Houston is the most populous city in the U. S. state of Texas and the fourth most populous city in the United States, with a census-estimated population of 2.312 million in 2017. It is the most populous city in the Southern United States and on the Gulf Coast of the United States. Located in Southeast Texas near Galveston Bay and the Gulf of Mexico, it is the seat of Harris County and the principal city of the Greater Houston metropolitan area, the fifth most populous metropolitan statistical area in the United States and the second most populous in Texas after the Dallas-Fort Worth MSA. With a total area of 627 square miles, Houston is the eighth most expansive city in the United States, it is the largest city in the United States by total area, whose government is not consolidated with that of a county or borough. Though in Harris County, small portions of the city extend into Fort Bend and Montgomery counties. Houston was founded by land speculators on August 30, 1836, at the confluence of Buffalo Bayou and White Oak Bayou and incorporated as a city on June 5, 1837.
The city is named after former General Sam Houston, president of the Republic of Texas and had won Texas' independence from Mexico at the Battle of San Jacinto 25 miles east of Allen's Landing. After serving as the capital of the Texas Republic in the late 1830s, Houston grew into a regional trading center for the remainder of the 19th century; the arrival of the 20th century saw a convergence of economic factors which fueled rapid growth in Houston, including a burgeoning port and railroad industry, the decline of Galveston as Texas' primary port following a devastating 1900 hurricane, the subsequent construction of the Houston Ship Channel, the Texas oil boom. In the mid-20th century, Houston's economy diversified as it became home to the Texas Medical Center—the world's largest concentration of healthcare and research institutions—and NASA's Johnson Space Center, where the Mission Control Center is located. Houston's economy has a broad industrial base in energy, manufacturing and transportation.
Leading in healthcare sectors and building oilfield equipment, Houston has the second most Fortune 500 headquarters of any U. S. municipality within its city limits. The Port of Houston ranks first in the United States in international waterborne tonnage handled and second in total cargo tonnage handled. Nicknamed the "Space City", Houston is a global city, with strengths in culture and research; the city has a population from various ethnic and religious backgrounds and a large and growing international community. Houston is the most diverse metropolitan area in Texas and has been described as the most racially and ethnically diverse major metropolis in the U. S, it is home to many cultural institutions and exhibits, which attract more than 7 million visitors a year to the Museum District. Houston has an active visual and performing arts scene in the Theater District and offers year-round resident companies in all major performing arts; the Allen brothers—Augustus Chapman and John Kirby—explored town sites on Buffalo Bayou and Galveston Bay.
According to historian David McComb, "he brothers, on August 26, 1836, bought from Elizabeth E. Parrott, wife of T. F. L. Parrott and widow of John Austin, the south half of the lower league granted to her by her late husband, they paid $5,000 total, but only $1,000 of this in cash. They lobbied the Republic of Texas Congress to designate Houston as the temporary capital, agreeing to provide the new government with a capital building. About a dozen persons resided in the town at the beginning of 1837, but that number grew to about 1,500 by the time the Texas Congress convened in Houston for the first time that May. Houston was granted incorporation with James S. Holman becoming its first mayor. In the same year, Houston became the county seat of Harrisburg County. In 1839, the Republic of Texas relocated its capital to Austin; the town suffered another setback that year when a yellow fever epidemic claimed about one life out of every eight residents. Yet it persisted as a commercial center, forming a symbiosis with Galveston.
Landlocked farmers brought their produce to Houston, using Buffalo Bayou to gain access to Galveston and the Gulf of Mexico. Houston merchants profited from selling staples to farmers and shipping the farmers' produce to Galveston; the great majority of slaves in Texas came with their owners from the older slave states. Sizable numbers, came through the domestic slave trade. New Orleans was the center of this trade in the Deep South. Thousands of enslaved blacks lived near the city before the American Civil War. Many of them near the city worked on sugar and cotton plantations, while most of those in the city limits had domestic and artisan jobs. In 1840, the community established a chamber of commerce in part to promote shipping and navigation at the newly created port on Buffalo Bayou. By 1860, Houston had emerged as a commercial and railroad hub for the export of cotton. Railroad spurs from the Texas inland converged in Houston, where they met rail lines to the ports of Galveston and Beaumont.
