African Americans are an ethnic group of Americans with total or partial ancestry from any of the black racial groups of Africa. The term refers to descendants of enslaved black people who are from the United States. Black and African Americans constitute the third largest racial and ethnic group in the United States. Most African Americans are descendants of enslaved peoples within the boundaries of the present United States. On average, African Americans are of West/Central African and European descent, some have Native American ancestry. According to U. S. Census Bureau data, African immigrants do not self-identify as African American; the overwhelming majority of African immigrants identify instead with their own respective ethnicities. Immigrants from some Caribbean, Central American and South American nations and their descendants may or may not self-identify with the term. African-American history starts in the 16th century, with peoples from West Africa forcibly taken as slaves to Spanish America, in the 17th century with West African slaves taken to English colonies in North America.
After the founding of the United States, black people continued to be enslaved, the last four million black slaves were only liberated after the Civil War in 1865. Due to notions of white supremacy, they were treated as second-class citizens; the Naturalization Act of 1790 limited U. S. citizenship to whites only, only white men of property could vote. These circumstances were changed by Reconstruction, development of the black community, participation in the great military conflicts of the United States, the elimination of racial segregation, the civil rights movement which sought political and social freedom. In 2008, Barack Obama became the first African American to be elected President of the United States; the first African slaves arrived via Santo Domingo to the San Miguel de Gualdape colony, founded by Spanish explorer Lucas Vázquez de Ayllón in 1526. The marriage between Luisa de Abrego, a free black domestic servant from Seville and Miguel Rodríguez, a white Segovian conquistador in 1565 in St. Augustine, is the first known and recorded Christian marriage anywhere in what is now the continental United States.
The ill-fated colony was immediately disrupted by a fight over leadership, during which the slaves revolted and fled the colony to seek refuge among local Native Americans. De Ayllón and many of the colonists died shortly afterwards of an epidemic and the colony was abandoned; the settlers and the slaves who had not escaped returned to Haiti, whence. The first recorded Africans in British North America were "20 and odd negroes" who came to Jamestown, Virginia via Cape Comfort in August 1619 as indentured servants; as English settlers died from harsh conditions and more Africans were brought to work as laborers. An indentured servant would work for several years without wages; the status of indentured servants in early Virginia and Maryland was similar to slavery. Servants could be bought, sold, or leased and they could be physically beaten for disobedience or running away. Unlike slaves, they were freed after their term of service expired or was bought out, their children did not inherit their status, on their release from contract they received "a year's provision of corn, double apparel, tools necessary", a small cash payment called "freedom dues".
Africans could raise crops and cattle to purchase their freedom. They raised families, married other Africans and sometimes intermarried with Native Americans or English settlers. By the 1640s and 1650s, several African families owned farms around Jamestown and some became wealthy by colonial standards and purchased indentured servants of their own. In 1640, the Virginia General Court recorded the earliest documentation of lifetime slavery when they sentenced John Punch, a Negro, to lifetime servitude under his master Hugh Gwyn for running away. In the Spanish Florida some Spanish married or had unions with Pensacola, Creek or African women, both slave and free, their descendants created a mixed-race population of mestizos and mulattos; the Spanish encouraged slaves from the southern British colonies to come to Florida as a refuge, promising freedom in exchange for conversion to Catholicism. King Charles II of Spain issued a royal proclamation freeing all slaves who fled to Spanish Florida and accepted conversion and baptism.
