The Macintosh is a family of personal computers designed and sold by Apple Inc. since January 1984. The original Macintosh was the first mass-market personal computer that featured a graphical user interface, built-in screen and mouse. Apple sold the Macintosh alongside its popular Apple II family of computers for ten years before they were discontinued in 1993. Early Macintosh models were expensive, hindering its competitiveness in a market dominated by the Commodore 64 for consumers, as well as the IBM Personal Computer and its accompanying clone market for businesses. Macintosh systems still found success in education and desktop publishing and kept Apple as the second-largest PC manufacturer for the next decade. In the early 1990s, Apple introduced models such as the Macintosh LC II and Color Classic which were price-competitive with Wintel machines at the time. However, the introduction of Windows 3.1 and Intel's Pentium processor which beat the Motorola 68040 in most benchmarks took market share from Apple, by the end of 1994 Apple was relegated to third place as Compaq became the top PC manufacturer.
After the transition to the superior PowerPC-based Power Macintosh line in the mid-1990s, the falling prices of commodity PC components, poor inventory management with the Macintosh Performa, the release of Windows 95 saw the Macintosh user base decline. Prompted by the returning Steve Jobs' belief that the Macintosh line had become too complex, Apple consolidated nearly twenty models in mid-1997 down to four in mid-1999: The Power Macintosh G3, iMac, 14.1" PowerBook G3, 12" iBook. All four products were critically and commercially successful due to their high performance, competitive prices and aesthetic designs, helped return Apple to profitability. Around this time, Apple phased out the Macintosh name in favor of "Mac", a nickname, in common use since the development of the first model. Since their transition to Intel processors in 2006, the complete lineup is based on said processors and associated systems, its current lineup includes four desktops, three laptops. Its Xserve server was discontinued in 2011 in favor of the Mac Mac Pro.
Apple has developed a series of Macintosh operating systems. The first versions had no name but came to be known as the "Macintosh System Software" in 1988, "Mac OS" in 1997 with the release of Mac OS 7.6, retrospectively called "Classic Mac OS". In 2001, Apple released Mac OS X, a modern Unix-based operating system, rebranded to OS X in 2012, macOS in 2016; the current version is macOS Mojave, released on September 24, 2018. Intel-based Macs are capable of running non-Apple operating systems such as Linux, OpenBSD, Microsoft Windows with the aid of Boot Camp or third-party software. Apple produced a Unix-based operating system for the Macintosh called A/UX from 1988 to 1995, which resembled contemporary versions of the Macintosh system software. Apple does not license macOS for use on non-Apple computers, however System 7 was licensed to various companies through Apple's Macintosh clone program from 1995 to 1997. Only one company, UMAX Technologies was licensed to ship clones running Mac OS 8.
Since Apple's transition to Intel processors, there is a sizeable community around the world that specialises in hacking macOS to run on non-Apple computers, which are called "Hackintoshes". The Macintosh project began in 1979 when Jef Raskin, an Apple employee, envisioned an easy-to-use, low-cost computer for the average consumer, he wanted to name the computer after his favorite type of apple, the McIntosh, but the spelling was changed to "Macintosh" for legal reasons as the original was the same spelling as that used by McIntosh Laboratory, Inc. the audio equipment manufacturer. Steve Jobs requested that McIntosh Laboratory give Apple a release for the newly spelled name, thus allowing Apple to use it; the request was denied, forcing Apple to buy the rights to use this name. In 1978, Apple began to organize the Apple Lisa project, aiming to build a next-generation machine similar to an advanced Apple II or the yet-to-be-introduced IBM PC. In 1979, Steve Jobs learned of the advanced work on graphical user interfaces taking place at Xerox PARC.
