San Antonio Zoo
The San Antonio Zoo is an Association of Zoos and Aquariums-accredited zoo in Midtown San Antonio, United States. It is located in the city's Brackenridge Park; the 35-acre zoo has a collection of over 3,500 animals representing 750 species. The zoo's annual attendance exceeds 1,000,000, it runs non-animal attractions, such as the 2 ft narrow gauge San Antonio Zoo Eagle train ride, which first opened in 1956 and utilizes three Chance Rides C. P. Huntington locomotives; the Richard Friedrich Aquarium was opened in 1948. It was the only aquarium in the city until SeaWorld San Antonio was opened in 1988. What is now known as the San Antonio Zoo began in 1914 when Colonel George Washington Brackenridge, one of the city's leading citizens, placed bison, monkeys, African lions, bears on land he had deeded to the city; the land became Golf Course. The San Antonio Zoo opened two of the first cageless exhibits in the United States in November 1929 that offered visitors views of the animals not available in caged exhibits.
The Richard Friedrich Aquarium was dedicated in 1948, the Hixon Bird House, funded through the efforts of Colonel Frederick C. Hixon, opened in 1966; the San Antonio Zoo housed the first herd of addra gazelle in captivity in 1969 and continues to be active in the breeding program for this critically endangered species. Due to the former hoofstock quarantine point in San Antonio, the San Antonio Zoo has had a wide variety of hoofstock species; the zoo is involved in breeding a number of endangered species including black rhino, golden lion tamarin, dama gazelle, Attwater's prairie chicken, black mangabey, African lion, black-footed ferret, Komodo dragon, Andean condor, Caribbean flamingos. The zoo opened Phase II of Africa Live in 2010. Phase I, which opened in 2007, brought a new exhibit for hippos with underwater viewing area and one for new Nile crocodiles as well as many other smaller animals. Phase II contains Angolan colobus monkeys, African hunting dogs, rock hyrax, various species of birds contained in the second largest aviary in the world.
On June 18, 2013, a two-headed turtle, along with three one-headed turtles hatched. The two-headed turtle was named Thelma and Louise after the 1991 film. Thelma and Louise died on July 29, 2014, from unknown causes. Africa Live! is the San Antonio Zoo's newest exhibit. Consisting of three phases, Africa Live! Gives guests a chance to experience Lake Tanganyika and Lake Malawi. Guests can observe the hippopotamus, Nile crocodile, African cichlids through underwater viewing windows. Found in Africa Live! are Angola colobus, African wild dog, rock hyrax, Wolf's mona monkey, various species of birds. Phase III of Africa Live will consist of new or remodeled exhibits for African elephants, zebra and rhinoceros. In November 2015, the zoo opened a remodeled Giraffe exhibit with a feeding station and other animals like zebras and ostriches will move in with them. African Plains takes visitors through a arid expanse, backed by natural limestone walls. African Plains hosts a number of animals including zebra, topi, marabou stork, various antelope.
Amazonia houses animals. The zoo's main waterway makes up a large portion of Amazonia; the open flight deck allows guests to enter the exhibit and observe scarlet ibis, among other birds, the family of spider monkeys, giant anteaters, purchase food to feed tilapia. Several cats, including the jaguar and ocelot are located within Amazonia; the exhibit is home to New World monkeys including tamarins, capuchin monkeys, sakis. Other animals include anaconda, sloths and the Andean condor. A cave-like area for visitors to walk through, it houses the zoo's smaller cats, such as a fishing cat, black-footed cats, clouded leopards, a caracal. As well as a few mammals that look similar to cats: ringtail cat, a northern treeshrew; the zoo contains whooping cranes, blue cranes, Manchurian cranes, the hooded crane. The exhibit is a lush environment constructed on the existing waterway that allows guests to be immersed in the cranes' habitat, it is an opportunity, becoming rare in the wild. Spanning the quarry wall is the zoo's white-cheeked gibbon exhibit.
