Rio de Janeiro
Rio de Janeiro, or Rio, is anchor to the Rio de Janeiro metropolitan area and the second-most populous municipality in Brazil and the sixth-most populous in the Americas. Rio de Janeiro is the capital of the state of Brazil's third-most populous state. Part of the city has been designated as a World Heritage Site, named "Rio de Janeiro: Carioca Landscapes between the Mountain and the Sea", by UNESCO on 1 July 2012 as a Cultural Landscape. Founded in 1565 by the Portuguese, the city was the seat of the Captaincy of Rio de Janeiro, a domain of the Portuguese Empire. In 1763, it became the capital of the State of Brazil, a state of the Portuguese Empire. In 1808, when the Portuguese Royal Court transferred itself from Portugal to Brazil, Rio de Janeiro became the chosen seat of the court of Queen Maria I of Portugal, who subsequently, in 1815, under the leadership of her son, the Prince Regent, future King João VI of Portugal, raised Brazil to the dignity of a kingdom, within the United Kingdom of Portugal and Algarves.
Rio stayed the capital of the pluricontinental Lusitanian monarchy until 1822, when the War of Brazilian Independence began. This is one of the few instances in history that the capital of a colonising country shifted to a city in one of its colonies. Rio de Janeiro subsequently served as the capital of the independent monarchy, the Empire of Brazil, until 1889, the capital of a republican Brazil until 1960 when the capital was transferred to Brasília. Rio de Janeiro has the second largest municipal GDP in the country, 30th largest in the world in 2008, estimated at about R$343 billion, it is headquarters to Brazilian oil and telecommunications companies, including two of the country's major corporations – Petrobras and Vale – and Latin America's largest telemedia conglomerate, Grupo Globo. The home of many universities and institutes, it is the second-largest center of research and development in Brazil, accounting for 17% of national scientific output according to 2005 data. Despite the high perception of crime, the city has a lower incidence of crime than Northeast Brazil, but it is far more criminalized than the south region of Brazil, considered the safest in the country.
Rio de Janeiro is one of the most visited cities in the Southern Hemisphere and is known for its natural settings, samba, bossa nova, balneario beaches such as Barra da Tijuca, Copacabana and Leblon. In addition to the beaches, some of the most famous landmarks include the giant statue of Christ the Redeemer atop Corcovado mountain, named one of the New Seven Wonders of the World. Rio de Janeiro was the host of the 2016 Summer Olympics and the 2016 Summer Paralympics, making the city the first South American and Portuguese-speaking city to host the events, the third time the Olympics were held in a Southern Hemisphere city; the Maracanã Stadium held the finals of the 1950 and 2014 FIFA World Cups, the 2013 FIFA Confederations Cup, the XV Pan American Games. Europeans first encountered Guanabara Bay on 1 January 1502, by a Portuguese expedition under explorer Gaspar de Lemos, captain of a ship in Pedro Álvares Cabral's fleet, or under Gonçalo Coelho; the Florentine explorer Amerigo Vespucci participated as observer at the invitation of King Manuel I in the same expedition.
The region of Rio was inhabited by the Tupi, Puri and Maxakalí peoples. In 1555, one of the islands of Guanabara Bay, now called Villegagnon Island, was occupied by 500 French colonists under the French admiral Nicolas Durand de Villegaignon. Villegagnon built Fort Coligny on the island when attempting to establish the France Antarctique colony; the city of Rio de Janeiro proper was founded by the Portuguese on 1 March 1565 and was named São Sebastião do Rio de Janeiro, in honour of St. Sebastian, the saint, the namesake and patron of the Portuguese then-monarch Sebastião. Rio de Janeiro was the name of Guanabara Bay; until early in the 18th century, the city was threatened or invaded by several French pirates and buccaneers, such as Jean-François Duclerc and René Duguay-Trouin. In the late 17th century, still during the Sugar Era, the Bandeirantes discovered gold and diamonds in the neighbouring captaincy of Minas Gerais, thus Rio de Janeiro became a much more practical port for exporting wealth than Salvador, much farther northeast.