He arranged for Apple engineers to be allowed to visit PARC to see the systems in action. The Apple Lisa project was redirected to utilize a GUI, which at that time was well beyond the state of the art for microprocessor capabilities. Things had changed with the introduction of the 32-bit Motorola 68000 in 1979, which offered at least an order of magnitude better performance than existing designs, made a software GUI machine a practical possibility; the basic layout of the Lisa was complete by 1982, at which point Jobs's continual suggestions for improvements led to him being kicked off the project. At the same time that the Lisa was becoming a GUI machine in 1979, Jef Raskin started the Macintosh project; the design at that time was for a easy-to-use machine for the average consumer. In
Command & Conquer: Generals – Zero Hour
Command and Conquer: Generals – Zero Hour is the expansion pack for the 2003 video game Command & Conquer: Generals. Zero Hour added several new abilities and units to each side, a new mode of play called Generals' Challenge, along with a lot more changes, new features and bug/glitch fixes. Zero Hour contains 3 new campaigns of five missions each, one for each side, with their chronological order being USA first, GLA second, China last. Unlike the previous campaigns, which were noted by Command and Conquer fans for not having full motion video cinematic sequences during mission briefing, the Zero Hour campaigns return to that Command and Conquer tradition, each showing a live-action video of a news reporter of the respective side giving details about the situation and instructions for what to do behind the current mission; the plot behind the Zero Hour campaigns picks up where it left off at the end of the previous campaigns. The beginning of the US campaign relates to the GLA's success in the previous game.
The GLA uses the Baikonur Cosmodrome to fire a toxin warhead at a US naval base in Northern Europe, prompting the US to respond before another missile can be fired. A Chinese assault on the base had failed, so the US uses the powerful Chinese arsenal to overrun and destroy the missile silo using a B-2 Bomber; the US tasks itself with watching over the relief effort by the United Nations in Mogadishu, however GLA incursions make the relief mission difficult. A US carrier group in the region provides aerial cover as US forces storm a secret GLA base, unintentionally discovering documents relating to'Dr. Thrax', a GLA General who through unlimited funds in Iran plans to develop Anthrax Gamma Toxins; the USA responds by invading the oil fields funding the program, but it is soon learnt that Dr. Thrax has developed the agent and plans to fire missiles loaded with the toxin at major US cities. A US led assault on Dr. Thrax's complex, supported by disillusioned GLA separatists, allows the US to capture the missile sites before they can be launched.
It is implied that Dr. Thrax was killed in the assault; the start of the GLA campaign begins with Dr. Thrax's second in command being pursued by the Americans through an unknown city in the Middle East. Despite intense Tomahawk bombardment by the Americans, the General manages to evade the American pursuers and escapes from the area in a plane. With the whereabouts of Dr. Thrax still unknown, the GLA command is in complete disarray resulting in several splinter cells being formed to seize power. One such General, Prince Kassad uses stealth technology to, vital to the GLA's war effort. Reluctant to share, the GLA loyalists attack Kassad's base in Egypt, acquiring the stealth technology and killing Kassad in the process. Now equipped with new technology, the GLA launches a series of covert operations in the Mediterranean, aimed at destroying the US fleet based there, including the USS Ronald Reagan, a powerful super carrier; the GLA remarkably achieves this feat by using a captured Particle Cannon to sink the carrier.
Shaken by the decisive victory, rumours begin to spread that the US is unwilling to continue its war against the GLA and will begin pulling troops from its bases in Europe. The GLA seize this chance and land commandos on the US West Coast to steal toxins and US Army equipment from inside America. Jarmen Kell leads the attack, succeeds in forcing the bulk of US forces based in Europe to defend the homeland; the GLA once again seizes at the chance of a weaker American presence in Europe, launches an assault on US Central Command Base in Stuttgart using captured Chinese and American weaponry. The assault succeeds, ushers in the period of GLA control over Europe. Embarrassed by the GLA's use of Chinese weaponry, the Chinese respond by deploying nuclear weapons against the terrorists in Europe. Survivors of the nuclear attack at Stuttgart prompt the Chinese to remove the GLA threat and liberate Europe in the process, but as the Chinese mobilise in Europe, a massive GLA assault against a nuclear reactor complex near Yencheng results in another GLA incursion inside China's borders.
The attack is thwarted, the Chinese having secured their borders once more. Determined to eradicate the GLA in Europe, the Chinese begin the counter-offensive in Germany, but international opinion of the Chinese will determine how well they will be received, so restraint is placed upon the Chinese to not deploy their nuclear weapons here; the city of Coburg is defended by the GLA, but the Chinese resolve manages to push back the defenders wiping out the GLA in the region, as well as allowing European opinion towards the Chinese to skyrocket. After taking serious losses to the Chinese, the GLA begins a mass withdrawal from Europe, but part of the route will pass a PLA base in Halberstadt, outfitted to intercept the retreating forces. Having lost all of its forces present in Europe, the GLA has but one last stronghold based in Hamburg; the Americans manage to rally enough forces to attack the base, but the GLA ambushes the American base, capturing several pieces of US hardware that will be put to use to halt the Chinese juggernaught.