Most went to the area around St. Augustine, but escaped slaves reached Pensacola. St. Augustine had mustered an all-black militia unit defending Spain as early as 1683. One of the Dutch African arrivals, Anthony Johnson, would own one of the first black "slaves", John Casor, resulting from the court ruling of a civil case; the popular conception of a race-based slave system did not develop until the 18th century. The Dutch West India Company introduced slavery in 1625 with the importation of eleven black slaves into New Amsterdam. All the colony's slaves, were freed upon its surrender to the British. Massachusetts was the first British colony to recognize slavery in 1641. In 1662, Virginia passed a law that children of enslaved women took the status of the mother, rather than that of the father, as under English common law; this principle was called partus sequitur ventrum. By an act of 1699, the colony ordered all free blacks deported defining as slaves all people of African descent who remained in the c
A permanent wave called a perm or "permanent", involves the use of heat and/or chemicals to break and reform the cross-linking bonds of the hair structure. The hair is washed and wrapped on a form and waving lotion or'reagent' is applied; this solution reacts chemically softening the inner structure of the hair by breaking some of the cross links within and between the protein chains of the hair. The hair swells and softens molds around the shape of the form. In addition, the process is used for the chemical hair straightening, or relaxing; this process makes use of the same chemical reactions as that of the permanent wave, but the hair is combed straight rather than wrapped around forms. The first person to produce a practical thermal method was Marcel Grateau in 1872, he devised a pair of specially manufactured tongs, in which one of the arms had a circular cross-section and the other a concave one, so that one fitted inside the other when the tongs were closed. The tongs were heated over a gas or alcohol flame and the correct temperature was achieved by testing the tongs on a newspaper.
The waving itself was safe. The procedure was to comb a lock of hair towards the operator, moving the comb with one hand to maintain some tension, while applying the tongs to the hair successively down the lock of hair towards the point; each time the tongs were applied, they were moved in a direction normal to the lock of hair, thus producing a continuous flat or two-dimensional wave. Skill using the wrist could produce slight variations of the wave. Thus, Marcel waving produced a two-dimensional wave, by thermal means only and the change was produced by plastic flow of the hair, rather than by any chemical means; because of the high temperature used, the process tended to degrade the hair. However, in spite of its drawbacks, forms of Marcel waving have persisted until today, when speedy results and low cost are important; as the demand for self-determination grew among women, hair was shortened so that it did not pass the lower end of the neck. This was not only a political gesture but a practical one, as women began to take over men's work due to the great shortage of labour during the First World War.
At the same time, introduced for lighting and industrial use, began to be used for heating and the application of the electric motor at the small business and domestic level. As shorter hair was improved in appearance by waving more than long hair, it was only a matter of time before an improved form of waving appeared. An early alternative method for curling hair, suitable for use on people was invented in 1905 by German hairdresser Karl Nessler, he used a mixture of cow water. The first public demonstration took place on 8 October 1905, but Nessler had been working on the idea since 1896. Wigs had been set with caustic chemicals to form curls, but these recipes were too harsh to use next to human skin, his method, called the spiral heat method, was only useful for long hair. The hair was wrapped in a spiral around rods connected to a machine with an electric heating device. Sodium hydroxide was applied and the hair was heated to 212 °F or more for an extended period of time; the process took six hours to complete.
These hot rollers were kept from touching the scalp by a complex system of countering weights which were suspended from an overhead chandelier and mounted on a stand. Nessler conducted his first experiments on Katharina Laible; the first two attempts resulted in burning her hair off and some scalp burns, but the method was improved and his electric permanent wave machine was used in London in 1909 on the long hair of the time. Nessler had moved to London in 1901, during World War I, the British jailed Nessler because he was German and forced him to surrender his assets, he escaped to New York City in 1915. In New York, he found that hundreds of copies of his machine were in use, but most did not work well and were unreliable. Nessler opened a shop on East 49th Street, soon had salons in Chicago, Palm Beach and Philadelphia. Nessler developed a machine for home use, sold for fifteen dollars. However, his machine made little impression in Europe and his first attempts were not mentioned in the professional press because they were too long-winded and dangerous.
