Gargoyles (TV series)
Gargoyles is an American animated television series produced by Walt Disney Television and distributed by Buena Vista Television, aired from October 24, 1994, to February 15, 1997. The series features a species of nocturnal creatures known as gargoyles that turn to stone during the day. After spending a thousand years in an enchanted petrified state, the gargoyles are reawakened in modern-day New York City, take on roles as the city's secret night-time protectors. Gargoyles was noted for its dark tone, complex story arcs, melodrama; the series received favorable comparisons to Batman: The Animated Series. A video game adaptation and a spin-off comic series were released in 1995; the show's storyline continued from 2006 to 2009 in a comic book series of the same title, produced by Slave Labor Graphics. The series features a species of nocturnal creatures known as gargoyles that turn to stone during the day, focusing on a clan led by Goliath. In the year 994, the clan lives in a castle in Scotland.
Most are betrayed and killed by humans and the remainder are magically cursed to sleep—i.e. Be frozen in stone form—until the castle "rises above the clouds." A millennium in 1994, billionaire David Xanatos purchases the gargoyles' castle and has it reconstructed atop his New York skyscraper, the Eyrie Building, thus awakening Goliath and the remainder of his clan. While trying to adjust to their new world, they are aided by a sympathetic female police officer, Elisa Maza, come into conflict with the plotting Xanatos. In addition to dealing with the gargoyles' attempts to adjust to modern New York City, the series incorporated various supernatural threats to their safety and to the world at large. A total of 78 half-hour episodes were produced; the first two seasons aired in the Disney Afternoon programming block. The first season consisted including a five-part opening story; this season's episodes were entirely written by Michael Reaves and Brynne Chandler Reaves. The second season featured 52 episodes, a long mid-season story arc dubbed by fans as "The Gargoyles World Tour" in which the main characters travel the world, encountering other Gargoyles and confronting various mystical and science-fictional dangers.
The writing staff was expanded for season two. The controversial third and final season aired during Saturday mornings on ABC as Gargoyles: The Goliath Chronicles. Behind the scenes, the animation producers and writers had completely changed from seasons one and two, while on-screen, the Gargoyles relationship to the world changed considerably; the voice cast featured several actors who are alumni of the Star Trek franchise, including Marina Sirtis and Jonathan Frakes, who were featured as principal cast members. Other Star Trek actors had recurring roles on Gargoyles, including Michael Dorn, Kate Mulgrew, Nichelle Nichols, Brent Spiner; the series bears no creator credit, though there were several people who are responsible for the show's format. Michael Reaves, who wrote the first six episodes and was the primary writer/story editor of the show's first two seasons has described himself in respect to Gargoyles as "in on the ground floor creating something iconic". On his blog, Greg Weisman describes himself as "one of the creators" of Gargoyles.
Weisman, a former English teacher, was working as a Disney executive when early versions of Gargoyles were pitched by himself and others as a fast-paced light comedy. The show was developed by the writing staff into something much more complex and dark; the series' first season was entirely written by husband-and-wife team of Michael Reaves and Brynne Chandler Reaves, who wrote 12 of the 13 episodes. Weisman joined the series as a co-producer with episode 6, did not have any writing credits on the show until the third season; the second season consisted of 52 episodes, featured a much larger writing staff, including Reaves, Chandler Reaves and Perry, as well as newcomers Lydia Marano, Cary Bates, Gary Sperling, Adam Gilad, Diane Duane and Peter Morwood, amongst others. For this season, story editing duties were handled on a rotating basis by Reaves, Chandler Reaves and Sperling. For the third season, most of the writing staff was new to the show, although returning writers included Marano and Bates.