With plenty of ropes to swing on, they stay high above, while below a family of Asian small-clawed otters play in the river. A enclosed circular building, with glass-fronted enclosures displaying a wide variety of bird species from all over the world. In the middle of the rotunda is a small island planted with trees and shrubs, containing a small pond; the free-flight birds stay here, sometimes venture out into the open to explore. Visitors head straight from African Plains to Rift Valley. Walking uphill, the zoo displays large animals such as white rhinoceros and cheetah, as well as smaller animals such as dik-dik, a bateleur eagle; as you head back down, you'll come across more antelopes and the lions. A building housing the zoo's amphibian collection, including frogs, toads and caecilians. Brackenridge Park City of San Antonio SeaWorld San Antonio Media related to San Antonio Zoo at Wikimedia Commons Official website
In economics, competition is a condition where different economic firms seek to obtain a share of a limited good by varying the elements of the marketing mix: price, product and place. In classical economic thought, competition causes commercial firms to develop new products and technologies, which would give consumers greater selection and better products; the greater selection causes lower prices for the products, compared to what the price would be if there was no competition or little competition. Early economic research focused on the difference between price- and non-price-based competition, while economic theory has focused on the many-seller limit of general equilibrium. Competition is accepted as an essential component of markets, results from scarcity—there is never enough to satisfy all conceivable human wants—and occurs "when people strive to meet the criteria that are being used to determine who gets what." In offering goods for exchange, buyers competitively bid to purchase specific quantities of specific goods which are available, or might be available if sellers were to choose to offer such goods.
Sellers bid against other sellers in offering goods on the market, competing for the attention and exchange resources of buyers. The competitive process in a market economy exerts a sort of pressure that tends to move resources to where they are most needed, to where they can be used most efficiently for the economy as a whole. For the competitive process to work however, it is "important that prices signal costs and benefits." Where externalities occur, or monopolistic or oligopolistic conditions persist, or for the provision of certain goods such as public goods, the pressure of the competitive process is reduced. In any given market, the power structure will either be in favor of buyers; the former case is known as a seller's market. In either case, the disadvantaged group is known as price-takers and the advantaged group known as price-setters. Competition bolsters product differentiation as businesses try to innovate and entice consumers to gain a higher market share, it helps in improving the processes and productivity as businesses strive to perform better than competitors with limited resources.
The Australian economy thrives on competition. In his 1776 The Wealth of Nations, Adam Smith described it as the exercise of allocating productive resources to their most valued uses and encouraging efficiency, an explanation that found support among liberal economists opposing the monopolistic practices of mercantilism, the dominant economic philosophy of the time. Smith and other classical economists before Cournot were referring to price and non-price rivalry among producers to sell their goods on best terms by bidding of buyers, not to a large number of sellers nor to a market in final equilibrium. Microeconomic theory distinguished between perfect competition and imperfect competition, concluding that perfect competition is Pareto efficient while imperfect competition is not. Conversely, by Edgeworth's limit theorem, the addition of more firms to an imperfect market will cause the market to tend towards Pareto efficiency. Real markets are never perfect. Economists who believe that in perfect competition as a useful approximation to real markets classify markets as ranging from close-to-perfect to imperfect.
Examples of close-to-perfect markets include share and foreign exchange markets while the real estate market is an example of a imperfect market. In such markets, the theory of the second best proves that if one optimality condition in an economic model cannot be satisfied, the next-best solution can be achieved by changing other variables away from otherwise-optimal values. Within competitive markets, markets are defined by their sub-sectors, such as the "short term" / "long term", "seasonal" / "summer", or "broad" / "remainder" market. For example, in otherwise competitive market economies, a large majority of the commercial exchanges may be competitively determined by long-term contracts and therefore long-term clearing prices. In such a scenario, a “remainder market” is one where prices are determined by the small part of the market that deals with the availability of goods not cleared via long term transactions. For example, in the sugar industry, about 94-95% of the market clearing price is determined by long-term supply and purchase contracts.