Eugene Suter was a Swiss immigrant. He claimed to have come from Paris, which in those days was the center of style, he became aware of the possibilities of electrical permanent waving when shorter hair allowed the design of smaller equipment. The system had two parts. Sutter was unsuccessful. Isidoro Calvete was a Spanish immigrant who set up a workshop for the repair and manufacture of electrical equipment in the same area of London in 1917; this equipment was just coming into use for medical professions. Sutter consulted him on the heater and Calvete designed a practical model consisting of two windings inserted into an aluminium tube; this ensured that when inserted over a root winding, the thicker hair nearer to the root became hotter than the thinner hair at the end. Sutter patented the design in his own name and for the next 12 years ordered all his hai
Dru Hill is an American R&B group, most popular during the 1990s, whose repertoire included soul, hip hop soul and gospel music. Founded in Baltimore and active since 1992, Dru Hill recorded seven Top 40 hits, is best known for the R&B #1 hits "In My Bed", "Never Make a Promise", "How Deep Is Your Love"; the group consist of lead singer Mark "Sisqó" Andrews, Tamir "Nokio" Ruffin and, Larry "Jazz" Anthony, James "Woody Rock" Green. Signing to Island Records through Haqq Islam's University Records imprint, the group released two successful albums, Dru Hill and Enter the Dru, before separating for a period from late 1999 to 2002, during which time Sisqó and Woody released solo albums. While Woody's Soul Music LP was a moderate success in the gospel music industry, Sisqó's debut album, Unleash the Dragon, its hit singles, "Thong Song" and "Incomplete", were major pop successes, established Sisqó as a household name outside Dru Hill. Sisqó's second album, Return of Dragon, did not sell as well. In 2002, by part of the Def Soul record label, the group reunited and added fifth member Rufus "Scola" Waller to the lineup for their third album, Dru World Order, whose underperformance led to the group being dropped from Def Soul.
In 2009, the group signed to Kedar Entertainment Group and released their fourth album, InDRUpendence Day, the following year, with new member Tao taking the place of the again departed Woody. The members of Dru Hill were natives of Maryland. Mark Andrews and James Green met each other in middle school, both became acquaintances of Tamir Ruffin when all three began pursuing careers in the music industry. Ruffin, nicknamed "Nokio" enlisted Green to form a singing group. Woody and Sisqo formed an early incarnation of the group that featured other members, including Bravette Fleet and Chris Thomas, natives of Baltimore who attended Baltimore City College, with Nokio and Woody called 14K Harmony and began performing around the Baltimore area. At one talent show at Morgan State University, they were discovered by local talent manager Kevin Peck and appeared on Amateur Night at Showtime at the Apollo; the group made a name for itself by getting jobs at The Fudgery, a local fudge factory at Harborplace at Baltimore's Inner Harbor, where they started a store tradition of singing and performing to entertain guests while making fudge.
Most of their early repertoire was made up of gospel music as well as an early song by the group, "Please Remove Yo' Shoes". The group became a gospel group after a deal with Elektra Records fell through but switched to a more commercially viable music which prompted Woody's mother to pull him out of the group but the group begged her to let him return and she reluctantly agreed to if he promised he would return to his gospel roots. By 1994, Fleet and Thomas split from the group to pursue other interests, at which point Larry "Jazz" Anthony, who studied as an opera student at Frederick Douglass High School, joined the group. Nokio saw. Sisqó, Nokio and Woody continued to hone their skills working at the Fudgery, they performed under the name Storm became Legacy. In 1995, Hiram Hicks president of Island Black Music saw the boys perform in a talent show and wanted to fly them to New York to record a song called Tell Me for a movie Eddie starring Whoopi Goldberg. Blackstreet member Dave Hollister, now pursuing a solo career sang on the song but after Legacy sang it for Hiram his vocals were scrapped as they recorded the song and were signed that night.
After the group signed to Island Records, the label suggested they change their name from Legacy to Dru Hill after Druid Hill Park, a popular park on the west side of Baltimore, the name of, pronounced "Dru Hill" in the local Baltimore accent. A dragon is used as a logo for the group. Between their first and second albums, Dru Hill contributed "We're Not Making Love No More", a #2 R&B and #13 Pop hit, to the Soul Food soundtrack. "We're Not Making Food No More" was written and produced by star producer Babyface. Dru Hill and rapper Foxy Brown recorded "Big Bad Mama", a remake of Carl Carlton's 1981 hit "She's a Bad Mama Jama", the main single for the soundtrack to the 1997 Bill Bellamy film Def Jam's How to Be a Player; the group was instrumental in writing and producing for new University artist Mýa, whose first two singles "It's All About Me" and "Movin' On", were co-written by Sisqó, who performs guest vocals on "It's All About Me". In 1997, Dru Hill filed a lawsuit against Island Records, seeking a release from its contract, after an Island employee hit one of the group's managers, Keith Ingram, over the head with a pool cue.