Weisman wrote his only writing credit on the series. Many Shakespearean characters and stories found their way into the show's storylines those from Macbeth and A Midsummer Night's Dream; the series was influenced by medieval Scottish history, as well as television shows ranging from Disney's Adventures of the Gummi Bears to Hill Street Blues. The latter in particular inspired the ensemble format of the series and the 30-second "Previously, on Gargoyles..." recap found at the beginning of episodes. The former was an influence on the original comedy development of the show, subsequently made darker and more serious by first season writers Reaves, Chandler Reaves and Perry. New York artist Joe Tomasini brought a suit
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Thunder and Lightning (comics)
Thunder and Lightning are a duo of superpowered brothers published by DC Comics that had encounters with the Teen Titans. They are not to be confused with the two superheroines Thunder and Lightning, sisters introduced at different times who are the daughters of Black Lightning. Thunder and Lightning first appeared in New Teen Titans #32 and was created by Marv Wolfman and George Pérez. Gan and Tavis Williams are twin brothers that were born of an unnamed Vietnamese woman and an American soldier named Lt. Walter Williams. Conjoined twins, they were separated with magic; as children, they found themselves beginning to manifest superpowers. However, they had little control over these powers, without an infusion of their father's blood, they would burn themselves out. So, they took the aliases Thunder and Lightning and set off to America to search for their father, they engaged in battle against the Teen Titans. However, after their aims were revealed, the Titans decided to help the pair. Months the Teen Titans and S.
T. A. R. Labs were working on Lightning's powers. At the same time, using her powers, discovered that their father was an alien who had crash landed in Cambodia six hundred years ago, was being held hostage by the H. I. V. E. as they tried to exploit knowledge from him. When they located him, H. I. V. E. Controlled the alien in a fight against Thunder and Lightning and the Teen Titans. In the end and Lightning were forced to kill their father to protect their new friends. However, a blood sample from their father allowed S. T. A. R. Labs to create the cure that would allow Lightning to control their powers. Thunder and Lightning resettled in San Francisco, where S. T. A. R Labs helped. While there, they helped stop the Atomic Skull, they worked as security guards for S. T. A. R. until Trigon took control of them. They were captured and held in stasis at S. T. A. R. Labs until they could be free from the demon seeds. At some point they were freed of the seeds, as the two of them returned to help the Titans battle the Justice League, via transport arranged from the ultra-powerful Cyborg.
Thunder and Lightning came in too late to fight any of the Justice League but they still assisted in neutralizing the threat posed by Cyborg. After that, they returned to Southern Vietnam to defend it from an unknown alien threat. During the "Infinite Crisis" storyline, they were subdued by the League of Assassins in Vietnam who were being paid to break open a prison as part of a worldwide scheme to attack Metropolis with dozens of supervillains. During the Salvation Run storyline and Lightning arrive to give food to Martian Manhunter. Martian Manhunter asks; when they offered to help Martian Manhunter, Bane attacks them. Despite being shocked by Lightning, Bane defeats the both of them. Luthor keeps the two alive using them as power sources for his teleporter; the two are killed when the teleporter device self-destructs. In September 2011, The New 52 rebooted DC's continuity. In this new timeline and Lightning are reintroduced as part of The Ravagers, a superhero team which includes Beast Boy, Terra and Fairchild.
Thunder is able to control thunder as he manifests as rumbling noises which he can control to varying degrees. Lightning is able to release bolts of harness lightning; the two have a psychic link. An unrelated Thunder and Lightning appeared as Superman villains in Superman #303; these were two entities in the body of a sentient android used by a super-villain called Whirlicane, who wanted to conduct a series of terror acts across the US. Not knowing about his android origin, Thunder/Lightning hoped for his release by Whirlicane when his tasks were fulfilled, but Superman exposed the truth. Going mad over the realization, Thunder/Lightning released a massive lightning burst, destroying himself and his base. Thunder and Lightning first appeared in the Teen Titans episode "Forces of Nature" with Thunder voiced by S. Scott Bullock and Lightning voiced by Quinton Flynn, they are supernatural brothers who just want to have fun, but they make life miserable for everyone else with their disregard for the safety of others.