On 27 January 1763, the colonial administration in Portuguese America was moved from Salvador to Rio de Janeiro. The city remained a colonial capital until 1808, when the Portuguese royal family and most of the associated Lisbon nobles, fleeing from Napoleon's invasion of Portugal, moved to Rio de Janeiro; the kingdom's capital was transferred to the city, thus, became the only European capital outside of Europe. As there was no physical space or urban structure to accommodate hundreds of noblemen who arrived many inhabitants were evicted from their homes. In the first decades, several educational establishments were created, such as the Military Academy, the Royal School of Sciences and Crafts and the Imperial Academy of Fine Arts, as well as the National Library of Brazil – with the largest collection in Latin America – and The Botanical Garden; the first printed newspaper in Brazil, the Gazeta do Rio de Janeiro, came into circulation during this period. When Brazil was elevated to Kingdom in 1815, it
A tanker is a ship designed to transport or store liquids or gases in bulk. Major types of tankship include the oil tanker, the chemical tanker, gas carrier. Tankers carry commodities such as vegetable oils and wine. In the United States Navy and Military Sealift Command, a tanker used to refuel other ships is called an oiler but many other navies use the terms tanker and replenishment tanker. Tankers can range in size of capacity from several hundred tons, which includes vessels for servicing small harbours and coastal settlements, to several hundred thousand tons, for long-range haulage. Besides ocean- or seagoing tankers there are specialized inland-waterway tankers which operate on rivers and canals with an average cargo capacity up to some thousand tons. A wide range of products are carried by tankers, including: Hydrocarbon products such as oil, liquefied petroleum gas, liquefied natural gas Chemicals, such as ammonia and styrene monomer Fresh water Wine Molasses Citrus juice Tankers are a new concept, dating from the years of the 19th century.
Before this, technology had not supported the idea of carrying bulk liquids. The market was not geared towards transporting or selling cargo in bulk, therefore most ships carried a wide range of different products in different holds and traded outside fixed routes. Liquids were loaded in casks—hence the term "tonnage", which refers to the volume of the holds in terms of how many tuns or casks of wine could be carried. Potable water, vital for the survival of the crew, was stowed in casks. Carrying bulk liquids in earlier ships posed several problems: The holds: on timber ships the holds were not sufficiently water, oil or air-tight to prevent a liquid cargo from spoiling or leaking; the development of iron and steel hulls solved this problem. Loading and discharging: Bulk liquids must be pumped - the development of efficient pumps and piping systems was vital to the development of the tanker. Steam engines were developed as prime-movers for early pumping systems. Dedicated cargo handling facilities were now required ashore too - as was a market for receiving a product in that quantity.
Casks could be unloaded using ordinary cranes, the awkward nature of the casks meant that the volume of liquid was always small - therefore keeping the market more stable. Free surface effect: a large body of liquid carried aboard a ship will impact on the ship's stability when the liquid is flowing around the hold or tank in response to the ship's movements; the effect was negligible in casks, but could cause capsizing if the tank extended the width of the ship. Tankers were first used by the oil industry to transfer refined fuel in bulk from refineries to customers; this would be stored in large tanks ashore, subdivided for delivery to individual locations. The use of tankers caught on because other liquids were cheaper to transport in bulk, store in dedicated terminals subdivide; the Guinness brewery used tankers to transport the stout across the Irish Sea. Different products require different handling and transport, with specialised variants such as "chemical tankers", "oil tankers", "LNG carriers" developed to handle dangerous chemicals and oil-derived products, liquefied natural gas respectively.