During the American Civil War, Houston served as a headquarters for General John Magruder, who used the city as an organization point for the Battle of Galveston. After the Civil War, Houston businessmen initia
Paul Gardner Allen was an American business magnate, researcher and philanthropist. He co-founded Microsoft alongside Bill Gates in 1975, which helped spark the microcomputer revolution and became the world's largest PC software company. In March 2018, Allen was estimated to be the 44th-wealthiest person in the world according to the Forbes annual list of the world's billionaires, with an estimated net worth of $21.7 billion, revised at the time of his death to $20.3 billion. Allen was the founder, with his sister Jody Allen, Chairman of Vulcan Inc. the held company that managed his various business and philanthropic efforts. He had a multibillion-dollar investment portfolio including technology and media companies, scientific research, real estate holdings, private spaceflight ventures, stakes in other sectors, he owned two professional sports teams: the Seattle Seahawks of the National Football League and the Portland Trail Blazers of the National Basketball Association, was part-owner of the Seattle Sounders FC, which joined Major League Soccer in 2009.
Allen was the founder of the Allen Institute for Brain Science, Institute for Artificial Intelligence, Institute for Cell Science, Stratolaunch Systems, Apex Learning. He gave more than $2 billion to causes such as education and environmental conservation, the arts, community services, more, he received numerous awards and honors in several different professions, was listed among the Time 100 Most Influential People in the World in both 2007 and 2008. Allen was born on January 21, 1953, in Seattle, Washington, to Kenneth Sam Allen and Edna Faye Allen. Allen attended Lakeside School, a private school in Seattle, where he befriended the two-years-younger Bill Gates, with whom he shared an enthusiasm for computers, they used Lakeside's Teletype terminal to develop their programming skills on several time-sharing computer systems. They used the laboratory of the Computer Science Department of the University of Washington, doing personal research and computer programming. According to Allen, in their teenage years he and Bill Gates would go dumpster-diving for computer program code.
After graduating and obtaining a perfect SAT score of 1600, Allen went to Washington State University, where he joined Phi Kappa Theta fraternity. Allen convinced Gates to drop out of Harvard in order to create Microsoft. In 1975, in Albuquerque, New Mexico and Gates began marketing a BASIC programming language interpreter. Allen came up according to a 1995 Fortune magazine article. In 1980, after Microsoft had committed to deliver IBM a disk operating system for the original IBM PC, although they had not yet developed one, Allen spearheaded a deal for Microsoft to purchase QDOS, written by Tim Paterson, who, at the time, was employed at Seattle Computer Products; as a result of this transaction, Microsoft was able to secure a contract to supply the DOS that would run on IBM's PC line. This contract with IBM proved the watershed in Microsoft history that led to Allen's and Gates' wealth and success. Allen left Microsoft in 1982 after receiving a Hodgkin's lymphoma diagnosis. Gates asked Allen to give him some of his shares to compensate for the higher amount of work being performed by Gates.
According to Allen, Gates said since he "did everything on BASIC", the company should be split 60–40 in his favor. Allen agreed to this arrangement, which Gates renegotiated to 64–36. In 1983, Gates tried to buy Allen out at $5 per share; this proved critical to Allen's becoming a billionaire. Allen resigned from his position on the Microsoft board of directors on November 9, 2000, he remained as a senior strategy advisor to the company's executives. In January 2014, he still held 100 million shares of Microsoft. Vulcan Capital is an investment arm of Allen's Seattle-based Vulcan Inc. which has managed his personal fortune. In 2013, Allen opened a new Vulcan Capital office in Palo Alto, California, to focus on making new investments in emerging technology and internet companies. Patents: Allen held 43 patents from the United States Patent and Trademark Office. Apps: Allen backed A. R. O; the startup behind the mobile app Saga. Interval Research Corporation: In 1992, Allen and David Liddle co-founded Interval Research Corporation, a Silicon Valley-based laboratory and new business incubator, dissolved in 2000 after generating over 300 patents, four of which were the subject of Allen's August 2010 patent infringement lawsuit against AOL, Apple, eBay, Google, Office Depot, OfficeMax, Yahoo!, YouTube.