The balance of the market are determined by the ad hoc demand for the remainder. In the US real estate housing market, appraisal prices can be determined by both short-term or long-term characteristics, depending on short-term supply and demand factors; this can result in large price variations for a property at one location. Competition requires the existing of multiple firms, so it duplicates fixed costs. In a small number of goods and services, the resulting cost structure means that producing enough firms to effect competition may itself be inefficient; these situations are known as natural monopolies and are publicly provided or regulated. International competition differentially affects sectors of national economies. In order to protect political supporters, governments may introduce protectionist measures such as tariffs to reduce competition. A practice is anti-competitive if it unfairly distorts free and effective competition in the marketplace. Examples include evergreening. Paid exclusivity Competition law Self-compet
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
The Alamodome is a 64,000-seat multi-purpose stadium in San Antonio, Texas. It is located on the southeastern fringe of downtown San Antonio; the facility opened on May 1993, having been constructed at a cost of $186 million. The multi-purpose facility was intended to increase the city's convention traffic and attract a professional football franchise, it placated the San Antonio Spurs' demands for a larger arena. The Spurs played in the Alamodome for a decade became disenchanted with the facility and convinced Bexar County to construct a new arena for them, now called the AT&T Center; the Alamodome's regular tenants are the UTSA Roadrunners and the San Antonio Commanders of the Alliance of American Football. The facility is a rectilinear 5-level stadium which can seat up to 64,000 spectators for a typical football game and is expandable to hold 72,000 spectators; the stadium was designed to convert into a basketball or hockey arena. Converting the stadium for basketball and hockey takes 12–18 hours to set up retractable seating and installing the playing surface.
In this configuration only the two lower levels at one or both ends are used. The arena configuration seats 20,662 spectators, but is expandable to 39,500 when the upper level is opened; the stadium can be adapted into a smaller auditorium space, with an intimate, enclosed setting, seating upwards of 11,000 using floor space and the north grandstand. The Alamodome opened with 6,000 club level seats; the original design specifications called for 66 luxury suites. However, since the Spurs were the only full-time tenant at the time, only 38 luxury suites in the north end of the facility were built; the footprints for the 28 unbuilt luxury suites were open floor space just behind the club level seats that surround the south end of the facility. In 2006, the Alamodome underwent an expansion to accommodate 14 new luxury suites; the Sports Club and the Top of the Dome restaurant received renovations in 2004. The Alamodome has two permanent Olympic-size ice rinks that can be used for NHL games, figure skating and speed skating.
The facility contains 30,000 square feet of meeting rooms and 160,000 square feet of continuous exhibit space. The Alamodome is the home of the University of Texas at San Antonio Roadrunners and the San Antonio Commanders of the Alliance of American Football beginning in February 2019, it was home to the San Antonio Spurs of the NBA from 1993 to 2002, the San Antonio Texans of the CFL in 1995. The facility hosts special events such as the annual Alamo Bowl football game, UTSA's graduation ceremonies, as well as most of Northside ISD's high school graduation ceremonies. UIL State Football Playoff games are held in the Alamodome, including State Quarterfinals/Region 4 Finals and championship games in 2006, 2007 and 2009 The Alamodome's ability to accommodate basketball made it attractive to then-Spurs owner Red McCombs, looking for some time for a larger arena to replace their longtime home, HemisFair Arena; the Spurs moved to the Alamodome after the 1992–93 NBA season. They played nine seasons in the Alamodome from 1993 to 2002, including their first NBA championship season, played against the New York Knicks in 1999.
During the regular season, most of the upper level was curtained off. However, on certain weekends and when popular opponents came to town, the Spurs expanded the Alamodome's capacity to 35,000 by opening three portions of the upper level. More sections of the upper level were opened for the playoffs, expanding capacity to 39,500. Attendance was 39,514 for Game 1 of the 1999 NBA Finals and 39,554 for Game 2. Though the late 1990s saw the Spurs soar in popularity, the decision was made to move the team out of the spacious stadium and build a new arena. While the Alamodome had been designed to accommodate basketball, it was a football stadium; as the years passed, Spurs management and fans grew dissatisfied with its poor sight lines and cavernous feel. Part of the problem was the manner; the basketball court was at one end of the venue with temporary stands on one side of the court, leaving over half of the stadium curtained off. Television broadcast trucks were set up on the unused half of the playing surface.