These broad variants may be further differentiated with respect to ability to carry only a single product or transport mixed cargoes such as several different chemicals or refined petroleum products. Among oil tankers, supertankers are designed for transporting oil around the Horn of Africa from the Middle East; the supertanker Seawise Giant, scrapped in 2010, was 458 meters in length and 69 meters wide. Supertankers are one of the three preferred methods for transporting large quantities of oil, along with pipeline transport and rail. Despite being regulated, tankers have been involved in environmental disasters resulting from oil spills. Amoco Cadiz, Erika, Exxon Valdez and Torrey Canyon were examples of coastal accidents. Many modern tankers are designed for a specific route. Draft is limited by the depth of water in loading and unloading harbors. Cargoes with high vapor pressure at ambient temperatures may require pressurized tanks or vapor recovery systems. Tank heaters may be required to maintain heavy crude oil, residual fuel, wax, or molasses in a fluid state for offloading.
Tankers used for liquid fuels are classified according to their capacity. In 1954, Shell Oil developed the average freight rate assessment system, which classifies tankers of different sizes. To make it an independent instrument, Shell consulted the London Tanker Brokers’ Panel. At first, they divided the groups as General Purpose for tankers under 25,000 tons deadweight; the ships became larger during the 1970s, the list was extended, where the tons are long tons: 10,000–24,999 DWT: Small tanker 25,000–34,999 DWT: Intermediate tanker 35,000–44,999 DWT: Medium Range 1 45,000–54,999 DWT: Medium Range 2 55,000–79,999 DWT: Large Range 1 80,000–159,999 DWT: Large Range 2 160,000–319,999 DWT: Very Large Crude Carrier 320,000–549,999 DWT: Ultra Large Crude Carrier Very Large Crude Carrier size rangeAt nearly 380 vessels in the size range 279,000 t DWT to 320,000 t DWT, these are by far the most popular size range among the larger
Argentina the Argentine Republic, is a country located in the southern half of South America. Sharing the bulk of the Southern Cone with Chile to the west, the country is bordered by Bolivia and Paraguay to the north, Brazil to the northeast and the South Atlantic Ocean to the east, the Drake Passage to the south. With a mainland area of 2,780,400 km2, Argentina is the eighth-largest country in the world, the fourth largest in the Americas, the largest Spanish-speaking nation; the sovereign state is subdivided into twenty-three provinces and one autonomous city, Buenos Aires, the federal capital of the nation as decided by Congress. The provinces and the capital exist under a federal system. Argentina claims sovereignty over part of Antarctica, the Falkland Islands, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands; the earliest recorded human presence in modern-day Argentina dates back to the Paleolithic period. The Inca Empire expanded to the northwest of the country in Pre-Columbian times; the country has its roots in Spanish colonization of the region during the 16th century.
Argentina rose as the successor state of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, a Spanish overseas viceroyalty founded in 1776. The declaration and fight for independence was followed by an extended civil war that lasted until 1861, culminating in the country's reorganization as a federation of provinces with Buenos Aires as its capital city; the country thereafter enjoyed relative peace and stability, with several waves of European immigration radically reshaping its cultural and demographic outlook. The almost-unparalleled increase in prosperity led to Argentina becoming the seventh wealthiest nation in the world by the early 20th century. Following the Great Depression in the 1930s, Argentina descended into political instability and economic decline that pushed it back into underdevelopment, though it remained among the fifteen richest countries for several decades. Following the death of President Juan Perón in 1974, his widow, Isabel Martínez de Perón, ascended to the presidency, she was overthrown in 1976 by a U.
S.-backed coup which installed a right-wing military dictatorship. The military government persecuted and murdered numerous political critics and leftists in the Dirty War, a period of state terrorism that lasted until the election of Raúl Alfonsín as President in 1983. Several of the junta's leaders were convicted of their crimes and sentenced to imprisonment. Argentina is a prominent regional power in the Southern Cone and Latin America, retains its historic status as a middle power in international affairs. Argentina has the second largest economy in South America, the third-largest in Latin America, membership in the G-15 and G-20 major economies, it is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, World Trade Organization, Union of South American Nations, Community of Latin American and Caribbean States and the Organization of Ibero-American States. Despite its history of economic instability, it ranks second highest in the Human Development Index in Latin America; the description of the country by the word Argentina has been found on a Venetian map in 1536.