Ticketmaster: In 1993, Allen invested $243 million to acquire 80% of Ticketmaster. In 1997, Home Shopping Network acquired 47.5% of Allen's stock in exchange for $209 million worth of their own stock. Charter Communications: In 1998, Allen bought a controlling interest in Charter Communications. Charter filed for bankruptcy reorganization with Allen's loss estimated at $7 billion. Allen kept a small stake after Charter emerged from reorganization, worth $535 million in 2012; the company's 2016 purchase and subsequent merger of Time Warner Cable with Charter's sub
The Houston Chronicle is the largest daily newspaper in Houston, United States. As of April 2016, it is the third-largest newspaper by Sunday circulation in the United States, behind only the New York Times and Los Angeles Times. With its 1995 buy-out of long-time rival the Houston Post, the Chronicle became Houston's newspaper of record; the Houston Chronicle is the largest daily paper owned and operated by the Hearst Corporation, a held multinational corporate media conglomerate with $10 billion in revenues. The paper employs nearly 2,000 people, including 300 journalists and photographers; the Chronicle has bureaus in Washington, D. C. and Austin. It reports; the publication serves as the "newspaper of record" of the Houston area. Headquartered in the Houston Chronicle Building at 801 Texas Avenue, Downtown Houston, the Houston Chronicle is now located at 4747 Southwest Freeway, it has two websites: houstonchronicle.com. Chron.com is free and has breaking news, traffic, pop culture, events listings, city guides.
Houstonchronicle.com, launched in 2012 and accessible after subscription purchase, contains analysis, reporting and everything found in the daily newspaper. From its inception, the practices and policies of the Houston Chronicle were shaped by strong-willed personalities who were the publishers; the history of the newspaper can be best understood. The Houston Chronicle was founded in 1901 by a former reporter for the now-defunct Houston Post, Marcellus E. Foster. Foster, covering the Spindletop oil boom for the Post, invested in Spindletop and took $30 of the return on that investment — at the time equivalent to a week's wages — and used it to fund the Chronicle; the Chronicle's first edition was published on October 14, 1901 and sold for two cents per copy, at a time when most papers sold for five cents each. At the end of its first month in operation, the Chronicle had a circulation of 4,378 — one tenth of the population of Houston at the time. Within the first year of operation, the paper consolidated the Daily Herald.
In 1908, Foster asked Jesse H. Jones, a local businessman and prominent builder, to construct a new office and plant for the paper, "and offered half-interest in the newspaper as a down payment, with twenty years to pay the remainder. Jones agreed, the resulting Chronicle Building was one of the finest in the South."Under Foster, the paper's circulation grew from about 7,000 in 1901 to 75,000 on weekdays and 85,000 on Sundays by 1926. Foster continued to write columns under the pen name Mefo, drew much attention in the 1920s for his opposition to the Ku Klux Klan, he sold the rest of his interest to Jesse H. Jones on June 1926 and promptly retired. In 1911, City Editor George Kepple started Goodfellows. On a Christmas Eve in 1911, Kepple passed a hat among the Chronicle's reporters to collect money to buy toys for a shoe-shine boy. Goodfellows continues today through donations made by its readers, it has grown into a citywide program that provides needy children between the ages of two and ten with toys during the winter holidays.
In 2003, Goodfellows distributed 250,000 toys to more than 100,000 needy children in the Greater Houston area. In 1926, Jesse H. Jones became the sole owner of the paper, he had approached Foster about selling, Foster had answered, "What will you give me?". Jones described the buyout of Foster as follows: Wanting to be liberal with Foster if I bought him out, since he had created the paper and owned most of the stock, had made a success of it, I thought for a while before answering and asked him how much he owed, he replied,'On real estate and everything about 200,000 dollars.' I said to him that I would give him 300,000 dollars in cash, having in mind that this would pay his debts and give him 100,000 spending money. In addition, I would give him a note for 500,000 secured by a mortgage on the Chronicle Building, the note to be payable at the rate of 35,000 a year for thirty-five years, which I figured was about his expectancy. I would pay him 20,000 dollars a year as editor of the paper and 6,000 dollars a year to continue writing the daily front-page column,'MEFO,' on the condition that either of us could cancel the editorship and/or the MEFO-column contracts on six months notice, that, if I canceled both the column and the editorship, I would give him an additional 6,000 dollars a year for life.
