephones were common household items and began supplanting the use of greeting cards. Halloween-themed postal cards were sold in post offices and by private printers with displays in general stores, their popularity and the holiday's commercial success was "ultimately determined" by women those in the middle class. Of the over 3,000 cards produced in the United States during this period, many depicted themes common to the modern tradition, including witches and goblins. Other Halloween postcard themes included romance or courtship. Designs reflected the racism In the postcards produced by the Rust Craft Greeting Card Company from 1927 to 1959 catalogued by Wendy Morris, twelve categories of ethnic imagery were identified; the most common theme being black children, appearing on 42% of cards depicting an ethnic or racial difference from the white majority. Well-known early postcard printers include Raphael Tuck & Sons.
Both printers employed artists whose postcard designs are collectables sought by Halloween memorabilia collectors. Winsch works by Samuel Schmucker and Jason Freixas are prized. Among the artists employed by Tuck were Francis Brundage, the "queen of postcard artists", Ellen Clapsaddle. Media related to Halloween cards at Wikimedia Commons
A votive candle or prayer candle is a small candle white or beeswax yellow, intended to be burnt as a votive offering in an act of Christian prayer within the Anglican and Roman Catholic Christian denominations, among others. In Christianity, votive candles are commonplace in many churches, as well as home altars, symbolize the "prayers the worshipper is offering for him or herself, or for other people." The size of a votive candle is two inches tall by one and a half inches diameter, although other votive candles can be taller and wider. In other religions, such as Hinduism and Buddhism, similar offerings exist, which include diyas and butter lamps. Candles are lit for prayer intentions. To "light a candle for someone" indicates one's intention to say a prayer for another person, the candle symbolizes that prayer. Many times, "a board is placed nearby with names of those for whom prayer is requested." A donation box sometimes is placed near a votive candle rack in order that Christians lighting the votive candles can help defray the cost of votive candles.
Some Anglican churches those that worship in the High Church or Anglo-Catholic tradition, have votive candles for purposes of praying for the dead as well as asking for saintly intercession. In the Roman Catholic Church, candles are placed before a statue of Jesus or of the Blessed Virgin Mary. In older or traditional churches, this will be before a bye-altar. A votive candle signifies that the lighting is done in fulfillment of a vow, although in most cases the intention is to give honor and to manifest devotion to the saint before whose images the candle is lighted. Candles used may vary from taper-type candles to tealight candles. Tealight candles are either placed in holders or just on a platform in front of the statue. Long candles may be placed in a special holder. In the Eastern Orthodox Church, candles are lit before icons of Jesus Christ or the Theotokos. Orthodox churches only use long, thin candles; these are placed in round containers, having either various sockets to hold the candles, or in a container filled with sand, in which the worshippers place their candles.
Orthodox churches will have a separate place to put candles lit for the departed. Lutheran churches may use votive candles which may be lit at home, as a part of personal or family devotions, or at the church, they are lit on the altar rails, or in front of the altar cross. They are often lit during the liturgy of Good Friday. Within the Nordic Lutheran churches of Sweden, Norway and Finland, all High Church Lutheran denominations, the use of votive candles is commonplace and most, if not all and chapels will have a votive candle holder; these are somewhat similar to the Eastern Orthodox type a round metal frame with several sockets surrounding a central, larger candle on which to light the votive candles. As in Eastern Orthodox Churches, Nordic Lutheran votive candles are long and thin. In the United Methodist Church, those churches which worship in the High Church tradition make use of votive candles. During the liturgical celebration of Allhallowtide on All Saints' Day, votive candles are lit and a prayer is said for each person of the congregation who has died that year.
Votive candles are made from different types of waxes including soy wax or beeswax. There are different grades of wax with different melting points. Paraffin is mixed with other types of waxes, such as beeswax or vegetable wax; this is done to obtain the rigidity necessary for the type of candle being made. The speed at which the candle burns depends on the composition of the wax. A taper candle that sits in a ring-shaped candle holder may have a low melting point and produce little to no oil, whereas a votive candle set in a glass cup may have a low melting point and turn to oil. Pillar candles, large candles with multiple wicks, have their own formula. Soy jar candles tend to have a lower melting point than pillars and votive candles. Candle quality varies depending on the candle maker; the aroma of a lighted scented candle is released through the evaporation of the fragrance from the hot wax pool and from the solid candle itself. Lead wicks are unlikely to be found in any candle sold in the U.
S. today: lead-core wicks have been banned from the U. S. since 2003, members of the National Candle Association — which account for more than 90% of candles made in the U. S. — have not used lead wicks for more than 30 years. Reputable manufacturers use cotton, cotton-paper, zinc-core or tin-core wicks, all of which are known to be safe. Media related to Votive candles at Wikimedia Commons
Apple bobbing known as bobbing for apples, is a game played on Halloween. The game is played by putting apples in the water; because apples are less dense than water, they will float at the surface. Players try to catch one with their teeth. Use of arms is not allowed, are tied behind the back to prevent cheating. In Scotland, this may be called "dooking". In northern England, the game is called apple ducking or duck-apple. In Ireland County Kerry, it is known as "Snap Apple", in Newfoundland and Labrador, "Snap Apple Night" is a synonym for Halloween; the tradition of bobbing for apples dates back to the Roman invasion of Britain, when the conquering army merged their own celebrations with traditional Celtic festivals. The Romans brought with them a representation of the goddess of plenty, Pomona. During an annual celebration, young unmarried people try to bite into an apple floating in water or hanging from a string on a line, rather than in a bowl of water; the custom is mentioned in 18th century Ireland by Charles Vallancey in his book Collectanea de Rebus Hibernicis.
A maiden who placed the apple she bobbed under her pillow was said to dream of her future sweetheart. Agatha Christie's mystery novel Hallowe'en Party, is about a girl, drowned in an apple-bobbing tub. Snap-dragon