In English the name "Argentina" comes from the Spanish language, however the naming itself is not Spanish, but Italian. Argentina means in Italian " of silver, silver coloured" borrowed from the Old French adjective argentine " of silver" > "silver coloured" mentioned in the 12th century. The French word argentine is the feminine form of argentin and derives from argent "silver" with the suffix -in; the Italian naming "Argentina" for the country implies Terra Argentina "land of silver" or Costa Argentina "coast of silver". In Italian, the adjective or the proper noun is used in an autonomous way as a substantive and replaces it and it is said l'Argentina; the name Argentina was first given by the Venetian and Genoese navigators, such as Giovanni Caboto. In Spanish and Portuguese, the words for "silver" are plata and prata and " of silver" is said plateado and prateado. Argentina was first associated with the silver mountains legend, widespread among the first European explorers of the La Plata Basin.
The first written use of the name in Spanish can be traced to La Argentina, a 1602 poem by Martín del Barco Centenera describing the region. Although "Argentina" was in common usage by the 18th century, the country was formally named "Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata" by the Spanish Empire, "United Provinces of the Río de la Plata" after independence; the 1826 constitution included the first use of the name "Argentine Republic" in legal documents. The name "Argentine Confederation" was commonly used and was formalized in the Argentine Constitution of 1853. In 1860 a presidential decree settled the country's name as "Argentine Republic", that year's constitutional amendment ruled all the names since 1810 as valid. In the English language the country was traditionally called "the Argentine", mimicking the typical Spanish usage la Argentina and resulting from a mistaken shortening of the fuller name'Argentine Republic'.'The Argentine' fell out of fashion during the mid-to-late 20th century, now the country is referred to as "Argentina".
In the Spanish language "Argentina" is feminine, taking the feminine article "La" as the i
SAS President Kruger
SAS President Kruger was the first of three President-class Type 12 frigates built in the United Kingdom for the South African Navy during the 1960s. The ship spent most of her career training and made visits to foreign ports in Africa, Western Europe and the United States. In the late 1960s, she was equipped to operate a helicopter. In the mid-1970s, President Kruger played a minor role in the South African Border War, conducting patrol operations off the Angolan coast; the ship was placed in reserve in 1977, but was recommissioned in 1980. She sank in 1982 with the loss of 16 lives after colliding with her replenishment oiler, SAS Tafelberg, in the South Atlantic; the President-class ships displaced 2,170 long tons at standard load and 2,605 long tons at deep load. They had an overall length of 370 ft 0 in, a beam of 41 ft 0 in and a mean deep draught of 17 ft 6 in; the ships were powered by a pair of English Electric geared steam turbines, each driving one propeller shaft, using steam provided by two Babcock & Wilcox boilers.
The turbines developed a total of 30,000 shaft horsepower. They carried 309 long tons of fuel oil, their crew numbered 200 ratings. The Presidents were armed with one twin-gun mount for QF 4.5-inch Mk V dual-purpose guns forward and one twin mount for 40-millimetre Bofors anti-aircraft guns. For anti-submarine work, the ships were fitted with Type 162, 170, 177M sonars for the pair of triple-barrelled Mk 10 Limbo anti-submarine mortars, they were equipped with a Type 293Q surface-search radar, Type 262 and 275 gunnery radars, Type 277Q height-finding radar and a Type 978 navigation radar. By the mid-1960s, it was obvious that the sonars of the President class were capable of detecting submarines well outside the range of the Limbo anti-submarine mortars and the South Africans decided to follow the lead of the Royal Navy in giving them the ability to operate helicopters that could carry anti-submarine torpedoes or depth charges to a considerable distance from the ships. Therefore, the forward Limbo mortar was removed and its space was plated over to form a small flight deck.