By comparison, more modern domed stadiums that can accommodate basketball, such as AT&T Stadium in Arlington, place the basketball court in the center of where the football field would be, allowing for much larger attendances. Additionally, the Spurs tied up the Alamodome for most of the winter and spring due to their deep playoff runs. With the Alamodome booked solid well into April, it was difficult to accommodate conventions, concerts or a prospective football team. Moving the Spurs out of the Alamodome opened up more contiguous dates allowing the facility to schedule more events, though it has yet to host a Super Bowl; the Spurs moved to the new SBC Center after the 2001–02 season. The 1996 NBA All-Star Game was played in the Alamodome; the Alamodome is the site of the annual Alamo Bowl, which matches the second-choice teams from the Pac-12 Conference and the Big 12 Conference. The 2006 Alamo Bowl between the Texas Longhorns and the Iowa Hawkeyes was attended by 65,875, which set a facility-record crowd for a sporting event, only to have that record broken by an Alamo Bowl event the next year between Texas A&M and Penn State, which drew 66,166 attendees.
September 16, 2006, marked the fir
A family business is a commercial organization in which decision-making is influenced by multiple generations of a family, related by blood or marriage or adoption, who has both the ability to influence the vision of the business and the willingness to use this ability to pursue distinctive goals. They are identified with the firm through leadership or ownership. Owner-manager entrepreneurial firms are not considered to be family businesses because they lack the multi-generational dimension and family influence that create the unique dynamics and relationships of family businesses. Family business is the most common model of economic organization; the vast majority of businesses throughout the world—from corner shops to multinational publicly listed organizations with hundreds of thousands of employees—can be considered family businesses. Based on research of the Forbes 400 richest Americans, 44% of the Forbes 400 member fortunes were derived by being a member of or in association with a family business.
The economic prevalence and importance of this kind of business are underestimated. Throughout most of the 20th century and economists were intrigued by a newer, “improved” model: large publicly traded companies run in an rational, bureaucratic manner by well trained “organization men.” Entrepreneurial and family firms, with their specific management models and complicated psychological processes fell short by comparison. Owned or family-controlled enterprises are not always easy to study. In many cases, they are not subject to financial reporting requirements, little information is made public about financial performance. Ownership may be distributed through trusts or holding companies, family members themselves may not be informed about the ownership structure of their enterprise. However, as the 21st-century global economic model replaces the old industrial model, government policy makers and academics turn to entrepreneurial and family enterprises as a prime source of wealth creation and employment.
In some countries, many of the largest publicly listed. A firm is said to be family-owned; some of the world's largest family-run businesses are Samsung Group and Tata Group. The "Global Family Business Index" comprises the largest 500 family firms around the globe. In this index—published for a first time in 2015 by Center for Family Business University of St. Gallen and EY—for a held firm, a firm is classified as a family firm in case a family controls more than 50% of the voting rights. For a publicly listed firm, a firm is classified as a family firm in case the family holds at least 32% of the voting rights. Family owned. In a family business, two or more members within the management team are drawn from the owning family. Family businesses can have owners. Family businesses may be managed by individuals who are not members of the family. However, family members are involved in the operations of their family business in some capacity and, in smaller companies one or more family members are the senior officers and managers.
In India, many businesses that are now public companies were once family businesses. Family participation as managers and/or owners of a business can strengthen the company because family members are loyal and dedicated to the family enterprise. However, family participation as managers and/or owners of a business can present unique problems because the dynamics of the family system and the dynamics of the business systems are not in balance; the interests of a family member may not be aligned with the interest of the business. For example, if a family member wants to be president but is not as competent as a non-family member, the personal interest of the family member and the well being of the business may be in conflict; the interests of the entire family may not be balanced with the interests of their business. For example, if a family needs its business to distribute funds for living expenses and retirement but the business requires those to stay competitive, the interests of the entire family and the business are not aligned.
The interest of one family member may not be aligned with another family member. For example, a family member, an owner may want to sell the business to maximize their return, but a family member, an owner and a manager may want to keep the company because it represents their career and they want their children to have the opportunity to work in the company; the challenge for business families is that family and business roles involve different and sometimes conflicting values and actions. For example, family members put a high priority on emotional capital—the family success that unites them through consecutive generations. Executives in the business are concerned about strategy and social capital—the reputation of their firm in the marketplace. Owners are interested in financial capital—performance in terms of wealth creation. A three-circles model is used to show the three principal roles in a family-owned or -controlled organization: Family and Management; this model shows. Everyone in the family belongs to the Family circle, but some family members will never own shares in the family business, or work there.