The Chinese manage to acquire US technology themselves, push towards the fortified GLA base. After heavy fighting, resulting in massive casualties on both sides, the Chinese emerge victorious and takes its place as the world's sole superpower. Meanwhile, it is implied. In addition to the three factions from the vanilla game, three playable generals have been added to each faction, each with his or her strengths and weaknesses, as well as unique units and/or modifications to the st
The Xbox 360 is a home video game console developed by Microsoft. As the successor to the original Xbox, it is the second console in the Xbox series, it competed with Sony's PlayStation 3 and Nintendo's Wii as part of the seventh generation of video game consoles. It was unveiled on MTV on May 12, 2005, with detailed launch and game information announced that month at the 2005 Electronic Entertainment Expo; the Xbox 360 features an online service, Xbox Live, expanded from its previous iteration on the original Xbox and received regular updates during the console's lifetime. Available in free and subscription-based varieties, Xbox Live allows users to: play games online. In addition to online multimedia features, it allows users to stream media from local PCs. Several peripherals have been released, including wireless controllers, expanded hard drive storage, the Kinect motion sensing camera; the release of these additional services and peripherals helped the Xbox brand grow from gaming-only to encompassing all multimedia, turning it into a hub for living-room computing entertainment.
Launched worldwide across 2005–2006, the Xbox 360 was in short supply in many regions, including North America and Europe. The earliest versions of the console suffered from a high failure rate, indicated by the so-called "Red Ring of Death", necessitating an extension of the device's warranty period. Microsoft released two redesigned models of the console: the Xbox 360 S in 2010, the Xbox 360 E in 2013; as of June 2014, 84 million Xbox 360 consoles have been sold worldwide, making it the seventh-highest-selling video game console in history, the highest-selling console made by an American company. Although not the best-selling console of its generation, the Xbox 360 was deemed by TechRadar to be the most influential through its emphasis on digital media distribution and multiplayer gaming on Xbox Live; the Xbox 360's successor, the Xbox One, was released on November 22, 2013. On April 20, 2016, Microsoft announced that it would end the production of new Xbox 360 hardware, although the company will continue to support the platform.
Known during development as Xbox Next, Xbox 2, Xbox FS or NextBox, the Xbox 360 was conceived in early 2003. In February 2003, planning for the Xenon software platform began, was headed by Microsoft's Vice President J Allard; that month, Microsoft held an event for 400 developers in Bellevue, Washington to recruit support for the system. That month, Peter Moore, former president of Sega of America, joined Microsoft. On August 12, 2003, ATI signed on to produce the graphic processing unit for the new console, a deal, publicly announced two days later. Before the launch of the Xbox 360, several Alpha development kits were spotted using Apple's Power Mac G5 hardware; this was because the system's PowerPC 970 processor running the same PowerPC architecture that the Xbox 360 would run under IBM's Xenon processor. The cores of the Xenon processor were developed using a modified version of the PlayStation 3's Cell Processor PPE architecture. According to David Shippy and Mickie Phipps, the IBM employees were "hiding" their work from Sony and Toshiba, IBM's partners in developing the Cell Processor.
Jeff Minter created the music visualization program Neon, included with the Xbox 360. The Xbox 360 was released on November 2005, in the United States and Canada, it was launched in Mexico, Chile, Hong Kong, South Korea, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa and Russia. In its first year on the market, the system launched in 36 countries, more countries than any other console has launched in a single year. In 2009, IGN named the Xbox 360 the sixth-greatest video game console of all time, out of a field of 25. Although not the best-selling console of the seventh-generation, the Xbox 360 was deemed by TechRadar to be the most influential, by emphasizing digital media distribution and online gaming through Xbox Live, by popularizing game achievement awards. PC Magazine considered the Xbox 360 the prototype for online gaming as it "proved that online gaming communities could thrive in the console space". Five years after the Xbox 360's original debut, the well-received Kinect motion capture camera was released, which set the record of being the fastest selling consumer electronic device in history, extended the life of the console.
Edge ranked Xbox 360 the second-best console of the 1993–2013 period, stating "It had its own social network, cross-game chat, new indie games every week, the best version of just about every multiformat game... Killzone is no Halo and nowadays Gran Turismo is no Forza, but it's not about the exclusives—there's nothing to trump Naughty Dog's PS3 output, after all. Rather, it's about the choices Microsoft made back in the original Xbox's lifetime; the PC-like architecture meant the early EA Sports games ran at 60fps compared to only 30 on PS3, Xbox Live meant every dedicated player had an existing friends list, Halo meant Microsoft had the killer next-generation exclusive. And when developers demo games on PC now they do it with a 360 pad—another industry benchmark, a critical one." The Xbox 360 began production only 69 days before launch, Microsoft was not able to supply enough systems to meet initial consumer demand in Europe or North America, selling out upon release in all regions except in Japan.