I considered the offer more than the Chronicle was worth at the time. No sooner had I finished stating my proposition than he said,'I will take it,' and the transaction was completed accordingly. In 1937, Jesse H. Jones transferred ownership of the paper to the newly established Houston Endowment Inc. Jones retained the title of publisher until his death in 1956. According to The Handbook of Texas Online, the Chronicle represented conservative political views during the 1950s: "...the Chronicle represented the conservative political interests of the Houston business establishment. As such, it eschewed controversial political topics, such as integration or the impacts of rapid economic growth on life in the city, it did not perform investigative journalism. This resulted in a stodgy newspaper. By 1959, circulation of the rival Houston Post had pulled ahead of the Chronicle."Jones, a lifelong Democrat who organized the Democratic National Convention to be in Houston in 1928, who spent long years in public service first under the Wilson administration, helping to found the Red Cross
New York City
The City of New York called either New York City or New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2017 population of 8,622,698 distributed over a land area of about 302.6 square miles, New York is the most densely populated major city in the United States. Located at the southern tip of the state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass and one of the world's most populous megacities, with an estimated 20,320,876 people in its 2017 Metropolitan Statistical Area and 23,876,155 residents in its Combined Statistical Area. A global power city, New York City has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, exerts a significant impact upon commerce, research, education, tourism, art and sports; the city's fast pace has inspired the term New York minute. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy.
Situated on one of the world's largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, each of, a separate county of the State of New York. The five boroughs – Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898; the city and its metropolitan area constitute the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. As many as 800 languages are spoken in New York, making it the most linguistically diverse city in the world. New York City is home to more than 3.2 million residents born outside the United States, the largest foreign-born population of any city in the world. In 2017, the New York metropolitan area produced a gross metropolitan product of US$1.73 trillion. If greater New York City were a sovereign state, it would have the 12th highest GDP in the world. New York is home to the highest number of billionaires of any city in the world. New York City traces its origins to a trading post founded by colonists from the Dutch Republic in 1624 on Lower Manhattan.
The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York. New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790, it has been the country's largest city since 1790. The Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the U. S. by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is an international symbol of the U. S. and its ideals of liberty and peace. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability, as a symbol of freedom and cultural diversity. Many districts and landmarks in New York City are well known, with the city having three of the world's ten most visited tourist attractions in 2013 and receiving a record 62.8 million tourists in 2017. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world. Times Square, iconic as the world's "heart" and its "Crossroads", is the brightly illuminated hub of the Broadway Theater District, one of the world's busiest pedestrian intersections, a major center of the world's entertainment industry.
The names of many of the city's landmarks and parks are known around the world. Manhattan's real estate market is among the most expensive in the world. New York is home to the largest ethnic Chinese population outside of Asia, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is the largest single-operator rapid transit system worldwide, with 472 rail stations. Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top universities in the world. Anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world, the city is home to the world's two largest stock exchanges by total market capitalization, the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ. In 1664, the city was named in honor of the Duke of York.
James's older brother, King Charles II, had appointed the Duke proprietor of the former territory of New Netherland, including the city of New Amsterdam, which England had seized from the Dutch. During the Wisconsinan glaciation, 75,000 to 11,000 years ago, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth; the erosive forward movement of the ice contributed to the separation of what is now Long Island and Staten Island. That action left bedrock at a shallow depth, providing a solid foundation for most of Manhattan's skyscrapers. In the precolonial era, the area of present-day New York City was inhabited by Algonquian Native Americans, including the Lenape, whose homeland, known as Lenapehoking, included Staten Island; the first documented visit into New York Harbor by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown. He named it Nouvelle Angoulême. A Spanish expedition led by captain Estêvão Gomes, a Portuguese sailing for Emperor Charles V, arrived in New York Harbor in January 1525 and charted the mouth of the Hudson River, which he named Río de San Antonio.
The Padrón Rea
Northbrook is a suburb of Chicago, located at the northern edge of Cook County, United States. When incorporated in 1901, the village was known as Shermerville in honor of Frederick Schermer, who donated the land for its first train station; the village changed its name to Northbrook in 1923 as an effort to improve its public image. The name was chosen because the West Fork of the North Branch of the Chicago River runs through the Village. Glenbrook North High School, founded in 1952 as Glenbrook High School, is located in Northbrook; the village is home to the Northbrook Park District, founded in 1927, Northbrook Court shopping mall, the Ed Rudolph Velodrome, the Chicago Curling Club, the Northbrook Public Library. Members of the Potawatomi tribe were the earliest recorded residents of the Northbrook area. In 1833 the Potawatomi moved to a place near Council Bluffs, Iowa. Afterwards Joel Sterling Sherman and his family bought 159 acres of land in the northwest quarter of Section 10 for $1.25 per acre.
