Martial arts are codified systems and traditions of combat practiced for a number of reasons such as self-defense and law enforcement applications, physical and spiritual development. Although the term martial art has become associated with the fighting arts of East Asia, it referred to the combat systems of Europe as early as the 1550s; the term means "arts of Mars", the Roman god of war. Some authors have argued that fighting arts or fighting systems would be more appropriate on the basis that many martial arts were never "martial" in the sense of being used or created by professional warriors. Martial arts may be categorized along a variety of criteria, including: Traditional or historical arts vs. contemporary styles of folk wrestling and modern hybrid martial arts. Techniques taught: Armed vs. unarmed, within these groups by type of weapon and by type of combat By application or intent: self-defense, combat sport, choreography or demonstration of forms, physical fitness, etc. Within Chinese tradition: "external" vs. "internal" styles UnarmedUnarmed martial arts can be broadly grouped into focusing on strikes, those focusing on grappling and those that cover both fields described as hybrid martial arts.
Strikes Punching: Boxing, Wing Chun, Karate Kicking: Taekwondo, Savate Others using strikes: Muay Thai, Kung Fu, Pencak SilatGrappling Throwing: Hapkido, Sumo, Aikido Joint lock/Chokeholds/Submission holds: Judo, Brazilian jiu-jitsu, Sambo Pinning Techniques: Judo, AikidoArmedThe traditional martial arts, which train in armed combat encompass a wide spectrum of melee weapons, including bladed weapons and polearms. Such traditions include eskrima, kalaripayat and historical European martial arts those of the German Renaissance. Many Chinese martial arts feature weapons as part of their curriculum. Sometimes, training with one specific weapon will be considered a style of martial arts in its own right, the case in Japanese martial arts with disciplines such as kenjutsu and kendo and kyudo. Modern martial arts and sports include modern fencing, stick-fighting systems like canne de combat, modern competitive archery. Combat-oriented Health-orientedMany martial arts those from Asia teach side disciplines which pertain to medicinal practices.
This is prevalent in traditional Asian martial arts which may teach bone-setting and other aspects of traditional medicine. Spirituality-orientedMartial arts can be linked with religion and spirituality. Numerous systems are reputed to have been disseminated, or practiced by monks or nuns. Throughout Asia, meditation may be incorporated as part of training. In those countries influenced by Hindu-Buddhist philosophy, the art itself may be used as an aid to attaining enlightenment. Japanese styles, when concerning non-physical qualities of the combat, are strongly influenced by Mahayana Buddhist philosophy. Concepts like "empty mind" and "beginner's mind" are recurrent. Aikido, for instance, can have a strong philosophical belief of the flow of energy and peace fostering, as idealised by its founder Morihei Ueshiba. Traditional Korean martial arts place emphasis on the development of the practitioner's spiritual and philosophical development. A common theme in most Korean styles, such as taekkyeon and taekwondo, is the value of "inner peace" in a practitioner, stressed to be only achieved through individual meditation and training.
The Koreans believe. Systema draws upon breathing and relaxation techniques, as well as elements of Russian Orthodox thought, to foster self-conscience and calmness, to benefit the practitioner in different levels: the physical, the psychological and the spiritual; some martial arts in various cultures can be performed in dance-like settings for various reasons, such as for evoking ferocity in preparation for battle or showing off skill in a more stylized manner. Many such martial arts incorporate music strong percussive rhythms; the oldest works of art depicting scenes of battle are cave paintings from eastern Spain dated between 10,000 and 6,000 BCE that show organized groups fighting with bows and arrows. Chinese martial arts originated during the legendary apocryphal, Xia Dynasty more than 4000 years ago, it is said. The Yellow Emperor is described as a famous general who before becoming China's leader, wrote lengthy treatises on medicine and martial arts. One of his main opponents was Chi You, credited as the creator of jiao di, a forerunner to the modern art of Chinese wrestling.