It was discovered. At an October 1997 deposition hearing, Eric Kronfeld and chief operating officer of Island's parent company PolyGram, was asked why he had hired such an individual, his response was that if he were not to hire African-Americans with criminal records "there would be no African-Americans employees in our society or in our industry."Kronfield's remarks set off a wave of controversy when word of them reached the media in November. The Reverend Jesse Jackson became involved, publicly stating that PolyGram, based in the Netherlands, had "a pattern of race and sex exclusion." Jackson met with PolyGram chairman Alain Levy and several other executives, who issued a public apology for Kronfield's statement, replaced Kronfield as president with Motown Records' chairman Cl
The Jheri curl is a permed hairstyle, popular among African Americans during the 1980s. Invented by the hairdresser Jheri Redding, the Jheri curl gave the wearer a glossy, loosely curled look, it was touted as a "wash and wear" style, easier to care for than the other popular chemical treatment of the day, the relaxer. A Jheri curl requires a two-part application that consists of a softener to loosen the hair and a solution to set the curls; the rearranging cream uses pungent chemicals, causing the tight curls to loosen. The looser curls are set and a chemical solution is added to the hair to permanently curl it. "Perming" is labor-intensive and expensive to maintain. The chemicals required for the process cause the wearer's natural hair to become brittle and dry. To maintain the look of the Jheri curl, wearers are required to apply a curl activator spray and moisturizers daily, sleep with a plastic cap over the hair to prevent it from drying out; these products are expensive. The activator in particular has the undesirable side effect of being greasy, stains clothing and furniture.
Washing the hair cleanses it of the styling products and exposes the damage done to the hair by the chemical process. As the hair grows out, the wearer is required to touch up the new hair growth, further adding to the overall expense. To resolve the problems associated with the cost of the look, Comer Cottrell invented a cheap kit that could be used at home, thereby enabling ordinary African-Americans to copy the style of their wealthier idols. Edmund Sylvers was the first African-American artist to sport the Jheri curl on an album cover on his 1980 Casablanca release Have You Heard; the Jheri curl was worn by Michael Jackson on the cover of Jackson's blockbuster album Thriller, released in 1982. Other notable wearers of the style in the 1980s and early 1990s include rappers MC Eiht, DJ Quik, Eazy-E, Ice Cube; the 1988 comedy Coming to America features Eriq La Salle as Darryl Jenks, heir to the dynasty of a fictional product named "SoulGlo", which gave the wearer a style reminiscent of a Jheri curl while leaving the infamous greasy residue on soft furnishings.
Keenen Ivory Wayans played a character entitled "Jeri Curl" in the 1987 Robert Townsend film Hollywood Shuffle. One of Wayans' recurring characters on In Living Color, Frenchy sported a Jheri curl; when attending an Alcoholics Anonymous meeting and hearing others testify to how much they used to drink, Frenchy claimed he was "up to three and a half bottles of TCB Lite a day. In Samuel L. Jackson's opening monologue in the 1989 film Do the Right Thing, his DJ character says that there is a "Jheri Curl alert" in effect for the day: "If you have a Jheri Curl, stay in the house or you'll end up with a permanent plastic helmet on your head forever." Los Angeles Lakers basketball player Billy Ray Bates was reported to be unpopular with other players "because he had a moist Jheri curl, the ball would get all slippery." List of hairstyles Media related to Jheri curl at Wikimedia Commons
Timothy Zachary Mosley, known professionally as Timbaland, is an American record producer, singer, songwriter and DJ. Timbaland's first full credit production work was in 1996 on Ginuwine...the Bachelor for R&B singer Ginuwine. After further work on Aaliyah's second studio album One in a Million and Missy Elliott's debut studio album Supa Dupa Fly, Timbaland became a prominent producer for R&B and hip hop artists; as a rapper he released several albums with fellow rapper Magoo, followed by his debut solo album Tim's Bio in 1998. In 2002, Timbaland produced the hit single "Cry Me a River" for Justin Timberlake, going on to produce most of Timberlake's subsequent LPs such as FutureSex/LoveSounds and The 20/20 Experience and their respective hit singles. A Timbaland-owned imprint label, Mosley Music Group, featured artists such as Nelly Furtado, whose Timbaland-produced album Loose was a commercial and critical success. In 2007, Timbaland released a solo album, Shock Value, followed by Shock Value II in 2009.