A man named Frederick Schermer donated the land used for the first railroad station, named Schermer Station and Shermer Station. By the 1870s Shermerville was a farming community. In 1901 the community was incorporated as the Village of Shermerville after a close referendum for incorporation. At the time of incorporation it had 60 houses. In these early years, Shermerville became notorious for rowdy gatherings at its five saloons. A renaming contest was held, the name "Northbrook" was submitted by the US postmaster Edward Landwehr. Edward Landwehr was the son of Herman and Anna Helene Landwehr, both German immigrants and early settlers in the community and for whose family Landwehr Road in Northbrook is named, they are now buried in the Northfield Union Cemetery. In 1923 "Northbrook", the winning name, was adopted. After the end of World War II, Northbrook's population began to increase. In 1997, President Bill Clinton visited Northbrook to congratulate the 8th grade students of Northfield township for getting the highest score on a world science test, for getting the second highest score on a world math test.
Between 1950 and 1980, the town's population rose from 3,319 to 30,735. Northbrook was the first community not bordering Lake Michigan to filter Lake Michigan water for public use; the last working farm in Northbrook was sold in 1987. Northbrook is located at 42°7′45″N 87°50′27″W. According to the 2010 census, Northbrook has a total area of 13.255 square miles, of which 13.19 square miles is land and 0.065 square miles is water. Although it is debated, many people consider Northbrook to be a part of the towns in the North Shore; as of the census of 2010, there were 33,170 people, 12,642 households, 9,522 families residing in the village. The population density was 2,514.8 people per square mile. There were 13,434 housing units at an average density of 1,018.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the village was 86.1% White, 0.6% African American, 0.04% Native American, 11.7% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.4% some other race, 1.2% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.5% of the population.
There were 12,642 households, out of which 32.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 67.3% were headed by married couples living together, 6.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 24.7% were non-families. 22.5% of all households were made up of individuals, 14.6% were someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.57, the average family size was 3.03. In the village, the population was spread out with 23.5% under the age of 18, 4.9% from 18 to 24, 17.0% from 25 to 44, 32.2% from 45 to 64, 22.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 48.0 years. For every 100 females, there were 91.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.0 males. For the period 2009–11, the estimated median annual income for a household in the village was $103,053, the median income for a family was $166,083. Male full-time workers had a median income of $97,459 versus $54,970 for females; the per capita income for the village was $51,719.
About 4.1% of families and 4.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 4.6% of those under age 18 and 6.0% of those age 65 or over. See also: Notable alumni of Glenbrook North High School. Scott Adsit, cast member of 30 Rock, voiced Baymax in the Disney film Big Hero 6 Steve Bartman, namesake of "Bartman incident" from Game 6 of 2003 National League Championship Series Steven D. Binder, Hollywood producer and screenwriter Mike Brown, right wing for several National Hockey League teams Meg Waite Clayton, novelist Chris Collins, basketball head coach, Northwestern J. T. Compher, center for NHL's Colorado Avalanche Billy Donlon, head coach for Wright State Raiders men's basketball 2010-16 Anne Henning, Olympic speed skater, 1972 gold medalist Dianne Holum, Olympic speed skater, 1972 gold medalist John Hughes, film director and screenwriter Johnny Suh, member of South Korean boy group NCT 127 Kaskade, professional DJ Ken Goldstein, documentary director.
KMPC is a radio station based in Los Angeles, California and is owned by P&Y Broadcasting Corporation. Radio Korea is a division of the Radio Korea Media Group; the station airs Korean-language programming. It broadcasts news and entertainment for the largest Korean-American community in the United States, the largest Korean community outside Korea. KMPC is one of three radio stations in the greater Los Angeles area that broadcast in Korean; the history of AM 1540 goes back to its days as KPOL, when it was clustered with KPOL-FM and KPOL-TV. It aired a wide variety of formats until the early 1980s. KPOL advertised on the 1959 television series Home Run Derby. In the mid to late 1960s, KPRO was one of the stations owned by Dick Clark and had an MOR music format. Throughout the 1980s and much of the 1990s, this frequency broadcast in Spanish, first as KXEZ as KXMG "Mega 1540." In 1997, One on One Sports Inc. of Northbrook, Illinois purchased the station and converted it to sports radio. It was part of the sale to Paul Allen's Vulcan Ventures in 2001.