Forty thousand units were offered for sale on auction site eBay during the initial week of
Command & Conquer: Red Alert 3
Command & Conquer: Red Alert 3 is a real-time strategy video game developed by EA Los Angeles and published by Electronic Arts. It was released on October 28, 2008 in the United States for Microsoft Windows and October 30, 2008 in Europe. An Xbox 360 version was released on November 11. On January 21, 2009 EA announced Command & Conquer: Red Alert 3 – Ultimate Edition, the PlayStation 3 version which contains additional material was released on March 23, 2009 along with the OS X version by TransGaming; the game is a continuation of the Red Alert games within the Conquer series. Command & Conquer: Red Alert 3 – Uprising, a stand-alone expansion pack, was released for Microsoft Windows in March 2009, it was offered via digital distribution. Like the previous entries in the Red Alert series, the game is set in an alternate reality from World War II, in which the Western Allies fight the Soviet Union. In Red Alert 3 the Soviet leadership, facing defeat, goes back in time to kill Albert Einstein and prevent his assistance to the allies, paving the way for Soviet domination in the present.
However, as an unintended consequence, a third world power, the Empire of the Rising Sun, is created and all three sides go to war. The three factions are playable, with the gameplay involving constructing a base, gathering resources and training armies to defeat other players; each faction has a co-operative campaign, playable with either an artificial intelligence partner or with another player online. The game intersperses strategy missions with full motion video footage featuring an ensemble cast starring J. K. Simmons, Tim Curry and George Takei as the leaders of the three factions; the game received positive reviews, with reviewers citing the co-operative and multiplayer components as strengths, along with the enhanced role of naval combat compared to other real-time strategy games. Cited weaknesses included aspects such as unit pathfinding and an unstable netcode. Red Alert 3 retains the core real-time strategy mechanics of the Conquer series. Warring factions harvest resources using vulnerable collectors and use those resources to construct military bases and forces on-site.
Structures form a wide tech tree with a variety of units and elusive superweapons. Weapon types are specialized to the point where a rifleman can withstand direct hits from an anti-tank cannon. Red Alert 3's major refinements are the addition of the Empire of the Rising Sun to the factions of the sub-series, a co-operative campaign, expanded naval warfare; the single-player campaign is co-operative. Each mission is played alongside an ally; these can be played with another player. Offline it is one of several computer-controlled characters. Teams share income and start with the same forces. Computerized characters can be given simple commands, such as an order to take a specific position or to strike a specific target; the campaign has nine missions for each side. Each side's plotlines are mutually exclusive. Naval warfare is emphasized as another front. Executive producer Chris Corry has stated that many units are amphibious, trading effectiveness for increased flexibility. Buildings and entire bases can be constructed on water, save for such things as ground or naval unit production facilities, players who "ignore the ocean forfeiting a significant part of their potential economy to their opponents."
Further stressing this is the fact that, despite some campaign maps being land based, all multiplayer maps have significant bodies of water in them. The use of naval units and various unit abilities helped players counterattack their opponent's units specific to that unit's strongpoint; every unit in the game has a secondary ability. Their usage varies: some are toggled on or off, others are targeted, still others are triggered the instant one presses the button; the Imperial King Oni can bull-rush enemy units as a secondary ability, a Soviet Hammer Tank can toggle between a tank gun and a laser beam that can leech HP from enemies, an Allied Athena Cannon can engage its energy shields with a button press but with a cooldown period before they can be used again. All abilities are bound to the same key; the game features experience points that are used to upgrade unit types and to buy "commander abilities," which call in air strikes, recon sweeps, magnetic satellite beams, etc. Commander abilities do have significant cooldown periods.