Their powers are thunderous sound blasts and lightning bolts as well as the shared power of flight. When they combine their powers, they can cause rain, this is how they are able to teleport, manifesting in massive blasts of lightning, their appearances seem to be influenced by the eponymous characters from the 1998 game Pajama Sam 2: Thunder and Lightning Aren't so Frightening. Thunder is rather large, has a deep voice, wears blue samurai armor. Lightning is skinny, speaks in a high, fast voice, wears a yellow-orange suit of samurai armor without a helmet, wears his hair in a style reminiscent of a lightning bolt. Thunder seemed having doubts all along the ordeal. Lightning was rebellious and unrepentant, only deciding to help out once Thunder pointed out the error of their ways. Slade manipulated Thunder and Lightning into setting fire to some posts with magical emblems on them, which created a giant Fire Monster bent on destroying the city, it was stopped when Thunder and Lightning joined their powers to make it rain, therefore putting out the Fire Monster before it can reach
Butt-Ugly Martians is a computer-animated television series produced by the British media group Just Entertainment in association with Mike Young Productions and DCDC Limited. It was sold to ITV in 2000 and premiered on CITV in February 2001. There were three video games based on the series named Butt Ugly Martians: Zoom or Doom for PlayStation 2, Butt-Ugly Martians: B. K. M. Battles for Game Boy Advance, Butt-Ugly Martians: Martian Boot Camp for PC; the franchise had a toy line by Hasbro. The plot of the series begins when the Butt-Ugly Martians are forced to invade planets for the evil Emperor Bog, but when they are sent to Earth they become addicted to American culture. Deciding not to hurt Earth, they pretend to be occupying the planet for Bog, they are shown around by their Earthling friends: Mike and Angela. The Butt-Ugly Martians continue to hang out on Earth as long; the show ran for 26 episodes before being cancelled on March 4 of the same year. B-Bop A-Luna – Commander B-Bop A-Luna is the diplomat and leader of the Butt-Ugly Martians.
Brave, a little big headed, B-Bop can always be trusted to think up a good cover story and look convincing doing it. He's a natural leader, able to get the most cowardly characters behind him when he's not sure what to do. B-Bop can think on the fly and comes up with a plan that works, he has a bit of a temper. He is more tactile than the other two Martians. B-Bop is the commanding officer of 2T and Do-Wah in the Martian Fleet, he wears a Yellow BKM suit. His age are not revealed. It's assumed that the three are teenagers, although they refer to Mike and Angela as kids. 2T Fru-T – 2T Fru-T is the mechanic for the Butt-Uglies and inventor of BKM. Sometimes B. Bop and Do-Wah can pick on 2T. A mechanical prodigy, 2T is the MacGyver of Martians and has been able to construct anything from invisibility rays to the BKM suits using parts that were available, he finds himself at the mercy of sub-standard parts sent to him by Dr. Damage, but these never slow him down for long. 2T is a bit inept forgetting Earth colloquialisms and fading into technical jargon when it's not necessary.
He's a bad liar under stress, although he can think of a good cover story whenever B-Bop is indisposed. He's calm, but has been known to snap at his friends whenever he feels betrayed, he wears a Blue BKM suit. Do-Wah Diddy – Corporal Do-Wah Diddy is the fun Martian of the Butt-Uglies. Do-Wah has a huge appetite and loves milkshakes, junk food and all other unhealthy foods. Not Do-Wah is the fattest of the Martians. Despite a prominent belly, Do-Wah has super-Martian strength. Despite his thickness, he is extraordinarily sweet and the first to look on the bright side and find the good in people. Do-Wah has a light crush on the show's only female human. Do-Wah Diddy wears a red uniform and a Red BKM suit, the merchandise gave his rank as a corporal. Shaboom Shabooma – A female Martian secret agent. Dr. Damage mind-controlled her and sent her to Earth to remove the trio's ability to BKM so his new robot could destroy them. Luckily, 2T was able to locate the device controlling her to free her. She's aware of the trio's defection but keeps it a secret, it's implied that the Butt-Uglies have crushes on her.
Michael "Mike" Ellis – A red-headed, green eyed 13-year-old boy, Mike is the unofficial and sometimes debatable leader of the human friends of the Martians. A typical teenager, Mike enjoys TV, junk food and the newest pop music. Mike is prone to bouts of big headedness, much like B-Bop, but can get his confidence shattered whenever he's upset. Mike's a pessimist at times, but is the first to jump in and take charge whenver the situation calls for it. Along the course of the show, Mike has been exposed to deadly radiation, electrocuted and subjected to several other unearthly threats. Mike hates it when people call him "Mikey". Angela Young – The only female human shown on the show. Angela is level-headed and smart the voice of reason to the more reckless male characters on the show. Much to Mike's dismay, she is very good at video games and once saved the world with her skills with a joystick. Angela is considered beautiful by other alien species, has been kidnapped twice as a result. Both instances had her being rescued by the Martians anyway.