The Bofors mount, its director and the aft superstructure was replaced by a hangar for a Westland Wasp helicopter. Two single Bofors guns were positioned on the hangar roof and provisions were made for four 0.5-inch Browning machine guns. A pair of American 12.75-inch Mk 32 triple-barrelled anti-submarine torpedo tubes were added amidships and their electronics were upgraded, including the addition of a Thomson-CSF Jupiter early-warning radar atop a new mainmast. Unlike her sister ships who were upgraded after President Kruger, the ship retained her original fire-control system. Three President-class frigates were ordered by the South African Navy in the late 1950s following the Simonstown Agreement with the Royal Navy; the ship that became President Kruger was the second ship to be ordered of the three sisters and was ordered from Yarrow Shipbuilders on 18 September 1957 with the name President Steyn. The government wanted the first ship to be completed to receive the name of Paul Kruger, the first State President of the South African Republic, a strike at the Alexander Stephens and Sons shipyard delayed the laying of that ship's keel.
So she exchanged names with the first Yarrow-built ship, laid down and became President Kruger. She was laid down at the Yarrow shipyard in Scotstoun, Glasgow on 6 April 1959; the ship was launched on 20 October 1960 by Margaret Biermann, wife of the Navy Chief of Staff, Rear-Admiral Hugo Biermann, commissioned on 3 October 1962 with Captain M. R. Terry-Lloyd in command. During her working up period at HMNB Portsmouth, President Kruger went to the assistance of a disabled Norwegian freighter, SS Johan Collett on 5 February 1963; the ship's captain refused the offer of a tow, preferring to wait for a tugboat en route. The frigate stood by and illuminated the freighter with her searchlight as the crew was taken off by the Saint Peter Port lifeboat of the RNLI. President Kruger departed England on 27 February and arrived in Cape Town on 28 March to be welcomed by the Minister of Defence J. J. Fouché and other notables. A year the ship participated in a arrival ceremony for her sister, President Pretorius on 26 September 1964.
In the meantime, she participated in the training exercise Capex 63 with British and French warships in July–August 1963. In 1965 the British government decided to reduce Capex to a Weapons Training Period with only RN and SAN units participating, to minimise the appearance of cooperating with the apartheid government of South Africa. In June 1966, President Kruger was sent to the assistance of the weather station at Marion Island in June after a fire destroyed most of the living quarters there. In September 1967, the 10th Frigate Flotilla, consisting of President Pretorius, President Kruger, the newly commissioned replenishment oiler Tafelberg, participated in a Sanex with the British aircraft carrier Eagle, the frigate Loch Fada and the submarine Ambush; the following month, the flotilla sailed to Argentina on 24 October, to train with the Argentine Navy. They arrived back in South Africa on 27 November and President Kruger was paid off shortly afterwards to begin her modernization at Simon's Town Naval Dockyard.
This began on 29 January 1968 and was completed on 5 August 1969. A year the ship and President Pretorius exercised with a pair of Royal Navy frigates and submarines in July–August 1970. At the beginning of 1971, President Kruger was tasked to escort the newly com
South African Navy
The South African Navy is the naval warfare branch of the South African National Defence Force. The role of the navy is to prepare for and to conduct naval operations in defence of the South African state, its citizens and interests and to carry out peacetime operations in support of other national objectives. Other tasks include the maintenance and the provision of naval services in support of other state departments and authorities, including search and rescue, protection of maritime resources, diplomatic sea transport support; the South African Navy can trace its official origins back to the SA Naval Service, established on 15 November 1921. Unofficially, the SAN can trace its history further back, to the Natal Naval Volunteers, formed in Durban on 30 April 1885 as well as to the Cape Naval Volunteers, formed in Cape Town in 1905. On 1 July 1913 these two units were amalgamated to form the South African Division of the Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve. During World War I a total of 164 members of the RNVR served in the Royal Navy and a total of 412 South Africans served in the RNVR during the war, while the naval base at Simon's Town played a strategic role to the Allies.