The foundation of modern Asian martial arts is a blend of early Chinese and Indian martial arts. During the Warring States period of Chinese history extensive development in martial philosophy and strategy emerged, as described by Sun Tzu in The Art of War. Legendary accounts link the origin of Shaolinquan to the spread of Buddhism from ancient India during the early 5th century AD, with the figure of Bodhidharma, to China. Written evidence of martial arts in Southern India dates back to the Sangam literature of about the 2nd century BC to the 2nd century AD; the combat techniques of the Sangam period were the earliest precursors to Kalaripayattu. In Europe, the earlie
Kashima Shinryū is a Japanese koryū martial art whose foundation dates back to the early 16th century. The art developed some notoriety in Japan during the early 20th century under Kunii Zen'ya, the 18th generation sōke; the current sōke is Kunii Masakatsu. While the line is still headed by the Kunii family, the title of sōke is now honorific, the responsibility for the preservation and transmission of the ryūha now lies in the shihanke line represented by the 19th generation, Seki Humitake; the characters Kashima 鹿島 are in honor of the deity enshrined in the Kashima Shrine located in Kashima, Ibaraki Prefecture, supposed to have provided the divine inspiration for Kashima Shin-ryū. The earliest elements of the school are credited to Kashima no Tachi, fencing techniques passed down by the priests of the Kashima Shrine following their creation by Kuninazu no Mahito in the 7th century. In Kashima Shinryū lore, Matsumoto Bizen-no-kami, assisted by Kunii Kagetsugu and expounded on Kashima no Tachi into the basis of the modern school.
After this development, they went their separate ways. Kunii Kagetsugu began what is now named the sōke lineage, based in Iwaki province and handed down through the Kunii family line. Conversely, Matsumoto Bizen-no-kami taught a large number of students, creating a number of martial lineages with characters reading shinkage in the name. In 1780, the 12th generation sōke, Kunii Taizen Minamoto no Ritsuzan attained mastery in Jikishinkage-ryū, studying under Ono Seiemon Taira no Shigemasa; as Jikishinkage-ryū traced its founding back to Matsumoto Bizen-no-kami, but passed down through Kamiizumi Ise-no-kami Fujiwara-no-Nobutsuna rather than the Kunii family, this lineage is recognized within Kashima Shinryū as the shihanke line, crediting Matsumoto Bizen-no-kami as the 1st generation. The sōke and shihanke lines remained united within the Kunii family until Kunii Zen'ya appointed Seki Humitake as his successor and the 19th generation shihanke while leaving his wife, Kunii Shizu, to carry on as the 19th generation sōke.
Despite the similarity of names, Kashima Shinryū is of only passing relation to Kashima Shintō-ryū. While both schools regard Kashima no Tachi as a major antecedent, Kashima Shintō-ryū claims as founder Tsukahara Bokuden, who independently generated a different refinement on Kashima no Tachi than that of Matsumoto Bizen-no-Kami; the following licenses exist under the Kashima-Shinryū Federation of Martial Sciences: Kashima Shin-ryū can be studied in Japan, in the United States and in Europe. Kashima-Shinryū Federation of Martial Sciences website
Japan is an island country in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies off the eastern coast of the Asian continent and stretches from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and the Philippine Sea in the south; the kanji that make up Japan's name mean "sun origin", it is called the "Land of the Rising Sun". Japan is a stratovolcanic archipelago consisting of about 6,852 islands; the four largest are Honshu, Hokkaido and Shikoku, which make up about ninety-seven percent of Japan's land area and are referred to as home islands. The country is divided into 47 prefectures in eight regions, with Hokkaido being the northernmost prefecture and Okinawa being the southernmost one; the population of 127 million is the world's tenth largest. 90.7 % of people live in cities. About 13.8 million people live in the capital of Japan. The Greater Tokyo Area is the most populous metropolitan area in the world with over 38 million people. Archaeological research indicates; the first written mention of Japan is in Chinese history texts from the 1st century AD.