Not quite a tomboy, Angela will sometimes "squeak" when she talks when she's excited. Angela acknowledges. Cedric Cyles – A 12-year-old boy, Cedric hangs out with Mike and Angela (he was moved forward in school, which explains his age and h
The Ant Bully (film)
The Ant Bully is a 2006 American computer-animated adventure fantasy comedy film written and directed by John A. Davis and based on the 1999 children's book of the same name by John Nickle. Starring the voices of Zach Tyler Eisen, Julia Roberts, Nicolas Cage, Meryl Streep and Paul Giamatti, the film was produced by Tom Hanks and Gary Goetzman's Playtone and Keith Alcorn's DNA Productions and Legendary Pictures as its first animated film, distributed by Warner Bros. Pictures. Just before its release, most of the DNA employees were laid off and the studio was closed, it was the last film role by Ricardo Montalbán, before his death on January 14, 2009. The film received mixed reviews from critics and was a box office disappointment, grossing only $55.2 million against its $50 million budget. In Las Vegas, lonely 10-year-old Lucas Nickle is left with his older sister and his grandmother when his parents go to Puerto Vallarta. Neglected by his family and tormented by a local bully named Steve and his friends, Lucas takes out his frustration on an anthill and attacks it with a squirt gun, terrifying the ants.
One ant, an eccentric wizard named Zoc, tries to fight back. His girlfriend, a nurse ant named Hova, fascinated by human beings, attempts to communicate with Lucas, he drops his gun on the grass, kicks the anthill with one of his sneakers, sending the ants flying into the grass. Hova tries to communicate to Lucas, but she is crushed before being rescued by Zoc; the leaders of the colony decide to use a potion Zoc has created to shrink Lucas down to ant size. The local exterminator, Stan Beals, convinces Lucas to sign a contract to kill vermin. Zoc and a small troop of ants pour the potion onto his ear, he discovers that he is now tiny, where he lands on a potato chip. He is carried to the anthill into a world of giant caves and ants. Zoc insists that Lucas should be studied eaten, but he is overruled by the Queen, she sentences Lucas to hard labor. Hova volunteers to train Lucas, much to Zoc's mortification, they both learn about the differences between humans. However, when she forces him to forage for jelly beans with Kreela and Fugax, Lucas is unsuccessful.
The ants are attacked by tarantula hawk wasps. Lucas uses it to scare away the wasps; this earns him the admiration of all the ants – except Zoc. Lucas is introduced to honeydew, the feces of caterpillars and he gets sick when he learns where they come from, he is shown a painting which depicts the Great Ant Mother and the evil "Cloud-Breather", an exterminator. Lucas is told that the Great Ant Mother will return and shower the ants with honeydew, while the Cloud-breather will spell destruction for all of them, he and his friends return to the house, where he tries to cancel Stan's contract but dials for pizza instead. To make matters worse, Tiffany comes in as a giantess, tries to crush the ants with the phone as they are forced into hiding until dark; when Zoc finds out that Lucas put Hova in possible danger, he accuses Lucas of further treachery and tells him that he should find another wizard because there is no way that he will give Lucas the potion to turn him back again, causing Lucas to run away in fright.
Upon hearing what happened, Hova goes out to look for Lucas. Once she finds him, he is swallowed by a frog. Zoc witnesses the event and realizes how much Hova cares about Lucas and frees him to make up for his selfishness. Afterwards Zoc and Lucas discuss their differences. Zoc explains. Lucas states. Zoc is unsure as to how anything gets accomplished in Lucas' world but sympathizes with him when they both admit that both used to act without thinking. Next day, when Beals arrives to exterminate the colony and Zoc enlist the aid of the wasps. During the battle with Stan, Lucas saves the lives of an injured wasp. Both the ants and wasps were no match against pesticide, but as Stan is about to exterminate the ant hill, a beetle and glowworm bite him in the groin; as Stan doubles up in pain, Lucas injects him with the shrinking potion disfiguring him, he retreats on a tricycle. The queen pronounces Lucas an ant in honor of his heroic actions, Zoc gives him the antidote. Lucas goes back to normal size and stands up to Steve who runs away from him.