The first ships acquired by the newly formed navy were HMSAS Protea, HMSAS Sonneblom and HMSAS Immortelle. However the Great Depression meant the government had to cut back and the ships acquired by the Navy were handed back to the Royal Navy; when World War II broke out the South African Naval Service was non-existent, with only three officers and three ratings. In January 1940 a new naval unit, called the Seaward Defence Force, was formed. Rear-Admiral Guy Hallifax CMG, who had retired in South Africa from the Royal Navy, was appointed Director of the Seaward Defence Force; this unit was to be responsible for operating minesweepers and anti-submarine ships, undertaking other duties including inspection and signalling in South African waters. From 1941 a number of SDF antisubmarine trawlers served in the Mediterranean; the Seaward Defence Force and the South African RNVR were consolidated on 1 August 1942 to form the South African Naval Forces. Due to the strong Royal Navy influence on its origins, South African naval forces used Royal Navy ranks.
On 1 May 1946 the SANF was reconstituted as part of the Union Defence Force. It was renamed'South African Navy' on 1 July 1951; the title of HMSAS was changed to SAS in 1952, the Crown in the SAN cap badge was replaced with the Lion of Nassau from the crest of the country's coat of arms in 1959, two years before South Africa became a republic. In 1947, the SANF acquired three additional ships: the Algerine-class minesweepers HMSAS Rosamund, HMSAS Pelorus, the Flower-class corvette HMSAS Rockrose; the SAN's first destroyer, SAS Jan van Riebeeck was transferred to South Africa on 29 March 1950. The SAN's second destroyer, SAS Simon van der Stel, was handed over to the Navy on 23 February 1953. Meanwhile, negotiations were taking place between the British and South African governments on the future of the Royal Navy's base at Simon's Town; the outcome of these talks was that the base was transferred to the Union on 2 April 1957 under the terms of the Simonstown Agreement, that the Navy would purchase four additional frigates, ten coastal minesweepers and five seaward defence boats from Britain.
In 1963 the first of the Type-12 President-class frigates were delivered and in 1970 the Navy received the first of its three Daphné-class submarines from France, the first of which being named SAS Maria van Riebeeck, after Jan van Riebeeck's Walloon wife. Political unrest in Soweto and elsewhere prompted the apartheid government to take sterner measures in an attempt to keep the opposition under control which in turn led to a mandatory arms embargo against South Africa in 1977; as a result of this, two corvettes and two Agosta-class submarines, ordered for the Navy were not delivered. Instead, South Africa covertly ordered the Warrior-class strike craft from Israel, with three being built in Israel and six in South Africa. In 1977 the Chief of the South African Defence Force changed the Navy's focus to that of a coastal navy and as the Border War began to escalate, the Navy's budget was cut dramatically; the Border conflict ended in April 1989 and was followed by cutbacks in all arms of the South African Defence Force and the Navy had to retrench 23% of its personnel, the South African Marines were disbanded and the two Naval Commands were closed, as were the Naval Bases Cape Town and Walvis Bay.
After the first democratic elections in South Africa, the South African Navy once again started showing the flag around the world and began participating in exercises with other navies. In 1997 the South African Navy celebrated 75 years with 15 countries sending ships for the festivities; the need to re-equip the Navy was addressed by what is known as the Arms Deal and the Navy acquired four frigates as well as three submarines. The Maritime Rescue Coordination Centre was located in a bunker at Silvermine. In 2004 this function passed from the Department of Defence to the South African Maritime Safety Authority, an agency of the D
Simon's Town, sometimes spelled Simonstown, is a town, administratively a South Peninsula suburb of Cape Town, is home to the South African Navy's Naval Base. It is located on the eastern side of the Cape Peninsula. For more than two centuries it has been harbour; the town is named after an early governor of the Cape Colony. Simon’s Town, South Africa was named after the Dutch governor of the Cape Colony, Simon van der Stel, governor between 1677 and 1699, it is known both as Simonstown. Simon’s Town became more populated after a Royal Naval Base was built there and home of the South Atlantic Squadron under the 2nd British occupation of the Cape in 1806, it has been a harbor base for more than 200 years. The town became a free port in 1832; the land rises steeply from near the water's edge and the town is boxed in along the shoreline by the heights above. The small harbour itself is protected from swells by a breakwater, built with thousands of huge blocks of sandstone quarried out of the face of the mountain above.