Influence from other regions China, followed by periods of isolation from Western Europe, has characterized Japan's history. From the 12th century until 1868, Japan was ruled by successive feudal military shōguns who ruled in the name of the Emperor. Japan entered into a long period of isolation in the early 17th century, ended in 1853 when a United States fleet pressured Japan to open to the West. After nearly two decades of internal conflict and insurrection, the Imperial Court regained its political power in 1868 through the help of several clans from Chōshū and Satsuma – and the Empire of Japan was established. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, victories in the First Sino-Japanese War, the Russo-Japanese War and World War I allowed Japan to expand its empire during a period of increasing militarism; the Second Sino-Japanese War of 1937 expanded into part of World War II in 1941, which came to an end in 1945 following the Japanese surrender. Since adopting its revised constitution on May 3, 1947, during the occupation led by SCAP, the sovereign state of Japan has maintained a unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy with an Emperor and an elected legislature called the National Diet.
Japan is a member of the ASEAN Plus mechanism, UN, the OECD, the G7, the G8, the G20, is considered a great power. Its economy is the world's third-largest by nominal GDP and the fourth-largest by purchasing power parity, it is the world's fourth-largest exporter and fourth-largest importer. Japan benefits from a skilled and educated workforce. Although it has renounced its right to declare war, Japan maintains a modern military with the world's eighth-largest military budget, used for self-defense and peacekeeping roles. Japan is a developed country with a high standard of living and Human Development Index, its population enjoys the highest life expectancy and third lowest infant mortality rate in the world, but is experiencing issues due to an aging population and low birthrate. Japan is renowned for its historical and extensive cinema, influential music industry, video gaming, rich cuisine and its major contributions to science and modern technology; the Japanese word for Japan is 日本, pronounced Nihon or Nippon and means "the origin of the sun".
The character nichi means "sun" or "day". The compound therefore means "origin of the sun" and is the source of the popular Western epithet "Land of the Rising Sun"; the earliest record of the name Nihon appears in the Chinese historical records of the Tang dynasty, the Old Book of Tang. At the end of the seventh century, a delegation from Japan requested that Nihon be used as the name of their country; this name may have its origin in a letter sent in 607 and recorded in the official history of the Sui dynasty. Prince Shōtoku, the Regent of Japan, sent a mission to China with a letter in which he called himself "the Emperor of the Land where the Sun rises"; the message said: "Here, I, the emperor of the country where the sun rises, send a letter to the emperor of the country where the sun sets. How are you". Prior to the adoption of Nihon, other terms such as Yamato and Wakoku were used; the term Wa is a homophone of Wo 倭, used by the Chinese as a designation for the Japanese as early as the third century Three Kingdoms period.
Another form of Wa, Wei in Chinese) was used for an early state in Japan called Nakoku during the Han dynasty. However, the Japanese disliked some connotation of Wa 倭, it was therefore replaced with the substitute character Wa, meaning "togetherness, harmony"; the English word Japan derives from the historical Chinese pronunciation of 日本. The Old Mandarin or early Wu Chinese pronunciation of Japan was recorded by Marco Polo as Cipangu. In modern Shanghainese, a Wu dialect, the pronunciation of characters 日本; the old Malay word for Japan, Japun or Japang, was borrowed from a southern coastal Chinese dialect Fukienese or Ningpo – and this Malay word was encountered by Portuguese traders in Southeast Asia in the 16th century. These Early Portuguese traders brought the word
The Japanese language makes use of honorific suffixes when referring to others in a conversation. These suffixes are attached to the end of names, are gender-neutral. Honorific suffixes indicate the level of the speaker and referred individual's relationship and are used alongside other components of Japanese honorific speech, called keigo. Although honorifics are not part of the basic grammar of the Japanese language, they are a fundamental part of the sociolinguistics of Japanese, proper use is essential to proficient and appropriate speech. Referring to oneself using an honorific, or dropping an honorific when it is required, is a serious faux pas, in either case coming across as clumsy or arrogant, they can be applied to either the first or last name depending on, given. In situations where both the first and last names are spoken, the suffix is attached to whichever comes last in the word order. An honorific is used when referring to the person one is talking to, or when referring to an unrelated third party in speech.