Ore fields. These originated in the first Red Alert as a functionally identical equivalent to Tiberium, what were ostensibly strip mines had ore growing out of the ground. Gameplay mechanics have not changed a great deal since fields have been replaced with stationary ore mines. Strategic ore refinery placement and covert refining are impacted to an extent; the first Red Alert revolved around a different World War II between the Allies and the Soviet Union, with some high-tech esoterica, such as weaponized tesla coils linked to Tesla's abortive death rays and limited time travel linked to the rumored Philadelphia Experiment. Red Alert 2 featured a Soviet invasion of North America with tanks, gargantuan airships, psychically dominated anti-ship giant squids. Executive producer Chris Corry stated in a pre-release interview that Red Alert 3 will further differentiate the playable factions from each other and " u
The Lord of the Rings: The Battle for Middle-earth
The Lord of the Rings: The Battle for Middle-earth is a real-time strategy video game developed by EA Los Angeles for Microsoft Windows. It was released in December 6, 2004 and is based on Peter Jackson's The Lord of the Rings film trilogy, in turn based on J. R. R. Tolkien's original novel; the game uses short video clips from the movies and a number of the voice actors, including the hobbits and wizards. It uses the SAGE engine; the sequel, The Lord of the Rings: The Battle for Middle-earth II, was released on March 2, 2006. The official game servers for The Battle for Middle-earth were permanently closed on December 31, 2010 by EA Games, due to the expiration of The Lord of the Rings video game license, however Windows users can still play online using unofficial game servers; the Battle for Middle-earth is a real-time strategy game. Warring factions gather resources use them to construct military bases and armies on-site. In The Battle for Middle-earth, buildings may only be constructed on the building slots of predefined plots.
Plots range from farmhouses to full-fledged castles, with different slot arrangements and available buildings, plots can be purchased when they're in the sole presence of a side's forces. The only resource are the nebulous "resources," which are produced inexhaustibly in dedicated buildings. Four factions on two sides wage the War of the Ring: Representing the Free Peoples are the horse-lords of Rohan, Gondor with its forges and battlements; the Forces of Darkness are the fighting Uruk-hai of Isengard, Mordor's orc hordes, bolstered by Haradrim, Mûmakil and Trolls. Keeping with the trends of contemporary RTS titles, basic units operate in groups, significant characters are represented by "hero units", the destruction of units gathers points for the purchase of special abilities. There is a unit limit. Unit strengths and weaknesses form a sort of rock-paper-scissors system. Cavalry beats archers as they do not have a lot of time to fire and are forced to close quarters fighting, Pikemen beat cavalry, swordsmen beat pikemen and archers beat swordsmen.
Fire beats Ents and Trolls. Units gain experience and levels. Squads replace lost members. Most normal units have purchaseable upgrades and may have abilities such as changing formation, changing weapons, combining with other squad types, Ranger stealth and orc cannibalism. Heroes are unique, far more potent units that lack upgrades but do have multiple, elaborate abilities, can be purchased back if killed. Most hero abilities require certain experience levels. Good has the advantage in the quality of heroes. Buildings gain experience and may become able to build new units, research new upgrades, or bestow better passive bonuses such as a reduction in cavalry build costs; the player's special powers are purchased from a small tree. They can be supportive, or able to call in temporary units, they are usable. Both factions on a side share the same powers, the tree is much larger in campaign mode than it is in skirmishes. Good has some powers. Evil receives aid in resource harvesting; the Heroes for Gondor are Pippin, Faramir and Gandalf.
Rohan's heroes are Merry, Eomer, Gimli, Legolas and Treebeard. Isengard's heroes are Saruman. Mordor's heroes are Gollum, two Nazgûl, the Witch King of Angmar. Frodo and Shelob are playable at various stages of the good and evil campaigns, but cannot be used in skirmish battles; the good and evil forces of Middle-earth each have a campaign. They take place on an animated map of western Middle-earth, where each battle represents the defense/sacking of a territory. Armies and characters move on the map, moving the cursor over them shows snippets of the movies; some mandatory missions represent important events. Between these the player must take enough nearby territories in skirmish battles, variations on the theme of building a base and killing everyone; each territory provides a permanent increase of power points, the unit limit, and/or a multiplier for acquired resources. Units, their upgrades and purchased powers persist between battles; the good campaign follows the story of the Lord of the Rings movies with an emphasis of traditional, scripted missions, from Moria to Lórien, the fight at Amon Hen, the Battle of the Hornburg, the Ents' conquest of Isengard, the siege of Osgiliath, Sam's search for Frodo in Shelob's lair, the Battle of the Pelennor Fields and the Black Gate.