Simon's Town is now in effect a suburb of greater Cape Town. The Simon's Town railway station is the terminus of the Southern Line, a railway line that runs south from the central business district of Cape Town. In places, the railway line runs along the steep eastern shore of False Bay, in bad weather waves and foam from some heavy swells wet the trains. Boulders Beach is located a few kilometres to the south of Simon's Town, in the direction of Miller's Point. Here small coves and beaches are interspersed between boulders of Cape granite. There has been a colony of African penguins at Boulders Beach since 1985. There is no record of the birds having lived here prior to that date. There are only three penguin populations on the mainland in southern Africa. In the last weeks of 1795 or the first weeks of 1796 the British built a round tower on a site that today falls within the Naval Base. Britain had just annexed the Dutch colony at the Cape of Good Hope and wanted to establish some defences to ward off possible Dutch or French attacks.
The resulting tower was 8 metres high, had a base diameter of 13 m, walls 1.8 m thick, though there is no evidence that the British installed the guns the tower was designed to hold. In front of the tower the British constructed a battery that they did arm with cannons; the Martello tower was used as a navigational beacon for ships entering Simon's Bay and was white-washed in about 1843. The tower was restored in 1972 by the Simon's Town Historical Society, proclaimed a provincial heritage site; the South African Naval Museum is a maritime museum, which contains collections and artefacts related to the maritime history of South Africa and the South African Navy. Simon's Town Museum is a community museum established in 1977 and located in The Residency, an historical building erected by Governor Joachim van Plettenberg in 1777; the museum preserves all aspects of the history of the Simon's Town community. In 1985, a statue of Just Nuisance, the only dog to be enlisted in the Royal Navy, was erected in a position overlooking the harbour.
The Simon's Town Museum has an exhibition dedicated to his story. Georgia Papageorge, installation artist Hendrik Vermeulen, couturier Simon Peyton Jones, computer scientist born in Simonstown Simon's Town became a free port in 1832; the Simon's Town municipal council assumed a coat of arms, designed by Adelbert Bonn, in September 1905. It was granted by the College of Arms on 27 September 1957; the design is described as: Quarterly: I and IV, per pale, the dexter Argent, three towers placed 2 and 1 Gules, the sinister per fess Or and Azure, in chief on a mount Vert a peacock in his pride proper and in base three plates placed 2 and 1 Argent. In layman's terms, the shield is divided into four quarters; the first quarter is divided vertically, one half depicting three red towers on a silver background, the other a peacock on a gold background above three silver discs on a red background. These were a modified version of the arms of Willem Adriaan van der Stel, which Bonn mistakenly thought were those of his father Simon van der Stel.
The crest was the figure of Britannia resting on a golden naval crown. Two golden anchors were placed behind the shield; the motto was Fac et spera. When the municipality was dissolved in 1996, the council placed its regalia, including the letters patent from the College of Arms, in the custody of the Simon's Town Historical Society; the society registered the arms in its own name at the Bureau of Heraldry in October 1999. List of heritage sites in Simonstown Simonstown Agreement Selborne Graving Dock Roman Rock Lighthouse Simon's Town Historical Society
BP plc is a British multinational oil and gas company headquartered in London, United Kingdom. It is one of the world's seven oil and gas "supermajors", whose performance in 2012 made it the world's sixth-largest oil and gas company, the sixth-largest energy company by market capitalization and the company with the world's 12th-largest revenue, it is a vertically integrated company operating in all areas of the oil and gas industry, including exploration and production, refining and marketing, power generation and trading. It has renewable energy interests in biofuels and wind power; as of 31 December 2017, BP had operations in 70 countries worldwide, produced around 3.6 million barrels per day of oil equivalent, had total proved reserves of 18.441 billion barrels of oil equivalent. The company has around 18,300 service stations worldwide, its largest division is BP America in the United States. In Russia, BP owns a 19.75% stake in Rosneft, the world's largest publicly traded oil and gas company by hydrocarbon reserves and production.