It is dropped, however, by some superiors, when referring to one's in-group, or in formal writing, is never used to refer to oneself, except for dramatic effect, or some exceptional cases. Dropping the honorific suffix when referring to one's interlocutor, known as to yobisute, implies a high degree of intimacy and is reserved for one's spouse, younger family members, social inferiors, close friends. Within sports teams or among classmates, where the interlocutors have the same age or seniority, it can be acceptable to use family names without honorifics; some people of the younger generation born since 1970, prefer to be referred to without an honorific. However, dropping honorifics is a sign of informality with casual acquaintances; when referring to a third person, honorifics are used except when referring to one's family members while talking to a non-family member, or when referring to a member of one's company while talking to a customer or someone from another company—this is the uchi–soto distinction.
Honorifics are not used to refer to oneself, except when trying to be arrogant, to be cute, or sometimes when talking to young children to teach them how to address the speaker. Use of honorifics is correlated with other forms of honorific speech in Japanese, such as use of the polite form versus the plain form—using the plain form with a polite honorific can be jarring, for instance. While these honorifics are used on proper nouns, these suffixes can turn common nouns into proper nouns when attached to the end of them; this can be seen on words such as neko-chan which turns the common noun neko into a proper noun which would refer to that particular cat, while adding the honorific -chan can mean cute When translating honorific suffixes into English, separate pronouns or adjectives must be used in order to convey characteristics to the person they are referencing as well. While some honorifics such as -san are frequently used due to their gender neutrality and simple definition of polite unfamiliarity, other honorifics such as -chan or -kun are more specific as to the context in which they must be used as well as the implications they give off when attached to a person's name.
These implications can only be translated into English using either adjectives or adjective word phrases. San is the most commonplace honorific and is a title of respect used between equals of any age. Although the closest analog in English are the honorifics "Mr.", "Miss", "Ms.", or "Mrs.", -san is universally added to a person's name. Because it is the most common honorific, it is the most used to convert common nouns into proper ones, as seen below. San may be used in combination with workplace nouns, so a bookseller might be addressed or referred to as hon'ya-san and a butcher as nikuya-san. San is sometimes used with company names. For example, the offices or shop of a company called Kojima Denki might be referred to as "Kojima Denki-san" by another nearby company; this may be seen on small maps used in phone books and business cards in Japan, where the names of surrounding companies are written using -san. San can be attached to the names of animals or inanimate objects. For example, a pet rabbit might be called usagi-san, fish used for cooking can be referred to as sakana-san, but both would be considered childish and would be avoided in formal speech.
Married people refer to their spouse with -san. Due to -san being gender neutral and used, it can be used to refer to people who are not close or whom one does not know. However, it may not be appropriate when using it on someone, close or when it is clear that other honorifics should be used. Online, Japanese gamers append a numeral 3 to another player's name to denote -san, since the number three is pronounced san. Sama is a more respectful version for people of a higher rank than oneself or divine, toward one's guests or customers, sometimes toward people one admires, it is said to be the origin word for -san but there is no major evidence otherwise. Deities such as native Shinto kami and the Christian God are referred to as kami-sama, meaning "Revered spirit-sama"; when used to refer to oneself, -sama expresses extrem
Iemoto is a Japanese term used to refer to the founder or current Grand Master of a certain school of traditional Japanese art. It is used synonymously with the word sōke when it refers to the family or house that the iemoto is head of and represents; the word iemoto is used to describe a system of familial generations in traditional Japanese arts such as tea ceremony, noh, traditional Japanese dance, traditional Japanese music, the Japanese art of incense appreciation, Japanese martial arts. Shogi and go once used the iemoto system as well; the iemoto system is characterized by a hierarchical structure and the supreme authority of the iemoto, who has inherited the secret traditions of the school from the previous iemoto. An iemoto may be addressed by the title Sōshō or Ō-sensei. In English, "Grand Master" is the title, used; the iemoto's main roles are to lead the school and protect its traditions, to be the final authority on matters concerning the school, to issue or approve licenses and certificates and, in some cases, to instruct the most advanced practitioners.