As an all-sports station, it was an owned-and-operated affiliate of Sporting News Radio. However, some of the network's daily programming did not air on the station; the station covered San Diego Chargers football, selected Westwood One sports programming not carried by CBS Radio's KFWB and KLSX. Among the broadcasts that KMPC carried from Westwood One: NCAA basketball, PGA Tour golf tournament updates, the Masters Tournament, NFL football, more. In 2006, KMPC lost the broadcast rights to USC basketball and football to rival KSPN, the station acquired the local broadcast rights of the University of Notre Dame's football games from Westwood One; the station stopped covering NASCAR races after having done so for several years. The station's regular talk-show hosts included Tony Bruno, who began his morning show in April 2005 following the departure of Roger Lodge. Former Los Angeles Dodgers broadcaster Ross Porter filled in for Roggin on an early-June 2005 broadcast. Roger Nadel, former GM of all-news KFWB in Los Angeles, was the station's VP/GM and Program Director.
In June 2006, former afternoon host and current KNBC-TV sports director Fred Roggin left KMPC and a new program, the Atlanta-based 2 Live Stews, took his place. Roggin's departure, a result of his increased commitments to KNBC and NBC Sports, triggered a shift in the station's daily programming lineup. Smith and Papadakis switched dayparts. On September 5, 2006, KMPC's parent company, Sporting News Radio, was sold to American City Business Journals for an undisclosed price, The Sporting News magazine. KMPC, WSNR in New York and WWZN in Boston, were operated by Paul Allen's Vulcan Inc. until the three stations were sold off separately. In 2007, before the station's sale to Radio Korea, there were no local shows on the station. Bob Keisser of the Long Beach Press-Telegram said that KMPC is "on life support.". On March 30, 2007, AllAccess.com, an online news service covering the radio and music industries, reported that Vulcan had decided to sell the station to P&Y Broadcasting, doing business as Radio Korea Media Group.
Again, the price was not revealed. Radio Korea took over the frequency on May 1, 2007; the Chargers' current local affiliate is a change made for the 2008 season. In 2007, the Chargers had signed KSPN as the new local affiliate in the Los Angeles area; some early season games were not available in 2007 due to KSPN's coverage of the Los Angeles Angels of Anaheim and the Major League Baseball postseason. Most Westwood One sporting events, including the NCAA Men's Division I Basketball Championship, NFL football, the Summer Olympic Games, moved to KSPN in 2008. By 2010, however, KSPN terminated its deal with Westwood One to emphasize ESPN Radio and local talk shows centered on the Los Angeles Lakers and other home teams. One consequence was that the gold medal game of the 2010 Winter Olympics ice hockey tournament was not available on any local radio station in the L. A. area. Westwood One's NFL games have been split among four different stations at various times since 2007: KSPN, KLAC, KTLK, KABC.
KABC aired the Sunday night games in 2007 before assuming Los Angeles Dodgers broadcast rights the following year. KLAC airs the Super Bowl on radio each year. Fighting Irish football, now distributed by ISP Sports Properties, debuted on KLAA in 2008. No new local affiliate has been found for the Masters golf tournament. Roggin and Papadakis joined the lineup of KLAC, in morning afternoon drive respectively. Roggin and co-hosts T. J. Simers and Tracie Simers were removed in October 2007 in favor of Dan Patrick. Papadakis remains on KLAC. Bruno debuted on KLAC on September 2009, replacing Joe McDonnell at 7 p.m. weeknights. Bruno's program, like Patrick's, is syndicated by Content Factory. Neither the 2 Live Stews nor Sporting News Radio are available in the L. A. area. Some SNR shows are available via satellite on XM Sports Nation. XX 1090, broadcasting from San Diego to most of southern California, carried some SNR shows until October 2010, when it dropped those shows in favor of ESPN Radio. NASCAR races have not been readi