The evil campaign begins with Isengard's betrayal and continues with Saruman's conquest of Rohan signified by the fall of Helm's Deep and the deaths of Theoden and Eomer. It switches to Mordor's assault on Gondor and concludes with the successful destruction of Minas Tirith and total victory for Sauron, it provides an alternative storyline to the film. The Battle for Middle-earth features score from The Lord of the Rings film trilogy composed by Howard Shore, as well as original music in Shore's image by Jamie Christopherson and Bill Brown; the Lord of the Rings: The Battle for Middle-earth was released via digital sellers on August 28, 2006, featuring 22 tracks of cues from the game by Christopherson & Brown spanning 44 minutes. The development environment and "extreme crunch time" for The Battle for Middle-ear
Command & Conquer: Red Alert
Command & Conquer: Red Alert is a real-time strategy video game of the Command & Conquer franchise, produced by Westwood Studios and released by Virgin Interactive Entertainment in 1996. The second game to bear the Command & Conquer title, Red Alert is the prequel to the original Command & Conquer of 1995, takes place in the alternate early history of Command & Conquer when Allied Forces battle an aggressive Soviet Union for control over the European mainland, it was available for PC and was subsequently ported to PlayStation. The PlayStation version was re-released as a download on the PlayStation Network for PlayStation Portable and PlayStation 3. On August 31, 2008, Electronic Arts, who acquired Westwood Studios in 1998, rendered Command & Conquer: Red Alert freeware. In collaboration with Petroglyph Games, EA announced a remaster of this game along with the original Command & Conquer on November 14, 2018. Players can queue commands, create unit groups that can be selected by a number key, control numerous units at a time.
The game features two factions with differing styles of play. Like Tiberian Dawn, the game has split routes for most missions; the objective stays the same but the map layout differs. The single player campaign is complemented by live action cinematic sequences. Red Alert requires each player to use their side's strengths in order to compensate for their weaknesses, in contrast to games such as Total Annihilation or Warcraft II: Tides of Darkness, in which both sides have units with similar abilities and rely on outnumbering or possessing a better balanced force than their opponent. Players acquire credits to purchase structures and equipment by mining for minerals. Rare gems generate more credits. Players can gain more credits and increase their buying power by building more ore refineries and ore trucks; the Soviets' vehicles tend to be more durable and powerful than Allied vehicles, but are slower moving and more expensive. The Soviets have superior defensive capabilities against ground attacks, with the Flame Towers and Tesla coil, the latter able to destroy most Allied armor in 1-2 hits although it has high power consumption.
The Soviets' weakness is at sea. It is invisible except when surfacing to attack, when it is vulnerable to destroyers and gunboats; the Soviets' secret weapon is the Iron Curtain, a device that renders a selected unit invulnerable to attacks for a short period of time. They have a wide selection of air units for assault (the MiG-27, Yak-7, Mi-24 Hind and map revelation through spy planes, can deploy infantry by air through paratroops or by the CH-47 Chinook transport helicopter; the Soviet "tank rush" was a popular strategy online, involving building many heavy tanks and overwhelming the opponent with sheer numbers. The Allies' forces are cheaper, faster to build and more agile, their infantry can survive longer with good use of their Medic unit. The Allies' strongest tank is weaker in a one-on-one engagement against the Soviets' starting tank, but the Allies have anti-tank minelayers to counter superior Soviet armor; the Allies have only one air unit, the anti-tank AH-64D Apache Longbow, compared to three Soviet air units.
Allied defenses against ground assaults — pillboxes and turret emplacements — are less powerful than the Soviets' Tesla Coil, but much less dependent on power. On maps with water, Allies possess an advantage in naval power thanks to the Cruiser, which has the longest-ranged and most powerful surface-to-surface attack in the game, as its naval artillery can destroy buildings quickly; the Allies' secret weapon is the Chronosphere, which temporarily relocates a selected unit to another part of the map. They possess several other tools of subterfuge and military intelligence, such as spies to gain information on or disable enemy facilities, thieves for stealing enemy resources, hiding their own units and structures from detection, revealing the whole game map with a GPS satellite. In online play and computer skirmish, both Allied and Soviet forces have access to the nuclear missile silo, not available to either side in single-player mode, although it is present in the Allied campaign. In online play and computer skirmishes, the Soviets have access to two of the Allied side's infantry: the Rocket Soldier and Tanya, a commando capable of killing infantry and destroying structures.