The title of iemoto in most cases is hereditary. It is transmitted by direct line, or by adoption. Once the "successor-to-be" is recognized, that successor-to-be may appropriate the title of Wakasōshō "Young Master". There can only be one iemoto at a time, which sometimes leads to the creation of new "houses" or "lines." By tradition, the title of iemoto is passed down along with a hereditary name. In the Urasenke tradition of tea ceremony, for example, the iemoto carries the name Sōshitsu. Recognized teachers of the traditional arts that have an "iemoto" have obtained a license to teach from the iemoto, signifying the iemoto's trust that the so-licensed person is capable and qualified to faithfully pass on the school's teachings. Students must acquire licenses or certificates at various stages in their study. Depending on the school, such certificates either give the student permission to study at a particular level or affirm that the student has achieved a given level of mastery. Recipients must pay for these certificates which, at the highest level, may cost several million yen.
It is the iemoto who authorises and bestows ceremonial names for advanced practitioners. As far back as the Heian period, there were iemoto-like family lines that were responsible for passing down the secret traditions and orthodox teachings of their particular school of art, but the first appearance of the word iemoto in extant records dates to the end of the 17th century, where it is used in reference to families entitled to have their sons become priests at great temples, its use in the sense that it is used today, in the realm of traditional Japanese arts, starts to appear in documents in the middle of the 18th century. The system of iemoto is a manifestation of the ie or "household" and dōzoku or "extended kin" pattern of relationships in Japanese society; the concept of the "Iemoto System" was explicated by the historian Matsunosuke Nishiyama in the post-war period to describe the social structures associated with exclusive family control and networks of instructors, a characteristic of the feudal era whose influence on traditional arts is still felt today.
There were four main schools of Go players: Hon'inbō, Hayashi and Yasui. Early in the 17th century, the best player in Japan, Hon'inbō Sansa, was made head of a newly founded Go academy (the Hon'inbō school, which developed the level of playing and introduced the martial arts style system of ranking players; the government discontinued its support for the Go academies in 1868 as a result of the fall of the Tokugawa shogunate. In honour of the Hon'inbō school, whose players dominated the other schools during their history, one of the most prestigious Japanese Go championships is called the "Honinbo" tournament; the three main schools of Japanese flower arrangement, or ikebana, are Ikenobō, Sōgetsu. According to the organization Ikebana Network, there are 138 registered schools of small and large size. There are about 200 schools of Japanese dancing; the five most famous are the Hanayagi-ryū, Fujima-ryū, Wakayagi-ryū, Nishikawa-ryū, Bandō-ryū. The two main schools of Incense appreciation are the Shino-ryū and the Nijō-ryū.
See the article Schools of Japanese tea ceremony The iemoto system has been described as rigid, nepotistic and undemocratic. Some groups have chosen to reject the iemoto system. In the realm of the Japanese tea ceremony, Sensho Tanaka in 1898 initiated the Dai Nihon Chado Gakkai. Hiroaki Kikuoka, a shamisen player, created a presidential system for his group, while koto player Michiyo Yagi has rejected both the iemoto system and the traditional style of her instrument, choosing to strike chords. Dōshu Ohara ikebana school official site Sōgetsu ikebana school official site Wakayagi-ryū Japanese classical dance iemoto's official site Iemoto: the heart of Japan
Kanji are the adopted logographic Chinese characters that are used in the Japanese writing system. They are used alongside katakana; the Japanese term kanji for the Chinese characters means "Han characters". It is written with the same characters in the Chinese language to refer to the character writing system, hanzi. Chinese characters first came to Japan on official seals, swords, coins and other decorative items imported from China; the earliest known instance of such an import was the King of Na gold seal given by Emperor Guangwu of Han to a Yamato emissary in 57 AD. Chinese coins from the first century AD have been found in Yayoi period archaeological sites. However, the Japanese of that era had no comprehension of the script, would remain illiterate until the fifth century AD. According to the Nihon Shoki and Kojiki, a semi-legendary scholar called Wani was dispatched to Japan by the Kingdom of Baekje during the reign of Emperor Ōjin in the early fifth century, bringing with him knowledge of Confucianism and Chinese characters.