Lucas showers the colony with jelly beans as a farewell gift. Zach Tyler Eisen as Lucas Nickle. Julia Roberts as Hova, a nurse ant. Nicolas Cage as Zoc, a wizard ant. Meryl Streep as The Queen Ant. Paul Giamatti as Stan Beals, a local exterminator. Regina King as Kreela, a forager ant. Bruce Campbell as Fugax, a scout ant. Lily Tomlin as Grandma. Cheri Oteri as Doreen Nickle, Lucas's mother. Myles Jeffrey as Steve, the local neighborhood bully. Larry Miller as Fred Nickle, Lucas' father. Richard Green as Wasp Leader. Jake T. Austin as Nicky, a neighborhood boy who acts under Steve's lead. Don Frye as Soldier Ant Ricardo Montalbán as The Head of Council Allison Mack as Tiffany Nickle, Lucas's older sister. Rob Paulsen as Beetle. S. Scott Bullock as Glowworm. Mark DeCarlo as Fly. Additional voices were provided by Tyler James Williams, Jaishon Fisher, Frank Welker, Tom Kenny, Neil Ross, Bob Joles, Wally Wingert, Leon Morenzie
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States. With 39.6 million residents, California is the most populous U. S. the third-largest by area. The state capital is Sacramento; the Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second and fifth most populous urban regions, with 18.7 million and 9.7 million residents respectively. Los Angeles is California's most populous city, the country's second most populous, after New York City. California has the nation's most populous county, Los Angeles County, its largest county by area, San Bernardino County; the City and County of San Francisco is both the country's second-most densely populated major city after New York City and the fifth-most densely populated county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. California's $3.0 trillion economy is larger than that of any other state, larger than those of Texas and Florida combined, the largest sub-national economy in the world. If it were a country, California would be the 5th largest economy in the world, the 36th most populous as of 2017.
The Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second- and third-largest urban economies, after the New York metropolitan area. The San Francisco Bay Area PSA had the nation's highest GDP per capita in 2017 among large PSAs, is home to three of the world's ten largest companies by market capitalization and four of the world's ten richest people. California is considered a global trendsetter in popular culture, innovation and politics, it is considered the origin of the American film industry, the hippie counterculture, fast food, the Internet, the personal computer, among others. The San Francisco Bay Area and the Greater Los Angeles Area are seen as global centers of the technology and entertainment industries, respectively. California has a diverse economy: 58% of the state's economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5% of the state's economy, California's agriculture industry has the highest output of any U.
S. state. California is bordered by Oregon to the north and Arizona to the east, the Mexican state of Baja California to the south; the state's diverse geography ranges from the Pacific Coast in the west to the Sierra Nevada mountain range in the east, from the redwood–Douglas fir forests in the northwest to the Mojave Desert in the southeast. The Central Valley, a major agricultural area, dominates the state's center. Although California is well-known for its warm Mediterranean climate, the large size of the state results in climates that vary from moist temperate rainforest in the north to arid desert in the interior, as well as snowy alpine in the mountains. Over time and wildfires have become more pervasive features. What is now California was first settled by various Native Californian tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries; the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its successful war for independence but was ceded to the United States in 1848 after the Mexican–American War.
The western portion of Alta California was organized and admitted as the 31st state on September 9, 1850. The California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom; the word California referred to the Baja California Peninsula of Mexico. The name derived from the mythical island California in the fictional story of Queen Calafia, as recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián by Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo; this work was the fifth in a popular Spanish chivalric romance series that began with Amadis de Gaula. Queen Calafia's kingdom was said to be a remote land rich in gold and pearls, inhabited by beautiful black women who wore gold armor and lived like Amazons, as well as griffins and other strange beasts. In the fictional paradise, the ruler Queen Calafia fought alongside Muslims and her name may have been chosen to echo the title of a Muslim leader, the Caliph. It's possible.
Know ye that at the right hand of the Indies there is an island called California close to that part of the Terrestrial Paradise, inhabited by black women without a single man among them, they lived in the manner of Amazons. They were robust of body with great virtue; the island itself is one of the wildest in the world on account of the craggy rocks. Shortened forms of the state's name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA. Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, California was one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse areas in pre-Columbian North America. Various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000; the Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their political organization with bands, villages, on the resource-rich coasts, large chiefdoms, such as the Chumash and Salinan.