A family member is concerned with social ca
San Antonio the City of San Antonio, is the seventh-most populous city in the United States, the second-most populous city in both Texas and the Southern United States, with more than 1.5 million residents. Founded as a Spanish mission and colonial outpost in 1718, the city became the first chartered civil settlement in present-day Texas in 1731; the area was still part of the Spanish Empire, of the Mexican Republic. Today it is the state's oldest municipality; the city's deep history is contrasted with its rapid recent growth during the past few decades. It was the fastest-growing of the top ten largest cities in the United States from 2000 to 2010, the second from 1990 to 2000. Straddling the regional divide between South and Central Texas, San Antonio anchors the southwestern corner of an urban megaregion colloquially known as the "Texas Triangle". San Antonio serves as the seat of Bexar County. Since San Antonio was founded during the Spanish Colonial Era, it has a church in its center, on the main civic plaza in front, a characteristic of many Spanish-founded cities and villages in Spain and Latin America.
As with many other urban centers in the Southwestern United States, areas outside the city limits are sparsely populated. San Antonio is the center of the San Antonio–New Braunfels metropolitan statistical area. Called Greater San Antonio, the metro area has a population of 2,473,974 based on the 2017 U. S. census estimate, making it the 24th-largest metropolitan area in the United States and third-largest in Texas. Growth along the Interstate 35 and Interstate 10 corridors to the north and east make it that the metropolitan area will continue to expand. San Antonio was named by a 1691 Spanish expedition for Saint Anthony of Padua, whose feast day is June 13; the city contains five 18th-century Spanish frontier missions, including The Alamo and San Antonio Missions National Historical Park, which together were designated UNESCO World Heritage sites in 2015. Other notable attractions include the River Walk, the Tower of the Americas, SeaWorld, the Alamo Bowl, Marriage Island. Commercial entertainment includes Morgan's Wonderland amusement parks.
According to the San Antonio Convention and Visitors Bureau, the city is visited by about 32 million tourists a year. It is home to the five-time NBA champion San Antonio Spurs, hosts the annual San Antonio Stock Show & Rodeo, one of the largest such events in the U. S; the U. S. Armed Forces have numerous facilities around San Antonio. Lackland Air Force Base, Randolph Air Force Base, Lackland AFB/Kelly Field Annex, Camp Bullis, Camp Stanley are outside the city limits. Kelly Air Force Base operated out of San Antonio until 2001, when the airfield was transferred to Lackland AFB; the remaining parts of the base were developed as Port San Antonio, an industrial/business park and aerospace complex. San Antonio is home to six Fortune 500 companies and the South Texas Medical Center, the only medical research and care provider in the South Texas region. At the time of European encounter, Payaya Indians lived near the San Antonio River Valley in the San Pedro Springs area, they called the vicinity Yanaguana, meaning "refreshing waters".
In 1691, a group of Spanish explorers and missionaries came upon the river and Payaya settlement on June 13, the feast day of St. Anthony of Padua, they named the river "San Antonio" in his honor. It was years. Father Antonio de Olivares visited the site in 1709, he was determined to found a mission and civilian settlement there; the viceroy gave formal approval for a combined mission and presidio in late 1716, as he wanted to forestall any French expansion into the area from their colony of La Louisiane to the east, as well as prevent illegal trading with the Payaya. He directed the governor of Coahuila y Tejas, to establish the mission complex. Differences between Alarcón and Olivares resulted in delays, construction did not start until 1718. Olivares built, with the help of the Payaya Indians, the Misión de San Antonio de Valero, the Presidio San Antonio de Bexar, the bridge that connected both, the Acequia Madre de Valero; the families who clustered around the presidio and mission were the start of Villa de Béjar, destined to become the most important town in Spanish Texas.