The earliest Japanese documents were written by bilingual Chinese or Korean officials employed at the Yamato court. For example, the diplomatic correspondence from King Bu of Wa to Emperor Shun of Liu Song in 478 has been praised for its skillful use of allusion. Groups of people called fuhito were organized under the monarch to read and write Classical Chinese. During the reign of Empress Suiko, the Yamato court began sending full-scale diplomatic missions to China, which resulted in a large increase in Chinese literacy at the Japanese court. In ancient times paper was so rare that people stenciled kanji onto thin, rectangular strips of wood; these wooden boards were used for communication between government offices, tags for goods transported between various countries, the practice of writing. The oldest written kanji in Japan discovered so far was written in ink on wood as a wooden strip dated to the 7th century, it is a record of trading for salt. The Japanese language had no written form at the time Chinese characters were introduced, texts were written and read only in Chinese.
During the Heian period, however, a system known as kanbun emerged, which involved using Chinese text with diacritical marks to allow Japanese speakers to restructure and read Chinese sentences, by changing word order and adding particles and verb endings, in accordance with the rules of Japanese grammar. Chinese characters came to be used to write Japanese words, resulting in the modern kana syllabaries. Around 650 AD, a writing system called man'yōgana evolved that used a number of Chinese characters for their sound, rather than for their meaning. Man'yōgana written in cursive style evolved into hiragana, or onna-de, that is, "ladies' hand," a writing system, accessible to women. Major works of Heian-era literature by women were written in hiragana. Katakana emerged via a parallel path: monastery students simplified man'yōgana to a single constituent element, thus the two other writing systems and katakana, referred to collectively as kana, are descended from kanji. In comparison to kana kanji are called mana.
In modern Japanese, kanji are used to write parts of the language such as nouns, adjective stems, verb stems, while hiragana are used to write inflected verb and adjective endings and as phonetic complements to disambiguate readings and miscellaneous words which have no kanji or whose kanji is considered obscure or too difficult to read or remember. Katakana are used for representing onomatopoeia, non-Japanese loanwords, the names of plants and animals, for emphasis on certain words. In 1946, after World War II and under the Allied Occupation of Japan, the Japanese government, guided by the Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers, instituted a series of orthographic reforms, to help children learn and to simplify kanji use in literature and periodicals; the number of characters in circulation was reduced, formal lists of characters to be learned during each grade of school were established. Some characters were given simplified glyphs, called shinjitai. Many variant forms of characters and obscure alternatives for common characters were discouraged.
These are guidelines, so many characters outside these standards are still known and used. The kyōiku kanji are 1,006 characters; the list only contained 881 characters. This was expanded to 996 characters in 1977, it was not until 1982 the list was expanded to its current size. The grade-level breakdown of these kanji is known as the gakunen-betsu kanji haitōhyō, or the gakushū kanji; the jōyō kanji are 2,136 characters consisting of all the Kyōiku kanji, plus 1,130 additional kanji taught in junior high and high school. In publishing, characters outside this category are given furigana; the jōyō kanji were introduced in 1981, replacing an older list of 1,850 characters known as the tōyō kanji, introduced in 1946. Numbering 1,945 characters, the jōyō kanji list was extended to 2,136 in 2010; some of the new characters were Jinmeiyō kanji. Since September 27, 2004, the jinmeiyō k