Aside from the aforementioned artists, Timbaland's production credits from the 2000s forward include work with Jay-Z, Ludacris, Bubba Sparxxx, Rihanna, OneRepublic, Drake, Rick Ross and others. As a songwriter he has written as of 85 UK hits and 99 hits Stateside. Timbaland has received widespread acclaim for his production style. In 2007, Entertainment Weekly stated that "just about every current pop trend can be traced back to him — from sultry, urban-edged R&B songstresses... to the art of incorporating avant-garde sounds into No. 1 hits." Timothy Zachary Mosley was born on March 10, 1972 in Norfolk, Virginia, to Latrice, who ran a homeless shelter, Garland Mosley, an Amtrak employee. He graduated from Salem High School of Virginia. During his time as a DJ, he was known as "DJ Tim" or "DJ Timmy Tim", his brother, Sebastian, is around nine years younger. His sister Courtney Rashon is a makeup author from New Jersey. While attending high school, Timbaland began a long-term collaboration with rapper Melvin Barcliff.
The teenage Mosley joined the production ensemble S. B. I. which featured Neptunes producer Pharrell. Mosley was high school friends with brothers Terrence and Gene Thornton, who would become known as Pusha T and Malice of the rap group Clipse, respectively. In 1986, when Timbaland was 14 years old, he was accidentally shot by a co-worker at a local Red Lobster restaurant and was paralyzed for nine months. During this time, he began to learn. Singer and rapper Missy Elliott began working with him, she and her R&B group, auditioned for DeVante Swing, a producer and member of the successful R&B act Jodeci. DeVante signed Sista to his Swing Mob record label and Elliott brought Mosley and Barcliff along with her to New York, where Swing Mob was based, it was DeVante who renamed the young producer Timbaland, after the Timberland brand of construction boots. He and Magoo became part of SCI Zakys School stable of Swing Mob signees known as "Da Bassment" crew, joining artists such as R&B singer Ginuwine, male vocal group Playa, the girl group Sugah.
Timbaland did production work on a number of projects with DeVante, including the 1995 Jodeci LP The Show, The After-Party, The Hotel, Sista’s début LP 4 All the Sistas Around da World. Elliott began receiving recognition as a songwriter for artists such as R&B girl group 702 and MC Lyte. Due to Timbaland's connection with her, he was contacted to produce remixes of her songs. Timbaland began his producing career for R&B acts. In the early-1990s, he produced a few songs for R&B acts such as Sista. In 1996, he made his mainstream breakthrough by producing the majority of both Aaliyah's second album One in a Million and Ginuwine's debut album Ginuwine...the Bachelor. This included the major hit singles "If Your Girl Only Knew" by Aaliyah and "Pony" by Ginuwine. While Timbaland was producing for R&B artists, his trademark sound was much rooted in hip-hop with its fast-paced nature and clear drum breaks, he was taking a hip-hop sound and applying it to R&B, in this way his sound was instrumental in blurring the distinction between hip-hop and R&B production.
In 1997, he produced Supa Dupa Fly, the debut album of Missy Elliott, a childhood friend of Mosley. In this album Timbaland continued with his now trademark electronic production style, but since Missy rapped the music was considered hip-hop. In 1997, he released his first album with his partner Magoo, Welcome to Our World a hip-hop album. In the late 1990s, his hip-hop production sound would become influential and common as he produced for many high-profile hip-hop artists including Jay-Z, The LOX. In 1999, he scored a major hit with Jay Z and rap group UGK with the hit "Big Pimpin'", he fully produced Missy's second album in 1999, Da Real World. Still Timbaland in this period produced for R&B artists, he continued to produce for Ginuwine and Aaliyah, as well as contributing to albums by Xscape, Nicole and Total. He remixed Usher's major hit "You Make Me Wanna". In the early 2000s Timbaland produced songs including Ludacris' "Roll Out", Jay-Z's "Hola' Hovito", Petey Pablo's "Raise Up", Beck's cover of David Bowie's "Diamond Dogs" during this period.