On May 1, the governor transferred ownership of the Mission San Antonio de Valero to Fray Antonio de Olivares. On May 5, 1718 he commissioned the Presidio San Antonio de Béxar on the west side of the San Antonio River, one-fourth league from the mission. On February 14, 1719, the Marquis of San Miguel de Aguayo proposed to the king of Spain that 400 families be transported from the Canary Islands, Galicia, or Havana to populate the province of Texas, his plan was approved, notice was given the Canary Islanders to furnish 200 families. By June 1730, 25 families had reached Cuba, 10 families had been sent to Veracruz before orders from Spain came to stop the re-settlement. Under the leadership of Juan Leal Goraz, the group marched overland from Veracruz to the Presidio San Antonio de Béxar, where they arrived on March 9, 1731. Due to marriages along the way, the party now included a total of 56 persons, they joined the military community established in 1718. The immigrants f
La Antorcha de la Amistad
La Antorcha de la Amistad is a monumental abstract sculpture by Mexican sculptor Sebastián, installed in Downtown San Antonio, in the U. S. state of Texas. The work was commissioned by a group of Mexican businessmen living in the United States and friends of Mexico, presented as a gift from the Mexican government to the City of San Antonio in 2002, it was unveiled on June 27, 2002, by the artist, Mayor Edward D. Garza, then–Secretary of Foreign Affairs for Mexico and political analyst Jorge Castañeda Gutman; the sculpture stands at nearly 65 ft, weighs more than 45 tons. The medium is enameled iron, it is located in the middle of a traffic rotary in Downtown San Antonio, an area known by international tourists for the Paseo del Rio, or River Walk, the Alamo. The group that commissioned it, the Asociación de Empresarios Mexicanos, a Texas non-profit composed of Mexican-American business owners and professionals, worked with the Mexican Consulate and the City of San Antonio to make the sculpture a symbol of cooperation and shared culture between the country and the city.
The sculpture has two posts. The posts appear to rise straightly until they individually curl and twist before meeting at the highest point of the sculpture; the sculpture is lit and with varying colors and light patterns at different periods of the year. The sculpture is geometric but does not seem to form any right angles. From each angle surrounding the sculpture, the shape at the top appears to be from a different sculpture. Due to the location, the one perspective, inaccessible is that right under the sculpture, as it is located on a rotary island in a busy traffic intersection; the artist himself describes the concepts of the sculpture a torch rising from the ground, as a symbolization of two different actors—the United States of America and Mexico—running together: He said the sculpture has many points of view from many angles, how he sees the two nations' relationship. "Sometimes it is complex. Sometimes it is harmonious," he said. "But the two countries are always always with a complex friendship.
That's what I am trying to express with this combination of forms." The comments of the artist and the chief organizer of the commissioning of this work, Alejandro Quiroz, make the meaning of the sculpture as a symbol of international bi-lateral relations complex. In an interview with Quiroz conducted by one of the authors of this article, he says that the sculpture symbolizes "... the two columns signify two countries, two languages, two cultures." That oversaw the political project to get the sculpture to its current site searched for a location in HemisFair Park, a public green space built during the HemisFair world fair of 1968. The park is surrounded by a large convention center, the Tower of the Americas, the Federal Building, the Federal Courthouse; the Asociación de Empresarios Mexicanos chose the traffic island, empty at the intersection of Losoya and Commerce streets. Quiroz inquired about the site's history and found that according to many it was where the prisoners captured during the Battle of the Alamo were executed.
The site was chosen, but was not settled without some debate. Though many of the large public sculptures by Sebastián provoke mixed reactions, as he claims, a particular controversy arose regarding the sculpture's location. Public art and architecture in Downtown San Antonio are controlled. At the time of its erection in San Antonio, citizens made complaints to the City Council about its clash with the surrounding features. Nearby the site are the Alamo, the Henry B. Gonzalez Convention Center in modern brick, two non-uniform mall buildings, the green tree tops that are based on the Paseo del Rio; the City Council sneaked by approval of the site within a week before the dedication. Controversy subsided as the sculpture proceeded to receive kind reviews, it turned out that tax money for maintenance of the work would not be high. Media related to La Antorcha de la Amistad at Wikimedia Commons