In addition to the single-player and multiplayer campaigns, Red Alert includes a map editor and the bonus software Westwood Chat. Command & Conquer: Red Alert takes place in a parallel universe. At the Trinity Site in New Mexico in 1946, Albert Einstein prepares to travel backward in spacetime, he activates his experimental time machine to find himself in Landsberg, Germany, on December 20, 1924, where he meets a young Adolf Hitler just after the latter's release from Landsberg Prison. Following a brief conversation between the two, Einstein shakes Hitler's hand, which erases him from the timeline. Hitler's death prevents him from rising to power as leader of Nazi Germany, which creates a new timeline. Without Nazi Germany, the Soviet Union grows
Dune II: The Building of a Dynasty is a real-time strategy Dune video game developed by Westwood Studios and released by Virgin Games in December 1992. It is based upon David Lynch's 1984 movie Dune, an adaptation of Frank Herbert's science fiction novel of the same name. While not the first real-time strategy video game, Dune II established the format that would be followed for years to come; as such, Dune II is the archetypal "real-time strategy" game. Striking a balance between complexity and innovation, it was a huge success and laid the foundation for Command & Conquer and many other RTS games that followed. Emperor Frederick IV of House Corrino is desperate for the harvesting of the valuable drug melange, found only on the planet Arrakis, to pay off all of his debt incurred on internecine wars with family members. To achieve this, he now offers the sole governorship of Arrakis to whichever of the three Houses delivers the most spice for him. War begins; the player is a military commander from a House of their choice.
In the first few missions the objectives are to establish a base on an unoccupied territory of Arrakis, to harvest spice, to defeat intruders. When the three Houses divide Arrakis among them, the player has to assault and capture enemy territories; when the player dominates Arrakis on the world map, the two other enemy factions ally against their common enemy. The ultimate final showdown is the battle between the player's House against three enemy sides, among them Frederick's forces the Sardaukar; the introductory, mission briefing and endgame cutscenes are different for each House, in keeping with their disparate world views. The weaponry and units vary from house to house; the player takes the role of the commander of one of the three interplanetary houses, the Atreides, the Harkonnen or the Ordos, with the objective of wresting control of Arrakis from the other two houses. House Ordos is not featured in the Dune novels and is mentioned only in the non-canon Dune Encyclopedia; the basic strategy in the game is to harvest spice from the treacherous sand dunes using a harvester vehicle, convert the spice into credits via a refinery and to build military units with these acquired credits in order to fend off and destroy the enemy.
The game map starts with a fog of war covering all area, not covered by the player's units range of view. As the units explore the map, the darkness is removed. Unlike games such as Warcraft II: Tides of Darkness, the fog of war is lifted forever with initial exploration, it does not become dark once more when units leave the area. In addition to enemy incursions, there are other dangers; the player can only build on rocky terrain, but must build concrete foundations before to avoid deterioration of the structures due to the harsh weather conditions although in general, structures will decay over time regardless of the presence of those concrete slabs due to the aforementioned weather conditions, though the concrete saves repair costs in the long run. Spice fields are indicated by orange coloration on the sand, darker orange indicating high concentration; some spice may be concealed as bumps on the terrain that become spice fields when they are shot at, or when a unit runs over them. The player is presented a map of the planet Arrakis before most missions, where they can choose the next territory to play in among two or three.
This affects the enemy house fought in the next mission, as all missions except the first two require the complete destruction of the enemy. Nine territories must be fought, irrespective of house; some key elements that first appeared in Dune II and appear in many other RTS games include: A world map from which the next mission is chosen Resource-gathering to fund unit construction Simple base and unit construction Building construction dependencies Mobile units that can be deployed as buildings Different sides/factions, each with unique unit-types and super weapons A context-sensitive mouse cursor to issue commands Completing higher missions gives authorization to use improved technology and higher-order weaponry unique to each House, ensuring varied game play. For example, House Harkonnen may be able to construct their Devastator tanks with heavy armor and ordnance but cannot build the impressive Atreides Sonic Tank; the Ordos have access to the Deviator - a specialized tank firing a nerve gas that switches the allegiance of targeted units to Ordos for a limited period of time.
The three Houses are restricted in their production capabilities—House Ordos cannot build Atreides-style trikes, instead making the faster "Raider" trikes, while House Harkonnen constructs heavier but more expensive quad bikes. A player can gain access to other Houses' special units by capturing an enemy Factory and manufacturing the desired units at the captured Factory. Note that a Deviator not owned by House Ordos still switches control of targeted units to House Ordos, not to the