He contributed three songs, all released as singles, to Aaliyah’s self-titled third album, the exotic lead single "We Need a Resolution", "More than a Woman", the ballad "I Care 4 U". He makes an ap
Afro-textured hair is the natural hair texture of certain populations in Africa, the African diaspora, Oceania and in some parts of South and Southeast Asia. Each strand of this hair type grows in a angle-like helix shape; the overall effect is such that, compared to straight, wavy or curly hair, afro-textured hair appears denser. In many post-Columbian, Western societies, adjectives such as "wooly", "kinky", "nappy", or "spiralled" have been used to describe natural afro-textured hair. More however, it has become common in some circles to apply numerical grading systems to human hair types. One popular version of these systems classifies afro-textured hair as'type 4', with the subcategory of type 4C being most exemplary of the afro-textured hair. However, afro-textured hair is difficult to categorize because of the many different variations among individuals; those variations include pattern, pattern size, strand diameter, feel. The chart below is the most used chart to help determine hair types: Different ethnic groups have observable differences in the structure and growth rate of hair.
With regard to structure, all human hair has the same basic chemical composition in terms of keratin protein content. Franbourg et al. have found that Black hair may differ in the distribution of lipids throughout the hair shaft. Classical afro-textured hair has been found to be not as densely concentrated on the scalp as other follical types; the average density of afro-textured hair was found to be 190 hairs per square centimeter. This was lower than that of Caucasian hair, which, on average, has 227 hairs per square centimeter. Loussourarn found that afro-textured hair grows at an average rate of 256 micrometers per day, whereas Caucasian hair grows at 396 micrometers per day. In addition, due to a phenomenon called'shrinkage', afro-textured hair, a given length when stretched straight can appear much shorter when allowed to coil. Shrinkage is most evident; the more coiled the hair texture, the higher its shrinkage. An individual hair's shape is never circular; the cross-section of a hair is an ellipse, which can tend towards a circle or be distinctly flattened.
Asiatic heads of straight hair are formed from almost-round hairs, Caucasian hair's cross sections form oval shapes. Afro-textured hair has a flattened cross-section and is finer, its ringlets can form tight circles with diameters of only a few millimeters. In humans worldwide, Asiatic hair is the most common, whereas afro-textured hair is the least common; this is because the former hair texture is typical of the large populations inhabiting East Asia as well as the indigenous peoples of the Americas. Afro-textured hair strands can possess "torsion twists"; these torsion twists may prevent the hair strands from coiling into tight curls, instead separating them and allowing the hair as a whole to have a fluffier, more undefined look. Clarence suggests that afro-textured hair may have evolved because of an adaptive need amongst humans' early hominid ancestors for protection against the intense UV radiation of the sun in Africa. With regard to the hypothesized recent African origin of modern humans, the author argues that afro-textured hair was the original hair texture of all modern humans prior to the "Out-of-Africa" migration that populated the rest of the globe.
According to Clarence, afro-textured hair may have been adaptive for the earliest modern humans in Africa because the sparse density of such hair, combined with its elastic helix shape, results in an airy effect. The resulting increased circulation of cool air onto the scalp may have thus served to facilitate the body-temperature-regulation system of hominids while they lived on the open savannah. Afro-hair tends to shrink when dry. Instead of sticking to the neck and scalp when damp, unless drenched it tends to retain its basic springiness; the trait may have been retained and/or preferred among many anatomically modern populations in equatorial areas, such as Polynesians, Melanesians and the Negrito, because of its contribution to enhanced comfort levels under tropical climate conditions. Many cultures in continental Africa developed hairstyles that defined status, or identity, in regards to age, wealth, social rank, marital status, fertility and death. Hair was groomed by those who understood the aesthetic standard, as the social implications of hair grooming were a significant part of community life.
Dense, thick and neatly groomed hair was something admired and sought after. Hair groomers possessed unique styling skills, allowing them to create a variety of designs that met the local cultural standards. Hair was dressed according to local culture. In many traditional cultures, communal grooming was a social event when a woman could socialize and strengthen bonds between herself, other women and their families. Hair braiding was not a paid trade. Since the African diaspora, in the 20th and 21st centuries it has developed as a multimillion-dollar business in such regions as the United States and western Europe. An individual's hair groomer was someone whom they