Trade, intermarriage a
Final Fantasy XIII
Final Fantasy XIII is a science fiction role-playing video game developed and published by Square Enix for the PlayStation 3 and Xbox 360 consoles and for the Microsoft Windows operating system. Released in Japan in December 2009 and worldwide in March 2010, it is the thirteenth title in the mainline Final Fantasy series; the game includes fast-paced combat, a new system for the series for determining which abilities are developed for the characters called "Crystarium", a customizable "Paradigm" system to control which abilities are used by the characters. Final Fantasy XIII includes elements from the previous games in the series, such as summoned monsters and airships; the game takes place in the fictional floating world of Cocoon, whose government, the Sanctum, is ordering a purge of civilians who have come into contact with Pulse, the much-feared world below. The former soldier Lightning begins her fight against the government in order to save her sister, branded as an unwilling servant to a god-like being from Pulse, making her an enemy of Cocoon.
Lightning is soon joined by a band of allies, together the group become marked by the same Pulse creature. They rally against the Sanctum while trying to discover their assigned task and whether they can avoid being turned into monsters or crystals at the completion. Development began in 2004, the game was first announced at Electronic Entertainment Expo 2006. Final Fantasy XIII is the flagship title of the Fabula Nova Crystallis collection of Final Fantasy games and is the first game to use Square Enix's Crystal Tools engine. Final Fantasy XIII received positive reviews from video game publications, which praised the game's graphics and battle system; the game's story received a mixed response from reviewers, its linearity compared to previous games in the series was criticized. Selling 1.7 million copies in Japan in 2009, Final Fantasy XIII became the fastest-selling title in the history of the series. As of 2017, the game has sold over 7 million copies worldwide on consoles; the Microsoft Windows version has sold over 746,000 copies according to SteamSpy.
A sequel, titled Final Fantasy XIII-2, was released in December 2011 in Japan and in February 2012 in North America and PAL regions. A second sequel, titled Lightning Returns: Final Fantasy XIII, which concludes Lightning's story and the Final Fantasy XIII series, was released in November 2013 in Japan and in February 2014 in North America and PAL regions. In September 2014, Square Enix announced the Final Fantasy XIII series has been successful and has shipped over 11 million copies worldwide. In November, 2018, the series was added to Xbox One backwards compatibility; the player directly controls the on-screen character through a third-person perspective to interact with people and enemies throughout the game. The player can turn the camera around the characters, which allows for a 360° view of the surroundings; the world of Final Fantasy XIII is rendered to scale relative to the characters in it. The player navigates the world by chocobo. Players may save their game to a hard disk drive using save stations, where the player can purchase items from retail networks or upgrade their weapons.
An in-game datalog provides a bestiary and incidental information about the world of Final Fantasy XIII. The Final Fantasy XIII Ultimate Hits International version of the game, released in Japan contains an "Easy" mode option; as in Final Fantasy XII, enemies are integrated into the open field and can be approached or avoided by the player. When the player's character touches an enemy, the screen transitions from the regular map to a separate battle screen similar to those used in previous Final Fantasy titles. A maximum of three characters may be used in battles, which use a variant on the series' traditional Active Time Battle system first featured in Final Fantasy IV. Under this system, the player selects an action from the menus, such as Attack and Item. Unlike previous games in the series, the player only controls the lead character while the remaining two characters are controlled by the game's artificial intelligence; each action requires a specific number of slots on the ATB bar, which continually refills to a set maximum number of slots.
The ATB bar increases in size throughout the game from two slots to six. The player may select less than the maximum number of possible actions, or may stop the filling of the ATB bar and perform as many actions as can be done with the current ATB amount; the player may select an autobattle command, which fills the ATB slots with actions chosen automatically. Actions cannot be performed outside of battle, the characters' health is restored after each battle; each enemy has a meter, called a chain counter, consisting of a percentage starting at 100 which increases when the enemy is struck by attacks or spells. Attacks by different roles have different effects; the amount of damage performed by an attack is multiplied by the chain percentage before it is applied to the enemy. When the chain counter reaches a preset amount, different for each enemy, the enemy is placed into Stagger State. In this mode, the enemy may be launched into the air; the Paradigm system allows the player to program six different roles which the characters can assume to perform certain formations in battle in response to the specific conditions.
The roles consist of a warrior-type role.