BP is a constituent of the FTSE 100 Index. It has secondary listings on the New York Stock Exchange. BP's origins date back to the founding of the Anglo-Persian Oil Company in 1908, established as a subsidiary of Burmah Oil Company to exploit oil discoveries in Iran. In 1935, it in 1954 British Petroleum. In 1959, the company expanded beyond the Middle East to Alaska and it was one of the first companies to strike oil in the North Sea. British Petroleum acquired majority control of Standard Oil of Ohio in 1978. Majority state-owned, the British government privatised the company in stages between 1979 and 1987. British Petroleum merged with Amoco in 1998, becoming BP Amoco plc, acquired ARCO and Burmah Castrol in 2000, becoming BP plc in 2001. From 2003 to 2013, BP was a partner in the TNK-BP joint venture in Russia. BP has been directly involved in several major environmental and safety incidents. Among them were the 2005 Texas City Refinery explosion, which caused the death of 15 workers and resulted in a record-setting OSHA fine.
The 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill, the largest accidental release of oil into marine waters in history, resulted in severe environmental and economic consequences, serious legal and public relations repercussions for BP. 1.8 million US gallons of Corexit oil dispersant were used in the cleanup response, becoming the largest application of such chemicals in US history. The company pleaded guilty to 11 counts of felony manslaughter, two misdemeanors, one felony count of lying to Congress, agreed to pay more than $4.5 billion in fines and penalties, the largest criminal resolution in US history. On 2 July 2015, BP and five states announced an $18.7 billion settlement to be used for Clean Water Act penalties and various claims. In May 1908 a group of British geologists discovered a large amount of oil at Masjid-i-Suleiman in Mohammerah, today located in the province of Khuzestan, it was the first commercially significant. William Knox D'Arcy, by contract with the Emir of Mohammerah, Sheikh Khaz'al Khan al-Kaabi, obtained permission to explore for oil for the first time in the Middle East, an event which changed the history of the entire region.
The oil discovery led to petrochemical industry development and the establishment of industries that depended on oil. On 14 April 1909, the Anglo-Persian Oil Company was incorporated as a subsidiary of Burmah Oil Company; some of the shares were sold to the public. The first chairman and minority shareholder of the company became Lord Strathcona. After establishing the company, the British government asked Percy Cox, British resident to Bushehr, to negotiate an agreement with Khaz'al for APOC to obtain a site on Abadan Island for a refinery, storage tanks, other operations; the refinery was built and began operating in 1912. In 1913, the British government acquired a controlling interest in the company and at the suggestion of Winston Churchill, the British navy switched from coal to oil. In 1914, APOC signed a 30-year contract with the British Admiralty for supplying oil for the Royal Navy at the fixed price. In 1915, APOC established its shipping subsidiary the British Tanker Company and in 1916 it acquired the British Petroleum Company, a marketing arm of the German Europäische Petroleum Union in Britain.
In 1919, the company became a shale-oil producer by establishing a subsidiary named Scottish Oils which merged remaining Scottish oil-shale industries. After World War I, APOC started marketing its products in Continental Europe and acquired stakes in the local marketing companies in several European countries. Refineries were built in Llandarcy in Grangemouth in Scotland, it acquired the controlling stake in the Courchelettes refinery in France and formed with the Government of Australia a partnership named Commonwealth Oil Refineries, which built the Australian's first refinery in Laverton, Victoria. In 1923, Burmah employed Winston Churchill as a paid consultant to lobby the British government to allow APOC have exclusive rights to Persian oil resources, which were subsequently granted by the Iranian monarchy. APOC and the Armenian busines